Browsing by Subject "BAND"

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  • Morosan, D. E.; Palmerio, E.; Räsänen, J. E.; Kilpua, E. K. J.; Magdalenic, J.; Lynch, B. J.; Kumari, A.; Pomoell, J.; Palmroth, M. (2020)
    Context. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are large eruptions of magnetised plasma from the Sun that are often accompanied by solar radio bursts produced by accelerated electrons.Aims. A powerful source for accelerating electron beams are CME-driven shocks, however, there are other mechanisms capable of accelerating electrons during a CME eruption. So far, studies have relied on the traditional classification of solar radio bursts into five groups (Type I-V) based mainly on their shapes and characteristics in dynamic spectra. Here, we aim to determine the origin of moving radio bursts associated with a CME that do not fit into the present classification of the solar radio emission.Methods. By using radio imaging from the Nancay Radioheliograph, combined with observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory, Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, and Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory spacecraft, we investigate the moving radio bursts accompanying two subsequent CMEs on 22 May 2013. We use three-dimensional reconstructions of the two associated CME eruptions to show the possible origin of the observed radio emission.Results. We identified three moving radio bursts at unusually high altitudes in the corona that are located at the northern CME flank and move outwards synchronously with the CME. The radio bursts correspond to fine-structured emission in dynamic spectra with durations of similar to 1 s, and they may show forward or reverse frequency drifts. Since the CME expands closely following an earlier CME, a low coronal CME-CME interaction is likely responsible for the observed radio emission.Conclusions. For the first time, we report the existence of new types of short duration bursts, which are signatures of electron beams accelerated at the CME flank. Two subsequent CMEs originating from the same region and propagating in similar directions provide a complex configuration of the ambient magnetic field and favourable conditions for the creation of collapsing magnetic traps. These traps are formed if a CME-driven wave, such as a shock wave, is likely to intersect surrounding magnetic field lines twice. Electrons will thus be further accelerated at the mirror points created at these intersections and eventually escape to produce bursts of plasma emission with forward and reverse drifts.
  • CORE Collaboration; de Bernardis, P.; Kiiveri, K.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lindholm, V.; Väliviita, J. (2018)
    We describe a space-borne, multi-band, multi-beam polarimeter aiming at a precise and accurate measurement of the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background. The instrument is optimized to be compatible with the strict budget requirements of a medium size space mission within the Cosmic Vision Programme of the European Space Agency. The instrument has no moving parts, and uses arrays of diffraction-limited Kinetic Inductance Detectors to cover the frequency range from 60 GHz to 600 GHz in 19 wide bands, in the focal plane of a 1.2 m aperture telescope cooled at 40K, allowing for an accurate extraction of the CMB signal from polarized foreground emission. The projected CMB polarization survey sensitivity of this instrument, after foregrounds removal, is 1.7 mu K.arcmin. The design is robust enough to allow, if needed, a downscoped version of the instrument covering the 100 GHz to 600 GHz range with a 0.8 m aperture telescope cooled at 85K, with a projected CMB polarization survey sensitivity of 3.2 mu K.arcmin.
  • Morosan, D. E.; Palmerio, E.; Lynch, B. J.; Kilpua, E. K. J. (2020)
    Context. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) on the Sun are the largest explosions in the Solar System that can drive powerful plasma shocks. The eruptions, shocks, and other processes associated to CMEs are efficient particle accelerators and the accelerated electrons in particular can produce radio bursts through the plasma emission mechanism. Aims. Coronal mass ejections and associated radio bursts have been well studied in cases where the CME originates close to the solar limb or within the frontside disc. Here, we study the radio emission associated with a CME eruption on the back side of the Sun on 22 July 2012. Methods. Using radio imaging from the Nancay Radioheliograph, spectroscopic data from the Nancay Decametric Array, and extreme-ultraviolet observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory and Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory spacecraft, we determine the nature of the observed radio emission as well as the location and propagation of the CME. Results. We show that the observed low-intensity radio emission corresponds to a type II radio burst or a short-duration type IV radio burst associated with a CME eruption due to breakout reconnection on the back side of the Sun, as suggested by the pre-eruptive magnetic field configuration. The radio emission consists of a large, extended structure, initially located ahead of the CME, that corresponds to various electron acceleration locations. Conclusions. The observations presented here are consistent with the breakout model of CME eruptions. The extended radio emission coincides with the location of the current sheet and quasi-separatrix boundary of the CME flux and the overlying helmet streamer and also with that of a large shock expected to form ahead of the CME in this configuration.
