Browsing by Subject "BCR-ABL"

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  • Lindholm, Dan; Pham, Dan D.; Cascone, Annunziata; Eriksson, Ove; Wennerberg, Krister; Saarma, Mart (2016)
    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder causing movement disabilities and several non-motor symptoms in afflicted patients. Recent studies in animal models of PD and analyses of brain specimen from PD patients revealed an increase in the level and activity of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Abelson (c-Abl) in dopaminergic neurons with phosphorylation of protein substrates, such as alpha-synuclein and the E3 ubiquitin ligase, Parkin. Most significantly inhibition of c-Abl kinase activity by small molecular compounds used in the clinic to treat human leukemia have shown promising neuroprotective effects in cell and animal models of PD. This has raised hope that similar beneficial outcome may also be observed in the treatment of PD patients by using c-Abl inhibitors. Here we highlight the background for the current optimism, reviewing c-Abl and its relationship to pathophysiological pathways prevailing in PD, as well as discussing issues related to the pharmacology and safety of current c-Abl inhibitors. Clearly more rigorously controlled and well-designed trials are needed before the c-Abl inhibitors can be used in the neuroclinic to possibly benefit an increasing number of PD patients.
  • Landberg, Niklas; von Palffy, Sofia; Askmyr, Maria; Lilljebjorn, Henrik; Sanden, Carl; Rissler, Marianne; Mustjoki, Satu; Hjorth-Hansen, Henrik; Richter, Johan; Agerstam, Helena; Jaras, Marcus; Fioretos, Thoas (2018)
    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are highly effective for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), but very few patients are cured. The major drawbacks regarding TKIs are their low efficacy in eradicating the leukemic stem cells responsible for disease maintenance and relapse upon drug cessation. Herein, we performed ribonucleic acid sequencing of flow-sorted primitive (CD34(+) CD38(low)) and progenitor (CD34(+) CD38(+)) chronic phase CML cells, and identified transcriptional upregulation of 32 cell surface molecules relative to corresponding normal bone marrow cells. Focusing on novel markers with increased expression on primitive CML cells, we confirmed upregulation of the scavenger receptor CD36 and the leptin receptor by flow cytometry. We also delineate a subpopulation of primitive CML cells expressing CD36 that is less sensitive to imatinib treatment. Using CD36 targeting anti-bodies, we show that the CD36 positive cells can be targeted and killed by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. In summary, CD36 defines a subpopulation of primitive CML cells with decreased imatinib sensitivity that can be effectively targeted and killed using an anti-CD36 anti-body.
  • Kreutzman, Anna; Rohon, Peter; Faber, Edgar; Indrak, Karel; Juvonen, Vesa; Kairisto, Veli; Voglova, Jaroslava; Sinisalo, Marjatta; Flochova, Emilia; Vakkila, Jukka; Arstila, Petteri; Porkka, Kimmo; Mustjoki, Satu (2011)
  • Kreutzman, Anna; Yadav, Bhagwan; Brummendorf, Tim H.; Gjertsen, Bjorn Tore; Lee, Moon Hee; Janssen, Jeroen; Kasanen, Tiina; Koskenvesa, Perttu; Lotfi, Kourosh; Markevärn, Berit; Olsson-Stromberg, Ulla; Stentoft, Jesper; Stenke, Leif; Söderlund, Stina; Udby, Lene; Richter, Johan; Hjörth-Hansen, Henrik; Mustjoki, Satu (2019)
    Changes in the immune system induced by tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) have been shown to positively correlate with therapy responses in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, only a few longitudinal studies exist and no randomized comparisons between two TKIs have been reported. Therefore, we prospectively analyzed the immune system of newly diagnosed CML patients treated with imatinib (n = 20) or bosutinib (n = 13), that participated in the randomized BFORE trial (NCT02130557). Comprehensive immunophenotyping, plasma protein profiling, and functional assays to determine activation levels of T and NK cells were performed at diagnosis, 3, and 12 months after therapy start. All results were correlated with clinical parameters such as Sokal risk and BCR-ABL load measured according to IS%. At diagnosis, low Sokal risk CML patients had a higher frequency of cytotoxic cells (CD8 + T and NK cells), increased cytotoxic potential of NK cells and lower frequency of naive and central memory CD4 + T cells. Further, soluble plasma protein profile divided patients into two distinct clusters with different disease burden at diagnosis. During treatment, BCR-ABL IS% correlated with immunological parameters such as plasma proteins, together with different memory subsets of CD4+ and CD8 + T cells. Interestingly, the proportion and cytotoxic potential of NK cells together with several soluble proteins increased during imatinib treatment. In contrast, no major immunological changes were observed during bosutinib treatment. In conclusion, imatinib and bosutinib were shown to have differential effects on the immune system in this randomized clinical trial. Increased number and function of NK cells were especially observed during imatinib therapy.
