Browsing by Subject "BASE"

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  • Lu, Yiqun; Liu, Ling; Ning, An; Yang, Gan; Liu, Yiliang; Kurten, Theo; Vehkamäki, Hanna; Zhang, Xiuhui; Wang, Lin (2020)
    Sulfuric acid (SA)-dimethylamine (DMA)-H2O cluster formation has been proven to be responsible for a significant part of new particle formation (NPF) in a Chinese megacity. However, the possible involvement of common atmospheric acids in the subsequent growth of SA-DMA clusters remains elusive. We simulated formation and growth of clusters using atmospheric relevant concentrations of SA, DMA, and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), a commonly observed atmospheric perfluorocarboxylic acid, using Density Functional Theory combined with Atmospheric Cluster Dynamics Code. The presence of TFA leads to complex cluster formation routes and an enhancement of NPF rates by up to 2.3 ([TFA] = 5.0 x 10(6) molecules cm(-3), [SA] = 1.0 x 10(6) molecules cm(-3), and [DMA] = 1.5 x 10(9) molecules cm(-3)). The agreement of (SA)(1)center dot(DMA)(1-2)center dot(TFA)(1) concentrations between simulations and ambient measurements during NPF events validates model predictions and implies that perfluorocarboxylic acids could potentially boost atmospheric SA-DMA NPF rates.
  • Ala-Nikkola, Taina; Sadeniemi, Minna; Kaila, Minna; Saarni, Samuli; Kontio, Raija; Pirkola, Sami; Joffe, Grigori; Oranta, Olli; Wahlbeck, Kristian (2016)
    Background: The diversity of mental health and substance abuse services (MHS) available to service users is seen as an indicator of the quality of the service system. In most countries MHS are provided by a mix of public, private and third sector providers. In Finland, officially, the municipalities are responsible for organizing the services needed, but the real extent and roles of private and third sector service providers are not known. Our previous study showed that the catchment area population size was strongly associated with diversity of mental health services. It is not known whether this was due to some types of services or some provider types being more sensitive to the size effect than others. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between area population size and diversity of mental health services, i.e. which types of services and which service providers' contributions are sensitive to population size. Methods: To map and classify services, we used the ESMS-R. The diversity of services was defined as the count of main types of care. Providers were classified as public, private or third sectors. Results: The diversity of outpatient, residential and voluntary services correlated positively with catchment area population size. The strongest positive correlation between the size of population and services available was found in third sector activities followed by public providers, but no correlation was found for diversity of private services. The third sector and public corporations each provided 44 % of the service units. Third sector providers produced all self-help services and most of the day care services. Third sector and private companies provided a significant part (59 %) of the residential care service units. Conclusions: Significant positive correlations were found between size of catchment area population and diversity of residential, outpatient and voluntary services, indicating that these services concentrate on areas with larger population bases. The third sector seems to significantly complement the public sector in providing different services. Thus the third sector be needs to be functionally integrated with other MHS services to achieve a diversified and integrated service system.
  • Mäkitie, Antti A.; Keski-Säntti, Harri; Markkanen-Leppänen, Mari; Bäck, Leif; Koivunen, Petri; Ekberg, Tomas; Sandström, Karl; Laurell, Göran; von Beckerath, Mathias; Nilsson, Johan S.; Wahlberg, Peter; Greiff, Lennart; Spaak, Lena Norberg; Kjaergaard, Thomas; Godballe, Christian; Rikardsen, Oddveig; Channir, Hani Ibrahim; Rubek, Niclas; von Buchwald, Christian (2018)
    Background: The five Nordic countries with a population of 27 M people form a rather homogenous region in terms of health care. The management of head and neck cancer is centralized to the 21 university hospitals in these countries. Our aim was to gain an overview of the volume and role of transoral robotic surgery (TORS) and to evaluate the need to centralize it in this area as the field is rapidly developing. Materials and Methods: A structured questionnaire was sent to all 10 Departments of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery in the Nordic countries having an active programme for TORS in December 2017. Results: The total cumulative number of performed robotic surgeries at these 10 Nordic centers was 528 and varied between 5 and 240 per center. The median annual number of robotic surgeries was 38 (range, 5-60). The observed number of annually operated cases remained fairly low ( Conclusions: The present results showing a limited volume of performed surgeries call for considerations to further centralize TORS in the Nordic countries.