Browsing by Subject "BASIN"

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  • Montaldo, Nicola; Oren, Ram (2018)
    Over the past century, climate change has been reflected in altered precipitation regimes worldwide. Because evapotranspiration is sensitive to both water availability and atmospheric demand for water vapor, it is essential to assess the likely consequences of future changes of these climate variables to evapotranspiration and, thus, runoff. We propose a simplified approach for annual evapotranspiration predictions, based on seasonal evapotranspiration estimates, accounting for the strong seasonality of meteorological conditions typical of Mediterranean climate, still holding the steady state assumption of basin water balance at mean annual scale. Sardinian runoff decreased over the 1975-2010 period by more than 40% compared to the preceding 1922-1974 period. Most of annual runoff in Sardinian basins is produced by winter precipitation, a wet season with relatively high evaporation rates. We derived linear seasonal evapotranspiration responses to seasonal precipitation, and, in turn, a relationship between the parameters of the linear functions and the seasonal vapor pressure deficit (D), accounting for residuals with basin properties. We then used these relationships to predict evapotranspiration and runoff using future Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change climate scenarios, considering changing precipitation and D seasonality. We show that evapotranspiration is insensitive to D scenario changes. Although both evapotranspiration and runoff are sensitive to precipitation seasonality, future changes in runoff are related only to changes of winter precipitation, while evapotranspiration changes are related to those of spring and summer precipitation. Future scenario predicting further runoff decline is particularly alarming for the Sardinian water resources system, requiring new strategies and designs in water resources planning and management.
  • Luoma, S.; Okkonen, J.; Korkka-Niemi, K.; Hendriksson, N.; Backman, B. (2015)
    The groundwater in a shallow, unconfined, low-lying coastal aquifer in Santala, southern Finland, was chemically characterised by integrating multivariate statistical approaches, principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), based on the stable isotopes delta H-2 and delta O-18, hydrogeochemistry and field monitoring data. PCA and HCA yielded similar results and classified groundwater samples into six distinct groups that revealed the factors controlling temporal and spatial variations in the groundwater geochemistry, such as the geology, anthropogenic sources from human activities, climate and surface water. High temporal variation in groundwater chemistry directly corresponded to precipitation. With an increase in precipitation, KMnO4 consumption, EC, alkalinity and Ca concentrations also increased in most wells, while Fe, Al, Mn and SO4 were occasionally increased during spring after the snowmelt under specific geological conditions. The continued increase in NO3 and metal concentrations in groundwater indicates the potential contamination risk to the aquifer. Stable isotopes of delta O-18 and delta H-2 indicate groundwater recharge directly from meteoric water, with an insignificant contribution from lake water, and no seawater intrusion into the aquifer. Groundwater geochemistry suggests that local seawater intrusion is temporarily able to take place in the sulfate reduction zone along the freshwater and seawater mixed zone in the low-lying coastal area, but the contribution of seawater was found to be very low. The influence of lake water could be observed from higher levels of KMnO4 consumption in wells near the lake. The integration of PCA and HCA with conventional classification of groundwater types, as well as with the hydrogeochemical data, provided useful tools to identify the vulnerable groundwater areas representing the impacts of both natural and human activities on water quality and the understanding of complex groundwater flow system for the aquifer vulnerability assessment and groundwater management in the future.
