Browsing by Subject "BALTIC SHIELD"

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  • Kozlovskaya, E.; Elo, S.; Hjelt, S.-E.; Yliniemi, J.; Pirttijärvi, M.; SVEKALAPKO Seismic Tomography Work (2004)
  • Skytta, Pietari; Maatta, Maiju; Piippo, Simo; Kara, Jaakko; Kapyaho, Asko; Heilimo, Esa; O'Brien, Hugh (2020)
    The Archean crust in northern Fennoscandia preserves a fragmentary geological record, making direct correlation among Archean domains challenging. This study presents two new zircon U-Pb age determinations from the Archean Kukkola Gneiss Complex (KGC) that straddles the border between Finland and Sweden. The results indicate that crystallization of tonalites within the magmatic core of the complex occurred at 2711 +/- 8 Ma, somewhat earlier than previously considered. A new pulse of magmatism occurred at 2675 +/- 10 Ma as demonstrated by hornblende-tonalites cutting the 2.71 Ga rocks. The results further indicate that the first deformation event responsible for development of penetrative foliations occurred after the first magmatic event at 2.71 Ga and prior to the subsequent tectonothermal event at 2.68 Ga. These findings are in concert with the known major periods of magmatism (2.8-2.7 Ga) and deformation (2.7 Ga) within better-known Archean domains in northern Fennoscandia, and hence support their correlation with KGC. Three complementary age determinations on the Haparanda-suite granites and tonalites were conducted: the results indicate crystallization ages of 1.90-1.89 Ga, overlapping with the known age range of the suite and supporting its predominance over the 1.8 Ga Lina suite granites in the Tornio-Haparanda area.
  • Gong, Zheng; Evans, David A. D.; Elming, Sten-Åke; Söderlund, Ulf; Salminen, Johanna M. (2018)
  • Tepsell, Johanna; Rämö, O. Tapani; Heinonen, Aku; Lahaye, Yann; Haapala, Pieti; Halkoaho, Tapio; Heinonen, Jussi S.; Höytiä, Henri; Konnunaho, Jukka; Järvinen, Ville (2020)
    Archean terranes are generally poorly exposed and structurally complicated, making models of geological evolution difficult to establish. Because of pervasive metamorphism, strong deformation, and poorly exposed bedrock, the stratigraphy, geochronology, and geological evolution of the northeastern part of the Archean Western Karelia Subprovince, Finnish Lapland, is still deficient. Three new U-Pb age determinations were made using the LA-ICP-MS method on zircon in search of more profound understanding of the geochronology of the area. Data from the Pultoselka granite yield an age of 2795 +/- 5 Ma, providing a minimum age of 2.8 Ga for the Tulppio suite. The age is coeval with widespread 2.74-2.70 Ga granitoids of the Karelia Province, likely representing the same magmatic event. The data from the Kontioselka pegmatite define a maximum age for the pegmatite and a minimum age for mafic volcanic rocks in Kontioselka at 1781 +/- 27 Ma. The age coincides with major deformation and metamorphism in the Karelia Province around 1.76 Ga. Zircon from the Janesselka mafic-ultramafic complex yields a minimum age of 2425 +/- 17 Ma, complying rather well with the 2.5-2.4 Ga mafic layered intrusions of the northern Fennoscandian Shield. Our new data show that the Archean of the northeastern part of the Western Karelia Subprovince was affected by Proterozoic thermal events more extensively than thus far perceived.
  • Suikkanen, Einari; Huhma, Hannu; Kurhila, Matti; Lahaye, Yann (2014)
    The origin of the Vaasa migmatite complex was studied by using whole-rock Sm-Nd and zircon Lu-Hf and U-Pb data in conjunction with whole-rock major and trace element geochemistry. The concordia ages of five Vaasa area granitoid samples are 1.88-1.86 Ga, constraining the age of peak migmatization. The ages of inherited zircon cores in the samples show two clear age populations at 2.02-1.92 Ga and c. 2.7 Ga, which correspond to ages yielded by a mica schist sample from the adjacent Evijarvi belt, as well as with published values for the Evijarvi belt zircon. The initial epsilon(Nd) values of the Vaasa complex samples are relatively unradiogenic (from -3.0 to -2.0). Such values are comparable to a value (-3.6) calculated for the Evijarvi mica schist, as well as to literature values (from 3.0 to -0.5) for the Evijarvi belt. The average initial zircon epsilon(Hf) values of four of the granitoids range from -10 to -5 and are in agreement with the Nd-isotopic results, whereas the northmost sample has a significantly higher value (+1). The deviation is suggested to result from disequilibrium melting of zircon. The isotopic and geochronological data indicate that the Vaasa complex granitoids formed by partial melting of the Evijarvi belt metasedimentary rocks.
  • Jarvinen, Ville; Halkoaho, Tapio; Konnunaho, Jukka; Heinonen, Jussi S.; Ramo, O. Tapani (2021)
    Several mafic-ultramafic layered intrusions were emplaced in the Fennoscandian Shield during wide-spread mantle-sourced magmatism at 2.5-2.4 Ga. The Narankavaara intrusion (surface area 5 x 30 km(2)), northeastern Finland, contains a 1.5-2 km thick basal dunite (not dated), and a 1.5 km thick layered series (2436 +/- 5 Ma). A newly discovered marginal series between the basal dunite and the layered series indicates that the basal dunite is older, and highlights the need for further study on their relationship. Along its southern basement contact, the basal dunite contains a 200-300 m thick zone of olivine ortho- and mesocumulates, but the bulk of it is composed of olivine adcumulates and lesser olivine-orthopyroxene heteradcumulates. Based on whole-rock geochemistry, the basal dunite is divided into a low-Fe zone (average FeOt 10.2 wt% and Ni 2250 ppm) and a high-Fe zone (average FeOt 12.5 wt% and Ni 1700 ppm). Both zones have high MgO (32-47 wt%) and varying Cr (830-5160 ppm) and Al2O3/TiO2 (16-26). Textural and geochemical layering is similar along the 30 km strike of the basal dunite. A LREE-enriched high-MgO basaltic parental magma composition (13-18 wt% MgO) is inferred for the basal dunite from olivine-melt mixing trends in orthocumulates. The dunite exhibits at least two geochemical reversals as well as abundant low-porosity adcumulates, poikilitic chromite, and bimodal olivine, suggesting formation in a high-volume open magmatic system. Significant similarity in major and trace element compositions with the Narankavaara layered series and the Burakovsky intrusion and Vetreny belt extrusives in Russian Karelia suggests that the basal dunite belongs to the Fennoscandian 2.5-2.4 Ga mafic layered intrusions. An Archean komatiitic origin for the dunite body cannot be completely ruled out, however. Distinct Ni-depletion in olivine is found in the basal dunite from the low-Fe zone to the high-Fe zone (3200 versus 2200 ppm). This depletion does not correlate with Fo contents, which suggests that it is not related to olivine fractionation. The basal dunite may thus have potential for Ni-(Cu-Co-PGE) sulfide mineralization.