Browsing by Subject "BEHAVIORS"

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  • Mustelin, Linda; Kaprio, Jaakko; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna (2018)
    Objective: Binge eating disorder (BED) is a clinical eating disorder that is strongly and bidirectionally related to overweight and obesity. Little is known about how subclinical features of BED relate to weight development in adolescence and young adulthood. Method: Women (n=2825) and men (n=2423) from the community-based longitudinal FinnTwin16 cohort participated. Seven eating-related cognitions and behaviors similar to the defining features of BED were extracted from the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 and were assessed at a mean age of 24. We used linear mixed models to assess the association of features of BED with BMI trajectories across four waves of data collection (mean ages 16, 17, 18, and 24). Results: The number of features of BED at wave 4 (age 24) was significantly associated with BMI from age 16 years onwards. Those reporting more features of BED had gained more weight throughout adolescence and into their twenties. Conclusions: Features of BED in young adulthood were preceded by steeper BMI trajectories in adolescence. A higher number of features were consistently associated with higher BMI and more weight gain.
  • Makinen, Mauno; Puukko-Viertomies, Leena-Riitta; Lindberg, Nina; Siimes, Martti A.; Aalberg, Veikko (2012)
  • Lallukka, Tea; Halonen, Jaana I.; Sivertsen, Borge; Pentti, Jaana; Stenholm, Sari; Virtanen, Marianna; Salo, Paula; Oksanen, Tuula; Elovainio, Marko; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimaki, Mika (2017)
    Background: Despite injustice at the workplace being a potential source of sleep problems, longitudinal evidence remains scarce. We examined whether changes in perceived organizational justice predicted changes in insomnia symptoms. Methods: Data on 24 287 Finnish public sector employees (82% women), from three consecutive survey waves between 2000 and 2012, were treated as 'pseudo-trials'. Thus, the analysis of unfavourable changes in organizational justice included participants without insomnia symptoms in Waves 1 and 2, with high organizational justice in Wave 1 and high or low justice in Wave 2 (N = 6307). In the analyses of favourable changes in justice, participants had insomnia symptoms in Waves 1 and 2, low justice in Wave 1 and high or low justice in Wave 2 (N = 2903). In both analyses, the outcome was insomnia symptoms in Wave 3. We used generalized estimating equation models to analyse the data. Results: After adjusting for social and health-related covariates in Wave 1, unfavourable changes in relational organizational justice (i.e. fairness of managerial behaviours) were associated with increased odds of developing insomnia symptoms [odds ratio = 1.15; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.30]. A favourable change in relational organizational justice was associated with lower odds of persistent insomnia symptoms (odds ratio = 0.83; 95% CI 0.71-0.96). Changes in procedural justice (i.e. the fairness of decision-making procedures) were not associated with insomnia symptoms. Conclusions: These data suggest that changes in perceived relational justice may affect employees' sleep quality. Decreases in the fairness of managerial behaviours were linked to increases in insomnia symptoms, whereas rises in fairness were associated with reduced insomnia symptoms.
  • Ervasti, Jenni; Kivimaki, Mika; Pentti, Jaana; Halonen, Jaana I.; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna (2018)
    Background We investigated whether changes in alcohol use predict changes in the risk of sickness absence in a case-crossover design. Methods Finnish public sector employees were surveyed in 2000, 2004 and 2008 on alcohol use and covariates. Heavy drinking was defined as either a weekly intake that exceeded recommendations (12 units for women; 23 for men) or having an extreme drinking session. The responses were linked to national sickness absence registers. We analysed the within-person relative risk of change in the risk of sickness absence in relation to change in drinking. Case period refers to being sickness absent within 1 year of the survey and control period refers to not being sickness absent within 1 year of the survey. Results Periods of heavy drinking were associated with increased odds of self-certified short-term (1-3 days) sickness absence (multivariable-adjusted OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.38 for all participants; 1.62, 95% CI 1.19 to 2.21 for men and 1.15, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.33 for women). A higher risk of short-term sickness absence was also observed after increase in drinking (OR=1.27, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.52) and a lower risk was observed after decrease in drinking (OR=0.83, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.00). Both increase (OR=1.38, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.57) and decrease (OR=1.27, 95% CI 1.19 to 1.43) in drinking were associated with increased risk of long-term (> 9 days) medically certified all-cause sickness absence. Conclusion Increase in drinking was related to increases in short-term and long-term sickness absences. Men and employees with a low socioeconomic position in particular seemed to be at risk.