  • Ilander, Mette (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is one of the most studied human malignancies. It is caused by an autonomously active tyrosine kinase BCR-ABL, which is a result from a translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22 in the hematopoietic stem cell. As an outcome, a Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome is formed. BCR-ABL causes disturbed cell proliferation among other things. Although targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy has been developed in the beginning of the millenium and the survival rate has increased significantly, it is still not known why some patients benefit more from the treatment than others. Furthermore, the therapy is not considered to be curative. Before the era of tyrosine kinase inhibitors, the first-line treatment for CML was interferon-? (IFN-?). However, only a small proportion of patients benefitted from the treatment. Of these patients, a few were able to discontinue the treatment without renewal of the disease. The mechanism of IFN-? is not completely understood, but it is believed that differences in the immune system can be one of the reasons why some patients have better therapy response. Kreutzman, Rohon et al. have recently discovered that patients who have been able to stop IFN-? treatment have an increased number of NK- and T-cells. They also have a unique clonal T-cell population and more cytotoxic CD8+ T-cells and less CD4+ T-cells. The aim of this master’s thesis was to study the function of T- and NK-cells in IFN-? treated patients. Although it was shown earlier that IFN-? treated patients have increased NK-cell count, the function of these cells was unknown. Therefore, we have now investigated the killing potential of patients’ NK-cells, their activation status and cell surface antigen expression. In addition, we have also studied the activation status of patients’ T-cells and their cytotoxic properties. We observed that NK-cells from patients treated with IFN-? are unable to kill leukemic cells (K562) than NK-cells from healthy controls. In addition, patients on IFN-? treatment have more active T-cells and their NK-cells have an undifferentiated immunoregulatory phenotype. Patients that have been able to stop the treatment have anergic T-and NK-cells. As a conclusion our results suggest that IFN-? therapy induces increased NK-cell count, NK-cell immunoregulatory functions and more active T-cells. After stopping IFN-? therapy, NK- and T-cells from CML patients restore anergy typical for CML.
  • Gullaksen, Stein-Erik; Skavland, Jorn; Gavasso, Sonia; Tosevski, Vinko; Warzocha, Krzysztof; Dumrese, Claudia; Ferrant, Augustin; Gedde-Dahl, Tobias; Hellmann, Andrzej; Janssen, Jeroen; Labar, Boris; Lang, Alois; Majeed, Waleed; Mihaylov, Georgi; Stentoft, Jesper; Stenke, Leif; Thaler, Josef; Thielen, Noortje; Verhoef, Gregor; Voglova, Jaroslava; Ossenkoppele, Gert; Hochhaus, Andreas; Hjorth-Hansen, Henrik; Mustjoki, Satu; Sopper, Sieghart; Giles, Francis; Porkka, Kimmo; Wolf, Dominik; Gjertsen, Bjorn Tore (2017)
    Monitoring of single cell signal transduction in leukemic cellular subsets has been proposed to provide deeper understanding of disease biology and prognosis, but has so far not been tested in a clinical trial of targeted therapy. We developed a complete mass cytometry analysis pipeline for characterization of intracellular signal transduction patterns in the major leukocyte subsets of chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia. Changes in phosphorylated Bcr-Abl1 and the signaling pathways involved were readily identifiable in peripheral blood single cells already within three hours of the patient receiving oral nilotinib. The signal transduction profiles of healthy donors were clearly distinct from those of the patients at diagnosis. Furthermore, using principal component analysis, we could show that phosphorylated transcription factors STAT3 (Y705) and CREB (S133) within seven days reflected BCR-ABL1(IS) at three and six months. Analyses of peripheral blood cells longitudinally collected from patients in the ENEST1st clinical trial showed that single cell mass cytometry appears to be highly suitable for future investigations addressing tyrosine kinase inhibitor dosing and effect. (clinicaltrials. gov identifier: 01061177)