  • Starostenko, V. I.; Janik, T.; Gintov, O. B.; Lysynchuk, D. V.; Sroda, P.; Czuba, W.; Kolomiyets, E. V.; Aleksandrowski, P.; Omelchenko, V. D.; Komminaho, K.; Guterch, A.; Tiira, T.; Gryn, D. N.; Legostaeva, O. V.; Thybo, G.; Tolkunov, A. V. (2017)
    For studying the structure of the lithosphere in southern Ukraine, wide-angle seismic studies that recorded the reflected and refracted waves were carried out under the DOBRE-4 project. The field works were conducted in October 2009. Thirteen chemical shot points spaced 35-50 km apart from each other were implemented with a charge weight varying from 600 to 1000 kg. Overall 230 recording stations with an interval of 2.5 km between them were used. The high quality of the obtained data allowed us to model the velocity section along the profile for P-and S-waves. Seismic modeling was carried out by two methods. Initially, trial-and-error ray tracing using the arrival times of the main reflected and refracted P-and S-phases was conducted. Next, the amplitudes of the recorded phases were analyzed by the finite-difference full waveform method. The resulting velocity model demonstrates a fairly homogeneous structure from the middle to lower crust both in the vertical and horizontal directions. A drastically different situation is observed in the upper crust, where the Vp velocities decrease upwards along the section from 6.35 km/s at a depth of 15-20 km to 5.9-5.8 km/s on the surface of the crystalline basement; in the Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic deposits, it diminishes from 5.15 to 3.80 km/s, and in the Mesozoic layers, it decreases from 2.70 to 2.30 km/s. The sub-crustal Vp gradually increases downwards from 6.50 to 6.7-6.8 km/s at the crustal base, which complicates the problem of separating the middle and lower crust. The Vp velocities above 6.80 km/s have not been revealed even in the lowermost part of the crust, in contrast to the similar profiles in the East European Platform. The Moho is clearly delineated by the velocity contrast of 1.3-1.7 km/s. The alternating pattern of the changes in the Moho depths corresponding to Moho undulations with a wavelength of about 150 km and the amplitude reaching 8 to 17 km is a peculiarity of the velocity model.
  • Gavioli, Anna; Milardi, Marco; Castaldelli, Giuseppe; Fano, Elisa Anna; Soininen, Janne (2019)
    Aim Exotic species are a major threat to biodiversity and have modified native communities worldwide. Invasion processes have been extensively studied, but studies on species richness and beta diversity patterns of exotic and native species are rare. We investigate such patterns among exotic and native fish communities in upland and lowland rivers to explore their relationship with environmental drivers. Location Northern Italy. Methods Exotic and native fish beta diversity patterns were investigated separately in lowland and upland sites using Local Contribution to Beta Diversity (LCBD) and Species Contribution to Beta Diversity (SCBD) analyses. To examine the main environmental variables affecting the LCBD, a Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) method was used. Community dispersion among and within stream orders was investigated with the PERMDISP test. Results In lowland sites, exotic species richness was higher than native species richness, especially in large rivers and drainage canals. An opposite trend was found in upland sites, where native species richness was higher than exotic species richness, especially in large rivers. No clear LCBD patterns were found along stream orders in the lowland, whereas higher stream orders in the upland showed the highest LCBD. Its patterns in upland and lowland sites were related to a number of factors, such as total suspended solids and total phosphorus. Community dispersion among stream orders did not show a relationship with environmental heterogeneity. SCBD values were positively correlated with species occupancy in the study area, and native species showed higher SCBD values than exotic species only in the uplands. Main conclusions Large rivers in the uplands are important in maintaining native fish diversity and should be protected against invasive fish. In contrast, most lowland rivers have suffered from biological homogenization. Some rare native species can show low contribution to beta diversity, but still need conservation actions due to their risk of local extinction.
  • Kröger, Björn; Pohle, Alexander (Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, 2021)
    European Journal of Taxonomy:
