Browsing by Subject "BACKBONE DYNAMICS"

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  • Tossavainen, Helena; Kukkurainen, Sampo; Määttä, Juha A. E.; Kähkönen, Niklas; Pihlajamaa, Tero; Hytönen, Vesa P.; Kulomaa, Markku S.; Permi, Perttu (2014)
  • Virtanen, Salla; Kiirikki, Anne M.; Mikula, Kornelia M.; Iwai, Hideo; Ollila, O. H. Samuli (2020)
    Importance of disordered protein regions is increasingly recognized in biology, but their characterization remains challenging due to the lack of suitable experimental and theoretical methods. NMR experiments can detect multiple timescale dynamics and structural details of disordered protein regions, but their detailed interpretation is often difficult. Here we combine protein backbone(15)N spin relaxation data with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to detect not only heterogeneous dynamics of large partially disordered proteins but also their conformational ensembles. We observed that the rotational dynamics of folded regions in partially disordered proteins is dominated by similar rigid body rotation as in globular proteins, thereby being largely independent of flexible disordered linkers. Disordered regions, on the other hand, exhibit complex rotational motions with multiple timescales below similar to 30 ns which are difficult to detect from experimental data alone, but can be captured by MD simulations. Combining MD simulations and backbone(15)N spin relaxation data, measured applying segmental isotopic labeling with salt-inducible split intein, we resolved the conformational ensemble and dynamics of partially disordered periplasmic domain of TonB protein fromHelicobacter pyloricontaining 250 residues. To demonstrate the universality of our approach, it was applied also to the partially disordered region of chicken Engrailed 2. Our results pave the way in understanding how TonB transfers energy from inner membrane to the outer membrane receptors in Gram-negative bacteria, as well as the function of other proteins with disordered domains.
  • Norppa, Antto J.; Kauppala, Tuuli M.; Heikkinen, Harri A.; Verma, Bhupendra; Iwai, Hideo; Frilander, Mikko J. (2018)
    Mutations in the components of the minor spliceosome underlie several human diseases. A subset of patients with isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) harbors mutations in the RNPC3 gene, which encodes the minor spliceosome-specific U11/U12-65K protein. Although a previous study showed that IGHD patient cells have defects in U12-type intron recognition, the biochemical effects of these mutations on the 65K protein have not been characterized. Here, we show that a proline-to-threonine missense mutation (P474T) and a nonsense mutation (R502X) in the C-terminal RNA recognition motif (C-RRM) of the 65K protein impair the binding of 65K to U12 and U6atac snRNAs. We further show that the nonsense allele is targeted to the nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) pathway, but in an isoform-specific manner, with the nuclear-retained 65K long-3'UTR isoform escaping the NMD pathway. In contrast, the missense P474T mutation leads, in addition to the RNA-binding defect, to a partial defect in the folding of the C-RRM and reduced stability of the full-length protein, thus reducing the formation of U11/U12 di-snRNP complexes. We propose that both the C-RRM folding defect and NMD-mediated decrease in the levels of the U11/U12-65K protein reduce formation of the U12-type intron recognition complex and missplicing of a subset of minor introns leading to pituitary hypoplasia and a subsequent defect in growth hormone secretion.
  • Ciragan, Annika; Backlund, Sofia M.; Mikula, Kornelia M.; Beyer, Hannes M.; Samuli Ollila, O. H.; Iwaï, Hideo (2020)
    The growing understanding of partially unfolded proteins increasingly points to their biological relevance in allosteric regulation, complex formation, and protein design. However, the structural characterization of disordered proteins remains challenging. NMR methods can access both the dynamics and structures of such proteins, yet suffering from a high degeneracy of NMR signals. Here, we overcame this bottleneck utilizing a salt-inducible split intein to produce segmentally isotope-labeled samples with the native sequence, including the ligation junction. With this technique, we investigated the NMR structure and conformational dynamics of TonB from Helicobacter pylori in the presence of a proline-rich low complexity region. Spin relaxation experiments suggest that the several nano-second time scale dynamics of the C-terminal domain (CTD) is almost independent of the faster pico-to-nanosecond dynamics of the low complexity central region (LCCR). Our results demonstrate the utility of segmental isotopic labeling for proteins with heterogenous dynamics such as TonB and could advance NMR studies of other partially unfolded proteins.
  • Oeemig, Jesper S.; Ollila, O.H. Samuli; Iwaï, Hideo (2018)
    The TonB protein plays an essential role in the energy transduction system to drive active transport across the outer membrane (OM) using the proton-motive force of the cytoplasmic membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. The C-terminal domain (CTD) of TonB protein is known to interact with the conserved TonB box motif of TonB-dependent OM transporters, which likely induces structural changes in the OM transporters. Several distinct conformations of differently dissected CTDs of Escherichia coli TonB have been previously reported. Here we determined the solution NMR structure of a 96-residue fragment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa TonB (PaTonB-96). The structure shows a monomeric structure with the flexible C-terminal region (residues 338-342), different from the NMR structure of E. coli TonB (EcTonB-137). The extended and flexible C-terminal residues are confirmed by N-15 relaxation analysis and molecular dynamics simulation. We created models for the PaTonB-96/TonB box interaction and propose that the internal fluctuations of PaTonB-96 makes it more accessible for the interactions with the TonB box and possibly plays a role in disrupting the plug domain of the TonB-dependent OM transporters.
  • Ollila, Samuli; Heikkinen, Harri August; Iwaï, Hideo (2018)
    Conformational fluctuations and rotational tumbling of proteins can be experimentally accessed with nuclear spin relaxation experiments. However, interpretation of molecular dynamics from the experimental data is often complicated, especially for molecules with anisotropic shape. Here, we apply classical molecular dynamics simulations to interpret the conformational fluctuations and rotational tumbling of proteins with arbitrarily anisotropic shape. The direct calculation of spin relaxation times from simulation data did not reproduce the experimental data. This was successfully corrected by scaling the overall rotational diffusion coefficients around the protein inertia axes with a constant factor. The achieved good agreement with experiments allowed the interpretation of the internal and overall dynamics of proteins with significantly anisotropic shape. The overall rotational diffusion was found to be Brownian, having only a short subdiffusive region below 0.12 ns. The presented methodology can be applied to interpret rotational dynamics and conformation fluctuations of proteins with arbitrary anisotropic shape. However, a water model with more realistic dynamical properties is probably required for intrinsically disordered proteins.