  • Pulakka, Anna; Halonen, Jaana I.; Pentti, Jaana; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Stenholm, Sari (2019)
    Aims: We examined the effect of retirement transition on changes in smoking, identified trajectories of smoking around the retirement transition, and investigated factors predicting the membership in the trajectories. Methods: This longitudinal cohort study included 1,432 current or former smokers who entered into statutory retirement in 2000-2011 and who filled out two to four questionnaires sent at four-year intervals. Effect of retirement on smoking was analysed as a non-randomized pseudo-trial in which we compared the likelihood of quitting and relapsing smoking between two subsequent survey waves among those who retired and did not retire. We used latent class analysis to identify trajectories of smoking status and smoking intensity (low: 10 cigarettes/day), and multinomial logistic regression models to assess pre-retirement factors associated with smoking trajectories. Results: Retirement transition was associated with 1.7-fold odds of quitting smoking (95% confidence intervals 1.3-2.2) compared with no retirement transition. We identified three smoking status trajectories: 'sustained non-smoking' (61% of the participants), 'sustained smoking' (23%) and 'decreasing smoking' (16%). For 489 baseline smokers, we identified three smoking intensity trajectories: 'sustained high intensity smoking' (32% of the participants), 'sustained low intensity smoking' (32%) and 'decreasing high intensity smoking' (35%). Living outside an inner urban area predicted membership in the 'decreasing smoking' versus 'sustained smoking' trajectory. Conclusions: Smokers are more likely to quit smoking during transition to retirement than before or after it. Characteristics of the smoking environment may affect smoking behaviour around retirement.
  • Figueiredo, Rejane Augusta de Oliveira; Simola-Ström, Sabina; Rounge, Trine B.; Viljakainen, Heli; Eriksson, Johan G.; Roos, Eva; Weiderpass, Elisabete (2019)
  • Peltonen, Riina; Ho, Jessica Y.; Elo, Irma T.; Martikainen, Pekka (2017)
    BACKGROUND Smoking is known to vary by marital status, but little is known about its contribution to marital status differences in longevity. We examined the changing contribution of smoking to mortality differences between married and never married, divorced or widowed Finnish men and women aged 50 years and above in 1971-2010. DATA AND METHODS The data sets cover all persons permanently living in Finland in the census years 1970, 1975 through 2000 and 2005 with a five-year mortality follow-up. Smoking-attributable mortality was estimated using an indirect method that uses lung cancer mortality as an indicator for the impact of smoking on mortality from all other causes. RESULTS Life expectancy differences between the married and the other marital status groups increased rapidly over the 40-year study period because of the particularly rapid decline in mortality among married individuals. In 1971-1975 37-48% of life expectancy differences between married and divorced or widowed men were attributable to smoking, and this contribution declined to 11-18% by 2006-2010. Among women, in 1971-1975 up to 16% of life expectancy differences by marital status were due to smoking, and the contribution of smoking increased over time to 10-29% in 2006-2010. CONCLUSIONS In recent decades smoking has left large but decreasing imprints on marital status differences in longevity between married and previously married men, and small but increasing imprints on these differences among women. Over time the contribution of other factors, such as increasing material disadvantage or alcohol use, may have increased.
  • Halonen, Jaana; Pulakka, Anna; Pentti, Jaana; Kallio, Minna; Koskela, Sofia; Kivimäki, Mika; Kawachi, Ichiro; Vahtera, Jussi; Stenholm, Sari (2020)
    Objective Neighbourhood characteristics may affect the level of physical activity (PA) of the residents. Few studies have examined the combined effects of distinctive neighbourhood characteristics on PA using objective data or differentiated between activity during working or non-working days. We examined the associations of socioeconomic disadvantage and greenness with accelerometer-measured leisure-time PA during working and non-working days. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Finnish Retirement and Aging (FIREA) study. Participants 708 workers (604 women, mean age 62.4 ranging from 58 to 64 years,) participating in the FIREA study who provided PA measurement data for at least 1 working and non-working day. Primary and secondary outcomes PA was measured with wrist-worn accelerometer on average of 4 working and 2 non-working days. Outcomes were total PA, light PA (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). These measurements were linked to data on neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage and greenness within the home neighbourhood (750x750 m). Generalised linear models were adjusted for possible confounders. Results On non-working days, higher neighbourhood disadvantage associated with lower levels of total PA (p value=0.07) and higher level of neighbourhood greenness associated with higher level of total PA (p value=0.04). Neighbourhood disadvantage and greenness had an interaction (p value=0.02); in areas of low disadvantage higher greenness did not associate with the level of total PA. However, in areas of high disadvantage, 2 SD higher greenness associated with 46 min/day (95% CI 8.4 to 85) higher total PA. Slightly stronger interaction was observed for LPA (p=0.03) than for the MVPA (p=0.09). During working days, there were no associations between neighbourhood characteristics and leisure-time total PA. Conclusions Of the disadvantaged neighbourhoods, those characterised by high levels of greenness seem to associate with higher levels of leisure-time PA during non-working days. These findings suggest that efforts to add greenness to socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods might reduce inequalities in PA.