    The collection of cephalopods from eight sampling horizons within the Olenidsletta Member, Valhallfonna Formation, Floian–Dapingian, from Profilstranda and nearby Profilbekken, Ny Friesland, Spitsbergen, resulted in the detection of 31 species, 20 genera, and 12 families from the Ellesmerocerida, Endocerida, Riocerida, Dissidocerida, Orthocerida, Tarphycerida, and Oncocerida. Of these, five genera (Ethanoceras gen. nov., Hinlopoceras gen. nov., Nyfrieslandoceras gen. nov., Olenidslettoceras gen. nov., Svalbardoceras gen. nov.) and 19 species (Bactroceras fluvii sp. nov., Buttsoceras buldrebreenense sp. nov., Cycloplectoceras hinlopense sp. nov., Cyclostomiceras profilstrandense sp. nov., Deltoceras beluga sp. nov., Eosomichelinoceras borealis sp. nov., Ethanoceras solitudines gen. et sp. nov., Hemichoanella occulta sp. nov., Hinlopoceras tempestatis gen. et sp. nov., H. venti gen. et sp. nov., Lawrenceoceras ebenus sp. nov., L. larus sp. nov., Litoceras profilbekkenense sp. nov., Nyfrieslandoceras bassleroceroides gen. et sp. nov., Olenidslettoceras farmi gen. et sp. nov., Protocycloceras minor sp. nov., Proterocameroceras valhallfonnense sp. nov., Svalbardoceras sterna gen. et sp. nov., S. skua gen. et sp. nov.) are new. The diagnoses of the Cyptendoceratidae, Bactroceratidae and of Deltoceras Hyatt, 1894 are emended. Well preserved early growth stages in several species are remarkable. Turnover between the sampling horizons and between sampling intervals is high. The differences in composition, diversity and evenness of the assemblages are interpreted as reflecting changing depth and oxygenation depositional bottom conditions. The co-occurrence of endemic and cosmopolitan species is interpreted as resulting from a high vertical niche differentiation and from eustatically generated lateral shifts of facies zones. Based on calculations of phragmocone implosion depths, depositional depths of 50–130 m are plausible for the Olenidsletta Member, supporting independent evidence from biomarker signatures. Several cephalopod species of the Olenidsletta Member represent odd mosaics of morphological features of previously known cephalopods which cannot be unambiguously assigned to one of the existing cephalopod higher taxa. Results from a cladistic analysis shed new light on the early evolution of the Oncocerida and Orthocerida.
  • Horton, Alexander J.; Nygren, Anja; Miguel, Diaz Perera; Kummu, Matti (2021)
    Anthropogenic activities are altering flood frequency-magnitude distributions along many of the world's large rivers. Yet isolating the impact of any single factor amongst the multitudes of competing anthropogenic drivers is a persistent challenge. The Usumacinta River in southeastern Mexico provides an opportunity to study the anthropogenic driver of tropical forest conversion in isolation, as the long meteorological and discharge records capture the river's response to large-scale agricultural expansion without interference from development activities such as dams or channel modifications. We analyse continuous daily time series of precipitation, temperature, and discharge to identify long-term trends, and employ a novel approach to disentangle the signal of deforestation by normalising daily discharges by 90-day mean precipitation volumes from the contributing area in order to account for climatic variability. We also identify an anthropogenic signature of tropical forest conversion at the intra-annual scale, reproduce this signal using a distributed hydrological model (VMOD), and demonstrate that the continued conversion of tropical forest to agricultural land use will further exacerbate large-scale flooding. We find statistically significant increasing trends in annual minimum, mean, and maximum discharges that are not evident in either precipitation or temperature records, with mean monthly discharges increasing between 7% and 75% in the past decades. Model results demonstrate that forest cover loss is responsible for raising the 10-year return peak discharge by 25%, while the total conversion of forest to agricultural use would result in an additional 18% rise. These findings highlight the need for an integrated basin-wide approach to land management that considers the impacts of agricultural expansion on increased flood prevalence, and the economic and social costs involved.
  • Räsänen, Aleksi; Nygren, Anja; Monge Monge, Adrian Antonio; Käkönen, Mira; Kanninen, Markku; Juhola, Sirkku (2018)
    Land use changes have been recognized to have considerable impacts on water; and vice versa, changes in water use and governance may have implications on land use and governance. This study analyzes recent land use/land cover (LULC) changes, and how changes in land use and water governance are perceived to affect land use and water-related risks in three case-study areas exposed to frequent flooding and inadequate or deteriorating water quality. The areas studied included the Vantaa basin in Finland, a section of the Grijalva basin in Mexico, and the Lower Xe Bang Fai basin in Laos. We show how there are complex and context-specific interrelationships between land use, water governance, and water-related risks in each study area. In a remote sensing analysis of LULC changes during the past 30 years, we found that LULC changes have been the most dramatic in Xe Bang Fai, Laos in the form of expanding agriculture and built-up areas; however, there has also been an expansion of built-up areas in the two other sites. According to our stakeholder scenario workshop data, analysis of policy documents and field visits, the nexus between land, water and risks is recognized to some extent in each study area. There have been modest shifts toward more integrated land use and water governance in Vantaa and Grijalva, while the integrated governance seems to have been most absent in Xe Bang Fai. Tighter integration of land and water policies is needed in all the three cases to manage the land use changes in a way that their effects on water-related risks will be minimized.
