Browsing by Subject "BARIATRIC SURGERY"

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  • Mikkola, Tuija M; Salonen, Minna K; Kajantie, Eero; Kautiainen, Hannu; Eriksson, Johan G (2020)
    Circulating amino acids are potential markers of body composition. Previous studies are mainly limited to middle age and focus on either fat or lean mass, thereby ignoring overall body composition. We investigated the associations of fat and lean body mass with circulating amino acids in older men and women. We studied 594 women and 476 men from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (age 62–74 years). Bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to indicate two main body compartments by fat (fat mass/height2) and lean mass indices (lean mass/height2), dichotomized based on sex-specific medians. Eight serum amino acids were quantified using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. General linear models were adjusted for age, smoking, and fasting glucose. Higher lean mass index (LMI) was associated with higher concentrations of branched-chain amino acids in both sexes (p ≤ .001). In men, LMI was also positively associated with tyrosine (p = .006) and inversely with glycine (p < .001). Higher fat mass index was associated with higher concentrations of all branched-chain amino acids, aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine and tyrosine), and alanine in both sexes (p ≤ .008). Associations between body composition and amino acids are largely similar in older men and women. The associations are largely similar to those previously observed in younger adults.
  • Kaipainen, Aku L.; Martoma, Erik; Puustinen, Tero; Tervonen, Joona; Jyrkkänen, Henna Kaisa; Paterno, Jussi J.; Kotkansalo, Anna; Rantala, Susanna; Vanhanen, Ulla; Leinonen, Ville; Lehto, Soili M.; Iso-Mustajärvi, Matti; Elomaa, Antti Pekka; Qvarlander, Sara; Huuskonen, Terhi J. (2021)
    Background: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a rare disease of unknown aetiology related possibly to disturbed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics and characterised by elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) causing optic nerve atrophy if not timely treated. We studied CSF dynamics of the IIH patients based on the available literature and our well-defined cohort. Method: A literature review was performed from PubMed between 1980 and 2020 in compliance with the PRISMA guideline. Our study includes 59 patients with clinical, demographical, neuro-ophthalmological, radiological, outcome data, and lumbar CSF pressure measurements for suspicion of IIH; 39 patients had verified IIH while 20 patients did not according to Friedman’s criteria, hence referred to as symptomatic controls. Results: The literature review yielded 19 suitable studies; 452 IIH patients and 264 controls had undergone intraventricular or lumbar CSF pressure measurements. In our study, the mean CSF pressure, pulse amplitudes, power of respiratory waves (RESP), and the pressure constant (P0) were higher in IIH than symptomatic controls (p < 0.01). The mean CSF pressure was higher in IIH patients with psychiatric comorbidity than without (p < 0.05). In IIH patients without acetazolamide treatment, the RAP index and power of slow waves were also higher (p < 0.05). IIH patients with excess CSF around the optic nerves had lower relative pulse pressure coefficient (RPPC) and RESP than those without (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Our literature review revealed increased CSF pressure, resistance to CSF outflow and sagittal sinus pressure (SSP) as key findings in IIH. Our study confirmed significantly higher lumbar CSF pressure and increased CSF pressure waves and RAP index in IIH when excluding patients with acetazolamide treatment. In overall, the findings reflect decreased craniospinal compliance and potentially depleted cerebral autoregulation resulting from the increased CSF pressure in IIH. The increased slow waves in patients without acetazolamide may indicate issues in autoregulation, while increased P0 could reflect the increased SSP.
  • Ashrafi, Reza A.; Ahola, Aila J.; Rosengard-Barlund, Milla; Saarinen, Tuure; Heinonen, Sini; Juuti, Anne; Marttinen, Pekka; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H. (2021)
    Objectives Our aim was to investigate in a real-life setting the use of machine learning for modelling the postprandial glucose concentrations in morbidly obese patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or one-anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB). Methods As part of the prospective randomized open-label trial (RYSA), data from obese (BMI >= 35 kg/m(2)) non-diabetic adult participants were included. Glucose concentrations, measured with FreeStyle Libre, were recorded over 14 preoperative and 14 postoperative days. During these periods, 3-day food intake was self-reported. A machine learning model was applied to estimate glycaemic responses to the reported carbohydrate intakes before and after the bariatric surgeries. Results Altogether, 10 participants underwent RYGB and 7 participants OAGB surgeries. The glucose concentrations and carbohydrate intakes were reduced postoperatively in both groups. The relative time spent in hypoglycaemia increased regardless of the operation (RYGB, from 9.2 to 28.2%; OAGB, from 1.8 to 37.7%). Postoperatively, we observed an increase in the height of the fitted response curve and a reduction in its width, suggesting that the same amount of carbohydrates caused a larger increase in the postprandial glucose response and that the clearance of the meal-derived blood glucose was faster, with no clinically meaningful differences between the surgeries. Conclusions A detailed analysis of the glycaemic responses using food diaries has previously been difficult because of the noisy meal data. The utilized machine learning model resolved this by modelling the uncertainty in meal times. Such an approach is likely also applicable in other applications involving dietary data. A marked reduction in overall glycaemia, increase in postprandial glucose response, and rapid glucose clearance from the circulation immediately after surgery are evident after both RYGB and OAGB. Whether nondiabetic individuals would benefit from monitoring the post-surgery hypoglycaemias and the potential to prevent them by dietary means should be investigated. KEY MESSAGES The use of a novel machine learning model was applicable for combining patient-reported data and time-series data in this clinical study. Marked increase in postprandial glucose concentrations and rapid glucose clearance were observed after both Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and one-anastomosis gastric bypass surgeries. Whether nondiabetic individuals would benefit from monitoring the post-surgery hypoglycaemias and the potential to prevent them by dietary means should be investigated.