  • Hadjigeorgiou, Charalambos; Solea, Antonia; Estecha Querol, Sara; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Michels, Nathalie; Russo, Paola; Thumann, Barbara Franziska; Pala, Valeria; Danner, Unna (2018)
    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate disordered eating behaviours (DEBs) in different age groups in a Cypriot non-clinical population sample. Study design: Comparative cross-sectional study. Method: A total of 1716 participants from the Cyprus component of the I.Family study completed the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26). The EAT-26 score >= 20 was used to define participants at risk for DEBs. Participants were divided according to age: adolescence (12-18 years old), young adulthood (25-45 years old) and middle adulthood (46-60 years old). Results: Mean EAT-26 total scores were higher for middle adulthood men and women compared with the two younger age groups. Young adulthood women had the highest percentage of behavioural symptoms of DEBs: binge eating (35%) and laxatives/diet pills/ diuretics (12%) compared with the other age groups. Men and women in young adulthood had the highest percentage of participants with EAT-26 scores >= 20. In logistic regression analysis, age group did not prove a significant predictor of DEB risk in a model adjusting for sex, body mass index and physical activity. Conclusion: DEB can present at any age and was not confined to adolescence. (C) 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Myllyntausta, Saana; Salo, Paula; Kronholm, Erkki; Pentti, Jaana; Oksanen, Tuula; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Stenholm, Sari (2019)
    Study Objectives: Relief from work stress has been hypothesized to explain improvements in sleep duration and quality following retirement, but this has not been confirmed with longitudinal studies. By using repeat sleep data, we examined the role of removal of work-related stressors in changes in sleep at retirement. Methods: The study population consisted of 2,053 participants from the Finnish Retirement and Aging study. Participants' sleep duration, sleep difficulties (difficulties falling asleep, difficulties maintaining sleep, waking up too early in the morning, nonrestorative sleep), daytime tiredness, and sleep loss due to worry were assessed using surveys conducted once a year before and after retirement (average number of repeat surveys 3.5 [range 2-5] per participant). We used Poisson regression with generalized estimating equations to examine the associations between work-related stressors (job strain, low work time control, effort-reward imbalance, and organizational injustice) and changes in sleep at retirement. Results: An increase in sleep duration and decrease in waking up too early in the morning, nonrestorative sleep, daytime tiredness, and sleep loss due to worry were observed shortly after retirement. No systematic associations across the work-related stressors and changes in sleep characteristics were observed. Higher number of work-related stressors before retirement was not associated with a greater magnitude of favorable changes in any of the postretirement sleep characteristics investigated. Conclusions: This longitudinal study suggests that perceived sleep improves shortly after retirement and that these changes are mainly driven by factors other than relief from work stress.
  • Ray, Carola; Figueiredo, Rejane; Pajulahti, Riikka; Vepsäläinen, Henna; Lehto, Elviira; Lehto, Reetta; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Roos, Eva (2020)
    Interventions promoting young children's healthy energy balance-related behaviours (EBRBs) should also examine changes in the family environment as this is an important determinant that may affect the effectiveness of the intervention. This study examines family environmental effects of the Increased Health and Wellbeing in Preschools (DAGIS) intervention study, and whether these effects differed when considering three parental educational level (PEL) groups. The DAGIS intervention was conducted in preschools and involving parents in Southern Finland from September 2017 to May 2018. It was designed as a randomised trial, clustered at preschool-level. Parents of 3-6-year-olds answered questionnaires recording PEL, parental role modelling for EBRBs, and the family environment measured as EBRBs availability and accessibility. Linear Mixed Models with Repeated Measures were used in order to detect intervention effects. Models included group by time interactions. When examining intervention effects separated by PEL groups, models with three-level interactions (group x time-points x PEL) were evaluated. There was an interaction effect for the availability of sugary everyday foods and drinks (p = 0.002). The analyses showed that the control group increased availability (p = 0.003), whereas in the intervention group no changes were detected (p = 0.150). In the analysis separated by PEL groups, changes were found only for the accessibility of sugary treats at home; the high PEL control group increased the accessibility of sugary treats (p = 0.022) (interaction effect: p = 0.027). Hence, results suggest that the DAGIS multicomponent intervention had a limited impact on determinants for children's healthy EBRBs, and no impact was found in the low PEL group.