  • Roy, Kushal; Karim, Md. Rezaul; Akter, Farjana; Islam, Md. Safiqul; Ahmed, Kousik; Rahman, Masudur; Datta, Dilip Kumar; Khan, M. Shah Alam (2018)
    Despite its complexity and importance in managing water resources in populous deltas, especially in tidal areas, literatures on tidal rivers and their land use linkage in connection to water quality and pollution are rare. Such information is of prior need for Integrated Water Resource Management in water scarce and climate change vulnerable regions, such as the southwestern coast of Bangladesh. Using water quality indices and multivariate analysis, we present here the land use signatures of a dying tidal river due to anthropogenic perturbation. Correlation matrix, hierarchical cluster analysis, factor analysis, and bio-geo-chemical fingerprints were used to quantify the hydro-chemical and anthropogenic processes and identify factors influencing the ionic concentrations. The results show remarkable spatial and temporal variations (p <0.05) in water quality parameters. The lowest solute concentrations are observed at the mid reach of the stream where the agricultural and urban wastewater mix. Agricultural sites show higher concentration of DO, Na+ and K+ reflecting the effects of tidal spill-over and shrimp wastewater effluents nearby. Higher level of Salinity, EC, Cl-, HCO3 (-), NO3 (-), PO4 (3-) and TSS characterize the urban sites indicating a signature of land use dominated by direct discharge of household organic waste into the waters. The spatial variation in overall water quality suggests a periodic enhancement of quality especially for irrigation and non-drinking purposes during monsoon and post-monsoon, indicating significant influence of amount of rainfall in the basin. We recommend that, given the recent trend of increasing precipitation and ground water table decrease, such dying tidal river basins may serve as excellent surface water reservoir to supplement quality water supply to the region.
  • Lu, Peng; Leppäranta, Matti; Cheng, Bin; Li, Zhijun (2016)
    Solar radiation drives the melting of Arctic sea ice in summer, but its parameterization in thermodynamic modeling is difficult due to the large variability of the optical properties of sea ice in space and time. Here, a two-stream radiative transfer model was developed for the propagation of solar radiation in ponded sea ice to investigate the dependence of apparent optical properties (AOPs), particularly albedo and transmittance, on sky conditions, pond depth, ice thickness, and the inherent optical properties (IOPs) of ice and water. The results of numerical experiments revealed that decrease in melt-pond albedo during melting results not only from increase in pond depth but also from decrease in underlying ice thickness, and the latter is more important for thin ice with thickness less than 1.5 m. Hence, a parameterized pond albedo as a function of both pond depth and ice thickness is more suitable for thinning Arctic sea ice than the previously used exponential function of pond depth, which is valid for thicker ice. The increase in broadband transmittance during melting can be explained by the decrease in underlying ice thickness, because its dependence on ice thickness is nearly three times stronger than on pond depth. The spectral dependence of the pond albedo on depth is significant only in the 600-900-nm band, while it depends clearly on ice thickness in the 350-600-nm band. The uncertainty resulting from the absorption coefficient of ice is limited, while the effect of scattering in ice is more important, as determined by a sensitivity study on the influence of the IOPs on the AOPs of sea ice. The two-stream model provides a time-efficient parameterization of the AOPs for ponded sea ice, accounting for both absorption and scattering, and has potential for implementation into sea-ice thermodynamic models to explain the role of melt ponds in the summer decay of Arctic sea ice. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Plado, Juri; Ainsaar, Leho; Dmitrijeva, Marija; Poldsaar, Kairi; Ots, Siim; Pesonen, Lauri J.; Preeden, Ulla (2016)
    Magnetic susceptibility (MS), its frequency-dependence and anisotropy of the Middle Ordovician Dapingian and Darriwilian sedimentary sequence from three sites (Uuga, Testepere and Leetse) in the Pakri Peninsula, NW Estonia are analysed in combination with the mineralogical composition. The study is based on 463 cores drilled at intervals of a few centimetres to a maximum of about 1 m. All the samples show low and positive MS, which suggests the presence of small quantities of paraand/or ferromagnetic minerals. The stratigraphic units of the three studied sites have a similar along-section appearance, which provides a base for a composite curve. The relatively higher susceptibilities are carried by secondary Fe-Ti oxides (Toila Formation), goethite ooids (Kandle Formation) and ferrous dolomite (Pae Member), whereas paramagnetic minerals are mostly responsible for the rest of the sequence. Considering the dependence of MS on regressive transgressive cycles (high/low MS within deposits of regressive/transgressive parts of the cycles, respectively), the MS data do not agree with sedimentologically derived sea-level compilations. The measured changes in MS in the Pakri Peninsula outcrops correlate at certain characteristic levels with those deposited in the deeper part of the palaeobasin (Viki core), indicating that the post-depositional iron mobilization within the sediments took place at least at a regional level. Because of post-depositional reorganization of ferromagnetic carrier minerals, the MS values may, however, not be used as a detrital proxy.