  • Bouillon, Anne-Sophie; Ferreira, Monica S. Ventura; Awad, Shady Adnan; Richter, Johan; Hochhaus, Andreas; Kunzmann, Volker; Dengler, Jolanta; Janssen, Jeroen; Ossenkoppele, Gert; Westerweel, Peter E.; Boekhorst, Peter A. W. te; Mahon, Francois-Xavier; Hjorth-Hansen, Henrik; Isfort, Susanne; Fioretos, Thoas; Hummel, Sebastian; Schemionek, Mirle; Wilop, Stefan; Koschmieder, Steffen; Saussele, Susanne; Mustjoki, Satu; Beier, Fabian; Brümmendorf, Tim H. (2018)
    Telomere length (TL) in peripheral blood (PB) cellsofpatientswith chronic myeloid leukemia(CML) has been shown to correlate with disease stage, prognostic scores, response to therapy, and disease progression. However, due to considerable genetic interindividual variability, TL varies substantially between individuals, limiting its use as a robust prognostic marker in individual patients. Here, we compared TL of BCR-ABL(-), nonleukemic CD34(+)CD38(-) hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in the bone marrow of CML patients at diagnosis to their individual BCR-ABL(+) leukemic stem cell (LSC) counterparts. We observed significantly accelerated telomere shortening in LSC compared with nonleukemic HSC. Interestingly, the degree of LSC telomere shortening was found to correlate significantly with the leukemic clone size. To validate the diagnostic value of nonleukemic cells as internal controls and to rule out effects of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment on these nontarget cells, we prospectively assessed TL in 134 PB samples collected in deep molecular remission after TKI treatment within the EURO-SKI study (NCT01596114). Here, no significant telomere shortening was observed in granulocytes compared with an age-adjusted control cohort. In conclusion, this study provides proof of principle for accelerated telomere shortening in LSC as opposed to HSC in CML patients at diagnosis. The fact that the degree of telomere shortening correlates with leukemic clone's size supports the use of TL in leukemic cells as a prognostic parameter pending prospective validation. TL in nonleukemic myeloid cells seems unaffected even by long-term TKI treatment arguing against a reduction of telomere-mediated replicative reserve in normal hematopoiesis under TKI treatment.
  • Schubert, Claudia; Chatain, Nicolas; Braunschweig, Till; Schemionek, Mirle; Feldberg, Kristina; Hoffmann, Melanie; Dufva, Olli; Mustjoki, Satu; Bruemmendorf, Tim H.; Koschmieder, Steffen (2017)
    The second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) dasatinib is a clinically approved drug for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) as well as Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In addition to its antileukemic effects, dasatinib was shown to impact on normal hematopoiesis and cells of the immune system. Due to the fact that the murine in vivo studies so far have not been performed in a chronic-phase CML model under steady-state conditions, our aim was to study the hematopoietic effects of dasatinib (20 mg/kg p.o.) in BCR-ABL expressing SCLtTAxBCR-ABL double transgenic (dtg) mice. Dasatinib robustly antagonized the CML phenotype in vivo in our transgenic mouse model, and this effect included both mature and immature cell populations. However, similar to patients with CML, the fraction of Lin(neg)Sca-1(+)KIT(+)CD48(neg)CD150(+) hematopoietic stem cells was not reduced by dasatinib treatment, suggesting that these cells are not oncogene-addicted. Moreover, we observed differential effects of dasatinib in these animals as compared to wild-type (wt) animals: while granulocytes were significantly reduced in dtg animals, they were increased in wt mice. And Ter119(+) erythrocytic and B220(+) B cells were increased in dtg mice but decreased in wt mice. Finally, while dasatinib induced a shift from CD49b/NK1.1 positive NK cells from the bone marrow to the spleen in wt animals, there was no change in dtg mice. In conclusion, the present mouse model provides a useful tool to study mechanisms of TKI resistance and dasatinib-associated beneficial effects and adverse events.