  • Christensen, Pia; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet; Macdonald, Ian; Martinez, J. Alfredo; Handjiev, Svetoslav; Poppitt, Sally; Hansen, Sylvia; Ritz, Christian; Astrup, Arne; Pastor-Sanz, Laura; Sando-Pedersen, Finn; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Sundvall, Jouko; Drummen, Mathijs; Taylor, Moira A.; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Brodie, Shannon; Silvestre, Marta P.; Huttunen-Lenz, Maija; Brand-Miller, Jennie; Fogelholm, Mikael; Raben, Anne (2018)
    Aims Materials and methods The PREVIEW lifestyle intervention study ( Identifier: NCT01777893) is, to date, the largest, multinational study concerning prevention of type-2 diabetes. We hypothesized that the initial, fixed low-energy diet (LED) would induce different metabolic outcomes in men vs women. All participants followed a LED (3.4 MJ/810 kcal/daily) for 8 weeks (Cambridge Weight Plan). Participants were recruited from 8 sites in Europe, Australia and New Zealand. Those eligible for inclusion were overweight (BMI >= 25 kg/m(2)) individuals with pre-diabetes according to ADA-criteria. Outcomes of interest included changes in insulin resistance, fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM) and metabolic syndrome Z-score. Results Conclusions In total, 2224 individuals (1504 women, 720 men) attended the baseline visit and 2020 (90.8%) completed the follow-up visit. Following the LED, weight loss was 16% greater in men than in women (11.8% vs 10.3%, respectively) but improvements in insulin resistance were similar. HOMA-IR decreased by 1.50 +/- 0.15 in men and by 1.35 +/- 0.15 in women (ns). After adjusting for differences in weight loss, men had larger reductions in metabolic syndrome Z-score, C-peptide, FM and heart rate, while women had larger reductions in HDL cholesterol, FFM, hip circumference and pulse pressure. Following the LED, 35% of participants of both genders had reverted to normo-glycaemia. An 8-week LED induced different effects in women than in men. These findings are clinically important and suggest gender-specific changes after weight loss. It is important to investigate whether the greater decreases in FFM, hip circumference and HDL cholesterol in women after rapid weight loss compromise weight loss maintenance and future cardiovascular health.