  • Wasiljeff, Joonas; Kaakinen, Anu; Salminen, Johanna; Zhang, Zhaoqun (2020)
    The transition from Eocene to Oligocene and its implications in the terrestrial realm has been a focal target for Cenozoic climate and environment research as it is widely considered the most dramatic climatic shift of the past 50 million years. Tibetan Plateau and proximal areas have been of utmost interest since the biogeographic relationships and understanding of the depositional environments in the region have remained unsettled during and after the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT). This study derives a first chronostratigraphic framework for Ulantatal, a fossiliferous area in Inner Mongolia, China. Based on paleomagnetic reversal stratigraphy and the constraints of faunal correlations, the time spanned in the strata is between ca. 35 and 27 Ma, thus exposing a long sedimentary succession ranging from the latest Eocene to late Oligocene. The lithological characteristics reveal these extensive fine-grained sediments mainly originate from eolian dust deposition, the onset of which is constrained at the latest Eocene (ca. 34.8 Ma). The presence of post "Mongolian Remodeling" fauna already in the late Eocene of Ulantatal demonstrates unequivocally that the major faunal turnover preceded the Eocene-Oligocene boundary, earlier to what has been recorded from other East Asian localities. The faunal composition predominated by rodents and lagomorphs remains strikingly stable across the Eocene-Oligocene boundary, suggesting the EOT related change in the animal communities was gradual or stepwise rather than abrupt. Moreover, the turnover into this environment dominated by small mammals can be linked with Eocene acidification of Asia, highlighting the dynamic responses of terrestrial systems to changing environment and climate associated with the EOT. (C) 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Rizzo, Luciana Varanda; Roldin, Pontus; Brito, Joel; Backman, John; Swietlicki, Erik; Krejci, Radovan; Tunved, Peter; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku; Artaxo, Paulo (2018)
    The Amazon Basin is a unique region to study atmospheric aerosols, given their relevance for the regional hydrological cycle and the large uncertainty of their sources. Multi-year datasets are crucial when contrasting periods of natural conditions and periods influenced by anthropogenic emissions. In the wet season, biogenic sources and processes prevail, and the Amazonian atmospheric composition resembles preindustrial conditions. In the dry season, the basin is influenced by widespread biomass burning emissions. This work reports multi-year observations of high time resolution submicrometer (10-600 nm) particle number size distributions at a rain forest site in Amazonia (TT34 tower, 60 km NW from Manaus city), between 2008 and 2010 and 2012 and 2014. The median particle number concentration was 403 cm(-3) in the wet season and 1254 cm(-3) in the dry season. The Aitken mode (similar to 30-100 nm in diameter) was prominent during the wet season, while the accumulation mode (similar to 100-600 nm in diameter) dominated the particle size spectra during the dry season. Cluster analysis identified groups of aerosol number size distributions influenced by convective downdrafts, nucleation events and fresh biomass burning emissions. New particle formation and subsequent growth was rarely observed during the 749 days of observations, similar to previous observations in the Amazon Basin. A stationary 1-D column model (ADCHEM Aerosol Dynamics, gas and particle phase CHEMistry and radiative transfer model) was used to assess the importance of the processes behind the observed diurnal particle size distribution trends. Three major particle source types are required in the model to reproduce the observations: (i) a surface source of particles in the evening, possibly related to primary biological emissions; (ii) entrainment of accumulation mode aerosols in the morning; and (iii) convective downdrafts transporting Aitken mode particles into the boundary layer mostly during the afternoon. The latter process has the largest influence on the modeled particle number size distributions. However, convective downdrafts are often associated with rain and, thus, act as both a source of Aitken mode particles and a sink of accumulation mode particles, causing a net reduction in the median total particle number concentrations in the surface layer. Our study shows that the combination of the three mentioned particle sources is essential to sustain particle number concentrations in Amazonia.