  • Liu, Hongyu; Zucca, Pietro; Cho, Kyung-Suk; Kumari, Anshu; Zhang, Peijin; Magdalenić, Jasmina; Kim, Rok-Soon; Kim, Sujin; Kang, Juhyung (2022)
    Type-IV radio bursts have been studied for over 50 years. However, the specifics of the radio emission mechanisms is still an open question. In order to provide more information about the emission mechanisms, we studied a moving Type-IV radio burst with fine structures (spike group) by using the high-resolution capability of the Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR) on August 25, 2014. We present a comparison of Nançay Radioheliograph (NRH) and the first LOFAR imaging data of the Type-IV radio burst. The degree of circular polarization (DCP) is calculated at frequencies in the range 20 — 180 MHz using LOFAR data, and it was found that the value of DCP gradually increased during the event, with values of 20 — 30%. LOFAR interferometric data were combined with white-light observations in order to track the propagation of this Type-IV burst. The kinematics shows a westward motion of the radio sources, slower than the CME leading edge. The dynamic spectrum of LOFAR shows a large number of fine structures with durations of less than 1 s and high brightness temperatures (TB), i.e., 1012 — 1013 K. The gradual increase of DCP supports gyrosynchrotron emission as the most plausible mechanism for the Type IV. However, coherent emissions such as Electron Cyclotron Maser (ECM) instability may be responsible for small-scale fine structures. Countless fine structures altogether were responsible for such high TB.
  • Genoud, Guillaume; Lehmuskoski, Johannes; Bell, Steven; Palonen, Vesa; Oinonen, Markku; Koskinen-Soivi, Mari-Leena; Reinikainen, Matti (2019)
    In-situ monitoring of radiocarbon emissions is challenging due to the lack of a suitable method for sensitive online detection of this isotope. Here we report on a complete system for automatized continuous on-site monitoring of radiocarbon gaseous emissions from nuclear facilities. By combining radiocarbon detection using mid-infrared cavity ringdown spectroscopy and an advanced sampling system, an elevated amount of radiocarbon in an atmospheric-like gas matrix was detected. Radiocarbon was detected in the form of (CO2)-C-14 after extraction of the carbon dioxide from the air sample. The system is also able to discriminate between radiocarbon in organic or inorganic molecular form by converting (CH4)-C-14 into (CO2)-C-14. This work lays the groundwork for further use of this technology in nuclear facilities for online on-site monitoring of radioactive gaseous emissions as well as future work on in-situ monitoring of atmospheric radiocarbon.
  • Poikonen, Hanna; Toiviainen, Petri; Tervaniemi, Mari (2018)
    Expertise in music has been investigated for decades and the results have been applied not only in composition, performance and music education, but also in understanding brain plasticity in a larger context. Several studies have revealed a strong connection between auditory and motor processes and listening to and performing music, and music imagination. Recently, as a logical next step in music and movement, the cognitive and affective neuro-sciences have been directed towards expertise in dance. To understand the versatile and overlapping processes during artistic stimuli, such as music and dance, it is necessary to study them with continuous naturalistic stimuli. Thus, we used long excerpts from the contemporary dance piece Carmen presented with and without music to professional dancers, musicians, and laymen in an EEG laboratory. We were interested in the cortical phase synchrony within each participant group over several frequency bands during uni- and multimodal processing. Dancers had strengthened theta and gamma synchrony during music relative to silence and silent dance, whereas the presence of music decreased systematically the alpha and beta synchrony in musicians. Laymen were the only group of participants with significant results related to dance. Future studies are required to understand whether these results are related to some other factor (such as familiarity to the stimuli), or if our results reveal a new point of view to dance observation and expertise.
  • Sadiek, Ibrahim; Mikkonen, Tommi; Vainio, Markku; Toivonen, Juha; Foltynowicz, Aleksandra (2018)
    We report the first photoacoustic detection scheme using an optical frequency comboptical frequency comb photoacoustic spectroscopy (OFC-PAS). OFC-PAS combines the broad spectral coverage and the high resolution of OFCs with the small sample volume of cantilever-enhanced PA detection. In OFC-PAS, a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) is used to modulate the intensity of the exciting comb source at a frequency determined by its scanning speed. One of the FTS outputs is directed to the PA cell and the other is measured simultaneously with a photodiode and used to normalize the PA signal. The cantilever-enhanced PA detector operates in a non-resonant mode, enabling detection of a broadband frequency response. The broadband and the high-resolution capabilities of OFC-PAS are demonstrated by measuring the rovibrational spectra of the fundamental C-H stretch band of CH4, with no instrumental line shape distortions, at total pressures of 1000 mbar, 650 mbar, and 400 mbar. In this first demonstration, a spectral resolution two orders of magnitude better than previously reported with broadband PAS is obtained, limited by the pressure broadening. A limit of detection of 0.8 ppm of methane in N-2 is accomplished in a single interferogram measurement (200 s measurement time, 1000 MHz spectral resolution, 1000 mbar total pressure) for an exciting power spectral density of 42 W/cm(-1). A normalized noise equivalent absorption of 8 x 10(-10) W cm(-1) Hz(-1/2) is obtained, which is only a factor of three higher than the best reported with PAS based on continuous wave lasers. A wide dynamic range of up to four orders of magnitude and a very good linearity (limited by the Beer-Lambert law) over two orders of magnitude are realized. OFC-PAS extends the capability of optical sensors for multispecies trace gas analysis in small sample volumes with high resolution and selectivity.