Browsing by Subject "BAD"

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  • Kalichamy, Karunambigai S.; Ikkala, Kaisa; Pörsti, Jonna; Santio, Niina M.; Tuomaala, Joel; Jha, Sweta; Holmberg, Carina; Koskinen, Päivi J. (2019)
    The mammalian PIM family of serine/threonine kinases regulate several cellular functions, such as cell survival and motility. Since PIM expression is observed in sensory organs, such as olfactory epithelium, we now wanted to explore the physiological roles of PIM kinascs there. As our model organism, we used the Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes, which express two PIM-related kinases, PRK-1 and PRK-2. We demonstrated PRKs to be true PIM orthologs with similar substrate specificity as well as sensitivity to PIM-inhibitory compounds. When we analysed the effects of pan-PIM inhibitors on C. elegans sensory functions, we observed that PRK activity is selectively required to support olfactory sensations to volatile repellents and attractants sensed by AWB and AWC(ON) neurons, respectively, but is dispensable for gustatory sensations. Analyses of prk-deficient mutant strains confirmed these findings and suggested that PRK-1, but not PRK-2 is responsible for the observed effects on olfaction. This regulatory role of PRK-1 is further supported by its observed expression in the head and tail neurons, including AWB and AWC neurons. Based on the evolutionary conservation of NM-related kinases, our data may have implications in regulation of also mammalian olfaction.
  • Heikkurinen, Pasi; Ruuska, Toni; Wilen, Kristoffer; Ulvila, Marko (2019)
    This article aims to reconcile tensions around 'the Anthropocene' by reviewing and integrating the discourses on the new geological epoch. It is argued that the Anthropocene discourses based on natural and social sciences are complementary. The anthropogenic epoch detrimental to the Earth's biodiversity, however, does not reduce to any discourse. Instead of calling to reject discourses that do not accept this limitation of language or alternatively do not show sensitivity to contextual matters, the article demonstrates how different Anthropocene discourses can be combined. The study concludes that in order to exit the epoch, anthropocentric discourses on the Anthropocene remain ineffective unless complemented by non-anthropocentric discourses.