  • Karjalainen, Olli; Luoto, Miska; Aalto, Juha; Hjort, Jan (2019)
    The thermal state of permafrost affects Earth surface systems and human activity in the Arctic and has implications for global climate. Improved understanding of the local-scale variability in the global ground thermal regime is required to account for its sensitivity to changing climatic and geoecological conditions. Here, we statistically related observations of mean annual ground temperature (MAGT) and active-layer thickness (ALT) to high-resolution (similar to 1 km(2)) geospatial data of climatic and local environmental conditions across the Northern Hemisphere. The aim was to characterize the relative importance of key environmental factors and the magnitude and shape of their effects on MAGT and ALT. The multivariate models fitted well to both response variables with average R-2 values being similar to 0.94 and 0.78. Corresponding predictive performances in terms of root-mean-square error were similar to 1.31 degrees C and 87 cm. Freezing (FDD) and thawing (TDD) degree days were key factors for MAGT inside and outside the permafrost domain with average effect sizes of 6.7 and 13.6 degrees C, respectively. Soil properties had marginal effects on MAGT (effect size = 0.4-0.7 degrees C). For ALT, rainfall (effect size = 181 cm) and solar radiation (161 cm) were most influential. Analysis of variable importance further underlined the dominance of climate for MAGT and highlighted the role of solar radiation for ALT. Most response shapes for MAGT
  • McCrackin, Michelle L.; Gustafsson, Bo G.; Hong, Bongghi; Howarth, Robert W.; Humborg, Christoph; Savchuk, Oleg P.; Svanback, Annika; Swaney, Dennis P. (2018)
    While progress has been made in reducing external nutrient inputs to the Baltic Sea, further actions are needed to meet the goals of the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP), especially for the Baltic Proper, Gulf of Finland, and Gulf of Riga sub-basins. We used the net anthropogenic nitrogen and phosphorus inputs (NANI and NAPI, respectively) nutrient accounting approach to construct three scenarios of reduced NANI-NAPI. Reductions assumed that manure nutrients were redistributed from areas with intense animal production to areas that focus on crop production and would otherwise import synthetic and mineral fertilizers. We also used the Simple as Necessary Baltic Long Term Large Scale (SANBALTS) model to compare eutrophication conditions for the scenarios to current and BSAP-target conditions. The scenarios suggest that reducing NANI-NAPI by redistributing manure nutrients, together with improving agronomic practices, could meet 54-82% of the N reductions targets (28-43 kt N reduction) and 38-64% P reduction targets (4-6.6 kt P reduction), depending on scenario. SANBALTS output showed that even partial fulfillment of nutrient reduction targets could have ameliorating effects on eutrophication conditions. Meeting BSAP targets will require addressing additional sources, such as sewage. A common approach to apportioning sources to external nutrients loads could enable further assessment of the feasibility of eutrophication management targets.
