Browsing by Subject "BACTERIAL OVERGROWTH"

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  • Hukkinen, Maria; Kivisaari, Reetta; Koivusalo, Antti; Pakarinen, Mikko P. (2017)
    Background: In remains unclear why in some short bowel syndrome (SBS) patients, the remaining small bowel (SB) dilates excessively leading to requirement of tapering surgery. Methods: Among SBS children, we retrospectively analyzed risk factors for tapering surgery with logistic regression and compared the outcome of operated patients (n = 16) to those managed conservatively (n = 44) with Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: SBS was caused by necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) (n = 31), SB atresia (SBA) (n = 13), midgut volvulus (n = 12), or gastroschisis (n = 4). Patients with spontaneous symptomatic SB dilatation unable to wean parenteral nutrition (PN) underwent tapering surgery at median age of 1.04 (interquartile range 0.70-3.27) years. Missing ICV was related to an 8-fold (p = 0.003) increased risk while SBA diagnosis was related to a 13-fold risk of tapering surgery (p <0.001). Increasing SB length and NEC diagnosis were protective of tapering (p = 0.027-0.004). Of operated patients, 75% reached enteral autonomy during follow-up and their postoperative adjusted PN weaning rate was similar to nonoperated children (p = 0.842). Conclusion: SBS children with short remaining SB, missing ICV, and SBA etiology are more likely while NEC patients are less likely than others to necessitate tapering surgery. Postoperative PN weaning rates were comparable to patients who initially had more favorable intestinal anatomy and adapted without surgery. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Mutanen, Annika; Barrett, Meredith; Feng, Yongjia; Lohi, Jouko; Rabah, Raja; Teitelbaum, Daniel H.; Pakarinen, Mikko P. (2019)
    Background: Although serial transverse enteroplasty (STEP) improves function of dilated short bowel, a significant proportion of patients require repeat surgery. To address underlying reasons for unsuccessful STEP, we compared small intestinal mucosal characteristics between initial and repeat STEP procedures in children with short bowel syndrome (SBS). Methods: Fifteen SBS children, who underwent 13 first and 7 repeat STEP procedures with full thickness small bowel samples at median age 1.5 years (IQR 0.7-3.7) were included. The specimens were analyzed histologically for mucosal morphology, inflammation and muscular thickness. Mucosal proliferation and apoptosis was analyzed with MIB1 and Tunel immunohistochemistry. Results: Median small bowel length increased 42% by initial STEP and 13% by repeat STEP (p - 0.05), while enteral caloric intake increased from 6% to 36% (p 0.07) during 14 (12-42) months between the procedures. Abnormal mucosal inflammation was frequently observed both at initial (69%) and additional STEP (86%, p 0.52) surgery. Villus height, crypt depth, enterocyte proliferation and apoptosis as well as muscular thickness were comparable at first and repeat STEP (p>0.05 for all). Patients, who required repeat STEP tended to be younger (p 0.057) with less apoptotic crypt cells (p-0.031) at first STEP. Absence of ileocecal valve associated with increased intraepithelial leukocyte count and reduced crypt cell proliferation index (p Conclusions: No adaptive mucosal hyperplasia or muscular alterations occurred between first and repeat STEP. Persistent inflammation and lacking mucosal growth may contribute to continuing bowel dysfunction in SBS children, who require repeat STEP procedure, especially after removal of the ileocecal valve. (C) 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Hukkinen, Maria; Kivisaari, Reetta; Merras-Salmio, Laura; Koivusalo, Antti; Pakarinen, Mikko P. (2017)
    Objective: To analyze risk factors and prognostic significance of small bowel (SB) dilatation in children with short bowel syndrome (SBS). Background: In SBS, the remaining SB may dilate as part of intestinal adaptation. The impact of dilatation on parenteral nutrition (PN) dependence and survival has not been studied systematically. Methods: SB diameter of SBS children (n = 61) was measured in contrast SB series (n = 169, median age 0.94, range 0.32-2.7 years) during 2002 to 2015, and expressed as millimeters (SB width) and as ratio to L5 vertebra height (SB diameter ratio). Linear regression was used to examine risk factors for dilatation. PN weaning and survival were analyzed with Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: Maximal SB diameter ratio during follow-up was predicted by PN dependence and SB atresia, while maximal absolute SB width by birth weight, age, PN duration, and remaining bowel length. Weaning off PN was 14-fold more likely in patients with maximal SB diameter ratio <2.00 compared with > 3.00 (P = 0.005), and 5.4-fold more likely when maximal SB width was <20mm compared with > 30mm (P = 0.023). After adjustment for age, remaining SB length, and the presence of ileocecal valve, both estimates of maximal SB dilatation remained significant independent predictors for weaning off PN. When all measurements were included, the cumulative survival was worse if SB diameter ratio exceeded 2.00 (P = 0.002-0.042). Conclusions: SB dilatation predicts prolonged PN duration and decreased survival in SBS children. Measurement of maximal SB diameter standardized to L5 vertebra height may be a valuable objective tool for patient follow-up and assessment of prognosis.
  • Hukkinen, Maria; Mutanen, Annika; Pakarinen, Mikko P. (2017)
    Background. Liver disease occurs frequently in short bowel syndrome. Whether small bowel dilation in short bowel syndrome could influence the risk of liver injury through increased bacterial translocation remains unknown. Our aim was to analyze associations between small bowel dilation, mucosal damage, bloodstream infections, and liver injury in short bowel syndrome patients. Methods. Among short bowel syndrome children (n = 50), maximal small bowel diameter was measured in contrast series and expressed as the ratio to the height of the fifth lumbar vertebra (small bowel diameter ratio), and correlated retrospectively to fecal calprotectin and plasma citrulline respective markers of mucosal inflammation and mass bloodstream infections, liver biochemistry, and liver histology. Results. Patients with pathologic small bowel diameter ratio > 2.17 had increased fecal calprotectin and decreased citrulline (P <.04 each). Of 33 bloodstream infections observed during treatment with parenteral nutrition, 16 were caused by intestinal bacteria, cultured 15 times more frequently when small bowel diameter ratio was >2.17 (P <.001). Intestinal bloodstream infections were predicted by small bowel diameter ratio (odds ratio 1.88, P = .017), and their frequency decreased after operative tapering procedures (P = .041). Plasma bilirubin concentration, gamma-glutamyl transferase activity, and histologic grade of cholestasis correlated with small bowel diameter ratio (0.356-0.534, P <.014 each), and were greater in the presence of intestinal bloodstream infections (P <.001 for all). Bloodstream infections associated with portal inflammation, cholestasis, and fibrosis grades (P <.031 for each). In linear regression, histologic cholestasis was predicted by intestinal bloodstream infections, small bowel diameter ratio, and parenteral nutrition (beta = 0.36-1.29; P <.014 each), while portal inflammation by intestinal bloodstream infections only (beta = 0.62; P = .033). Conclusion. In children with short bowel syndrome, small bowel dilation correlates with mucosal damage, bloodstream infections of intestinal origin, and cholestatic liver injury. In addition to parenteral nutrition, small bowel dilation and intestinal bloodstream infections contribute to development of short bowel syndrome-associated liver disease.