  • Pajula, Susanna; Gissler, Mika; Kaijomaa, Marja; Jyränki, Janne; Tukiainen, Erkki; Koljonen, Virve (2021)
    Background: Obesity in fertile age women has increased worldwide leading to increased bariatric procedures. Lower body contouring surgery (LBCS) is one of the most commonly performed esthetic operations, mainly owing to massive weight loss. However, there is a paucity of data regarding pregnancy and delivery after LBCS. In this study, we examined whether LBCS influences pregnancy or delivery and mother and baby outcome. Methods: In this national registry-based study, we used data from the Finnish Institute of Health and Welfare and the Causes of Death registry. We included fertile age women, from 18 to 54 years who had LBCS with or without a bariatric procedure and who experienced pregnancy and delivery were compared to all deliveries in Finland during 1999-2016. Results: We identified 92 women who had LBCS before delivery. These 92 women had planned cesarean sections more often (P Conclusion: Pregnancy and delivery are safe for the mother and the baby after LBCS. The possible deviations from normal pregnancy and delivery should be discussed with fertile age women seeking LBCS. (C) 2020 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Puustinen, Tero; Tervonen, Joona; Avellan, Cecilia; Jyrkkänen, Henna-Kaisa; Paterno, Jussi J.; Hartikainen, Päivi; Vanhanen, Ulla; Leinonen, Ville; Lehto, Soili M.; Elomaa, Antti-Pekka; Huttunen, Terhi J. (2019)
    Objective Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is aetiologically unknown disorder that associates with endocrinological disturbances, including dysfunction of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis. Neuroendocrinological dysfunctions have also been characterized in psychiatric disorders, and therefore we investigated the presence of psychiatric disorders of patients with IIH in a well-defined cohort. Patients and Methods A total of 51 patients with IIH were included. Patient demographics, symptoms, imaging data, ophthalmological and clinical findings were collected. Results At the time of diagnosis the mean age was 32.5years (SD 10.7), the body mass index was 37.1 kg/m2 (SD 7.4), and the opening pressure 29.1 mmHg (SD 6.2). A total of 88.2% of patients were female and 45.1% were diagnosed with a psychiatric co-morbidity prior to IIH diagnosis. The mean follow-up time was 4.4 years (SD 5.4). The overall treatment outcome was significantly poorer on a group of patients with psychiatric diagnosis when compared to individuals without such history (p = 0.001), but there were no differences in the resolution of papilledema (p = 0.405). Patients with IIH and psychiatric disorders had more often empty sella on their imaging at diagnosis when compared to patients without psychiatric co-morbidity (p = 0.044). Conclusion Psychiatric disorders are highly prevalent in patients with IIH and associate with worse subjective outcomes. These findings advocate for monitoring the mental health of patients with IIH and warrant further multidisciplinary research to understand the potentially underlying psychosocial and neuroendocrinological mechanisms.
  • Arora, Tulika; Velagapudi, Vidya; Pournaras, Dimitri J.; Welbourn, Richard; le Roux, Carel W.; Oresic, Matej; Backhed, Fredrik (2015)
    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is an effective method to attain sustained weight loss and diabetes remission. We aimed to elucidate early changes in the plasma metabolome and lipidome after RYGB. Plasma samples from 16 insulin-resistant morbidly obese subjects, of whom 14 had diabetes, were subjected to global metabolomics and lipidomics analysis at pre-surgery and 4 and 42 days after RYGB. Metabolites and lipid species were compared between time points and between subjects who were in remission and not in remission from diabetes 2 years after surgery. We found that the variables that were most discriminatory between time points were decanoic acid and octanoic acid, which were elevated 42 days after surgery, and sphingomyelins (18:1/21:0 and 18:1/23:3), which were at their lowest level 42 days after surgery. Insulin levels were lower at 4 and 42 days after surgery compared with pre-surgery levels. At 4 days after surgery, insulin levels correlated positively with metabolites of branched chain and aromatic amino acid metabolism and negatively with triglycerides with long-chain fatty acids. Of the 14 subjects with diabetes prior to surgery, 7 were in remission 2 years after surgery. The subjects in remission displayed higher pre-surgery levels of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates and triglycerides with long-chain fatty acids compared with subjects not in remission. Thus, metabolic alterations are induced soon after surgery and subjects with diabetes remission differ in the metabolic profiles at pre- and early post-surgery time points compared to patients not in remission.
  • Repo, J. P.; Homsy, P.; Uimonen, M. M.; Roine, R. P.; Jahkola, T.; Popov, P. (2019)
    Background: Massive weight loss can notably affect patients' health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and body image. Yet, no body contouring specific instruments to assess HRQoL and body image after massive weight loss have been validated in Finnish. The BODY-Q includes 26 independently functioning scales and a single checklist that measure appearance, HRQoL, and experience of care. The aim of the present study was to translate and validate a Finnish version of the BODY-Q among patients who underwent abdominoplasty. Methods: The BODY-Q was translated into Finnish using recommended guidelines. Eighty-two patients who underwent abdominoplasty due to massive weight loss were identified from hospital records using procedure codes. A postal survey including the BODY-Q, the 15D, and general health and pain instruments was used. Criterion validity, Cronbach's alpha, and floor and ceiling effects were analyzed. Results: The BODY-Q translated well into Finnish. Fifty-three patients returned the questionnaires (response rate 65%) and were included. All but the Scars subscale correlated significantly with the 15D mean score, thus indicating strong criterion validity against a generic HRQoL tool. The Excess Skin and the Physical Function scales reached the ceiling effect (>15% of maximum points) in our postoperative sample. No floor effects were observed. Internal consistency of the BODY-Q scales was high (Cronbach's alpha range, 0.81-0.95). Conclusions: The Finnish version of the BODY-Q instrument is equivalent in terms of content, accuracy, and comprehensiveness to the original English version. The findings of the present study indicate that the BODY-Q has psychometric properties suitable for assessing outcomes and treatment effectiveness of abdominoplasty. (C) 2019 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.