  • Jakobsson, Martin; O'Regan, Matt; Morth, Carl-Magnus; Stranne, Christian; Weidner, Elizabeth; Hansson, Jim; Gyllencreutz, Richard; Humborg, Christoph; Elfwing, Tina; Norkko, Alf; Norkko, Joanna; Nilsson, Bjorn; Sjöström, Arne (2020)
    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) influences ocean chemistry, circulation, and the spreading of nutrients and pollutants; it also shapes sea floor morphology. In the Baltic Sea, SGD was linked to the development of terraces and semicircular depressions mapped in an area of the southern Stockholm archipelago, Sweden, in the 1990s. We mapped additional parts of the Stockholm archipelago, areas in Blekinge, southern Sweden, and southern Finland using high-resolution multibeam sonars and sub-bottom profilers to investigate if the sea floor morphological features discovered in the 1990s are widespread and to further address the hypothesis linking their formation to SGD. Sediment coring and sea floor photography conducted with a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) and divers add additional information to the geophysical mapping results. We find that terraces, with general bathymetric expressions of about 1 m and lateral extents of sometimes > 100 m, are widespread in the surveyed areas of the Baltic Sea and are consistently formed in glacial clay. Semicircular depressions, however, are only found in a limited part of a surveyed area east of the island of Asko, southern Stockholm archipelago. While submarine terraces can be produced by several processes, we interpret our results to be in support of the basic hypothesis of terrace formation initially proposed in the 1990s; i.e. groundwater flows through siltier, more permeable layers in glacial clay to discharge at the sea floor, leading to the formation of a sharp terrace when the clay layers above seepage zones are undermined enough to collapse. By linking the terraces to a specific geologic setting, our study further refines the formation hypothesis and thereby forms the foundation for a future assessment of SGD in the Baltic Sea that may use marine geological mapping as a starting point. We propose that SGD through the submarine sea floor terraces is plausible and could be intermittent and linked to periods of higher groundwater levels, implying that to quantify the contribution of freshwater to the Baltic Sea through this potential mechanism, more complex hydrogeological studies are required.
  • Sun, Linghui; Baker, Jessica; Gloor, Emanuel; Spracklen, Dominick; Boesch, Hartmut; Somkuti, Peter; Maeda, Eduardo Eiji; Buermann, Wolfgang (2019)
    We analyzed seasonal and spatial variations of evapotranspiration (ET) for five Amazon sub-basins and their response to the 2015/16 El Nino episode using a recently developed water-budget approach. ET varied typically between similar to 7 and 10 cm/month with exception of the Xingu basin for which it varied between 10 and 15 cm/month. Outstanding features of ET seasonality are (i) generally weak seasonality, (ii) two ET peaks for the two very wet catchments Solimoes and Negro, with one occurring during the wet season and one during the drier season, and (iii) a steady increase of ET during the second half of the dry season for the three drier catchments (Madeira, Tapajos, Xingu). Peak ET occurs during the first half of the wet season consistent with leaf flush occurring before the onset of the wet season. With regards to inter-annual variation, we found firstly that for the Solimoes and Madeira catchments the period with large positive wet season anomalies (2012-2015) is associated with negative ET anomalies, and negative SIF (solar induced fluorescence) anomalies. Furthermore, we found negative ET of several cm/months and SIF (up to 50%) anomalies for most of the Amazon basin during the 2015/16 El Nino event suggesting down-regulation of productivity as a main factor of positive carbon flux anomalies during anomalously hot and dry conditions. These results are of interest in view of predicted warmer and more erratic future climate conditions.
  • Cremonese, G.; Capaccioni, F.; Capria, M. T.; Doressoundiram, A.; Palumbo, P.; Vincendon, M.; Massironi, M.; Debei, S.; Zusi, M.; Altieri, F.; Amoroso, M.; Aroldi, G.; Baroni, M.; Barucci, A.; Bellucci, G.; Benkhoff, J.; Besse, S.; Bettanini, C.; Blecka, M.; Borrelli, D.; Brucato, J. R.; Carli, C.; Carlier, Elodie; Cerroni, P.; Cicchetti, A.; Colangeli, L.; Dami, M.; Da Deppo, V.; Della Corte; De Sanctis, M. C.; Erard, S.; Esposito, F.; Fantinel, D.; Ferranti, L.; Ferri, F.; Veltroni, I. Ficai; Filacchione, G.; Flamini, E.; Forlani, G.; Fornasier, S.; Forni, O.; Fulchignoni, M.; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Gwinner, K.; Ip, W.; Jorda, L.; Langevin, Y.; Lara, L.; Leblanc, F.; Leyrat, C.; Li, Y.; Marchi, S.; Marinangeli, L.; Marzari, F.; Epifani, E. Mazzotta; Mendillom, M.; Mennella, A.; Mugnuolo, R.; Muinonen, K.; Naletto, G.; Noschese, R.; Palomba, E.; Paolinetti, R.; Perna, D.; Piccioni, G.; Politi, R.; Poulet, F.; Ragazzoni, R.; Re, C.; Rossi, M.; Rotundi, A.; Salemi, G.; Sgavetti, M.; Simioni, E.; Thomas, N.; Tommasi, L.; Turella, A.; Van Hoolst, T.; Wilson, L.; Zambon, F.; Aboudan, A.; Barraud, O.; Bott, N.; Borin, P.; Colombatti, G.; El Yazidi, M.; Ferrari, S.; Flahaut, J.; Giacomini, L.; Guzzetta, L.; Lucchetti, A.; Martellato, E.; Pajola, M.; Slemer, A.; Tognon, G.; Turrini, D. (2020)
    The SIMBIO-SYS (Spectrometer and Imaging for MPO BepiColombo Integrated Observatory SYStem) is a complex instrument suite part of the scientific payload of the Mercury Planetary Orbiter for the BepiColombo mission, the last of the cornerstone missions of the European Space Agency (ESA) Horizon + science program. The SIMBIO-SYS instrument will provide all the science imaging capability of the BepiColombo MPO spacecraft. It consists of three channels: the STereo imaging Channel (STC), with a broad spectral band in the 400-950 nm range and medium spatial resolution (at best 58 m/px), that will provide Digital Terrain Model of the entire surface of the planet with an accuracy better than 80 m; the High Resolution Imaging Channel (HRIC), with broad spectral bands in the 400-900 nm range and high spatial resolution (at best 6 m/px), that will provide high-resolution images of about 20% of the surface, and the Visible and near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging channel (VIHI), with high spectral resolution (6 nm at finest) in the 400-2000 nm range and spatial resolution reaching 120 m/px, it will provide global coverage at 480 m/px with the spectral information, assuming the first orbit around Mercury with periherm at 480 km from the surface. SIMBIO-SYS will provide high-resolution images, the Digital Terrain Model of the entire surface, and the surface composition using a wide spectral range, as for instance detecting sulphides or material derived by sulphur and carbon oxidation, at resolutions and coverage higher than the MESSENGER mission with a full co-alignment of the three channels. All the data that will be acquired will allow to cover a wide range of scientific objectives, from the surface processes and cartography up to the internal structure, contributing to the libration experiment, and the surface-exosphere interaction. The global 3D and spectral mapping will allow to study the morphology and the composition of any surface feature. In this work, we describe the on-ground calibrations and the results obtained, providing an important overview of the instrument performances. The calibrations have been performed at channel and at system levels, utilizing specific setup in most of the cases realized for SIMBIO-SYS. In the case of the stereo camera (STC), it has been necessary to have a validation of the new stereo concept adopted, based on the push-frame. This work describes also the results of the Near-Earth Commissioning Phase performed few weeks after the Launch (20 October 2018). According to the calibration results and the first commissioning the three channels are working very well.
  • Martin, S. T.; Artaxo, P.; Machado, L.; Manzi, A. O.; Souza, R. A. F.; Schumacher, C.; Wang, J.; Biscaro, T.; Brito, J.; Calheiros, A.; Jardine, K.; Medeiros, A.; Portela, B.; de Sa, S. S.; Adachi, K.; Aiken, A. C.; Albrecht, R.; Alexander, L.; Andreae, M. O.; Barbosa, H. M. J.; Buseck, P.; Chand, D.; Comstock, J. M.; Day, D. A.; Dubey, M.; Fan, J.; Fast, J.; Fisch, G.; Fortner, E.; Giangrande, S.; Gilles, M.; Goldststein, A. H.; Guenther, A.; Hubbe, J.; Jensen, M.; Jimenez, J. L.; Keutsch, F. N.; Kim, S.; Kuang, C.; Laskin, A.; McKinney, K.; Mei, F.; Miller, M.; Nascimento, R.; Pauliquevis, T.; Pekour, M.; Peres, J.; Petäjä, T.; Poehlker, C.; Poeschl, U.; Rizzo, L.; Schmid, B.; Shilling, J. E.; Silva Dias, M. A.; Smith, J. N.; Tomlinson, J. M.; Tota, J.; Wendisch, M. (2017)
    The susceptibility of air quality, weather, terrestrial ecosystems, and climate to human activities was investigated in a tropical environment.