  • Lallukka, Tea; Pietiläinen, Olli; Jäppinen, Sauli; Laaksonen, Mikko; Lahti, Jouni; Rahkonen, Ossi (2020)
    Background: Declining response rates are a common challenge to epidemiological research. Response rates further are particularly low among young people. We thus aimed to identify factors associated with health survey response among young employees using different data collection methods. Methods: We included fully register-based data to identify key socioeconomic, workplace and health-related factors associated with response to a health survey collected via online and mailed questionnaires. Additionally, telephone interviews were conducted for those who had not responded via online or to the mailed survey. The survey data collection was done in autumn 2017 among young employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland (18-39 years, target population n=11,459). Results: The overall response to the survey was 51.5% (n=5898). The overall findings suggest that differences in the distributions of socioeconomic, workplace and health-related factors between respondents in the online or mailed surveys, or telephone interviews, are relatively minor. Telephone interview respondents were of lower socioeconomic position, which helped improve representativeness of the entire cohort. Despite the general broad representativeness of the data, some socioeconomic and health-related factors contributed to response. Thus, non-respondents were more often men, manual workers, from the lowest income quartile, had part-time jobs, and had more long sickness absence spells. In turn, job contract (permanent or temporary) and employment sector did not affect survey response. Conclusions: Despite a general representativeness of data of the target population, socioeconomically more disadvantaged and those with long sickness absence, are slightly overrepresented among non-respondents. This suggests that when studying the associations between social factors and health, the associations can be weaker than if complete data were available representing all socioeconomic groups.
  • Silventoinen, Karri; Su, Jinni; Pulkkinen, Lea; Barr, Peter; Rose, Richard J.; Dick, Danielle M.; Kaprio, Jaakko (2019)
    We analyzed how the effects of genetic and environmental factors on the perceptions of family interaction change from early to late adolescence. The data were collected by postal surveys on Finnish twins (N=4808) at 12, 14 and 17years of age and analyzed using genetic twin modeling. Additive genetic factors explained a modest share of the variation in perceived relational support (a(2)=0.30 in boys and 0.18 in girls) and relational tensions (a(2)=0.13 and 0.14, respectively) at 12years of age, with the proportions becoming larger through 17years of age (a(2)=0.53 in boys and 0.49 in girls for relational support; a(2)=0.35 in boys and 0.33 in girls for relational tensions). Simultaneously, the role of environment shared by co-twins decreased. These findings suggest that the associations between perceived family interaction and other factors in adulthood should be interpreted with caution, because they partly reflect genetic background, whereas in childhood, they may provide more reliable information on parental characteristics.
  • Malm, Heli; Brown, Alan S.; Gissler, Mika; Gyllenberg, David; Hinkka-Yli-Salomaki, Susanna; McKeague, Ian W.; Weissman, Myrna; Wickramaratne, Priya; Artama, Miia; Gingrich, Jay A.; Sourander, Andre (2016)
    Objective: To investigate the impact of gestational exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on offspring neurodevelopment. Method: This is a cohort study using national register data in Finland between the years 1996 and 2010. Pregnant women and their offspring were categorized into 4 groups: SSRI exposed (n = 15,729); exposed to psychiatric disorder, no antidepressants (n = 9,651); exposed to SSRIs only before pregnancy (n = 7,980); and unexposed to antidepressants and psychiatric disorders (n = 31,394). We investigated the cumulative incidence of offspring diagnoses of depression, anxiety, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) for the 4 groups from birth to 14 years, adjusting for confounders. Results: The cumulative incidence of depression among offspring exposed prenatally to SSRIs was 8.2% (95% CI = 3.1-13.3%) by age 14.9 years, compared with 1.9% (95% CI = 0.9-2.9%) in the psychiatric disorder, no medication group (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 1.78; 95% CI = 1.12-2.82; p=.02) and to 2.8% (95% CI = 1.4-4.3%) in the SSRI discontinued group (HR = 1.84; 95% CI = 1.14-2.97; p=.01). Rates of anxiety, ASD, and ADHD diagnoses were comparable to rates in offspring of mothers with a psychiatric disorder but no medication during pregnancy. Comparing SSRI exposed to unexposed individuals, the HRs were significantly elevated for each outcome. Conclusion: Prenatal SSRI exposure was associated with increased rates of depression diagnoses in early adolescence but not with ASD or ADHD. Until confirmed, these findings must be balanced against the substantial adverse consequences of untreated maternal depression.
  • Danielsbacka, Mirkka; Tanskanen, Antti O.; Coall, David A.; Jokela, Markus (2019)
    Previous studies suggest grandparental childcare is associated with improved health and well-being of grandparents but limited information on the causal nature of this association exists. Here, we use the longitudinal Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) of people aged 50 and above across 11 countries including follow-up waves between 2004 and 2015 (n = 41,713 person-observations from 24,787 unique persons of whom 11,102 had two or more measurement times). Between-person and within-person (or fixed-effect) regressions were applied, where between-person models show associations across participants and within-person models focus on each participant's variation over time. Health and well-being were measured according to self rated health, difficulties with activities of daily living (ADLs), depressive symptoms, life satisfaction and meaning of life scores. Across all analyses, childcare assistance provided by older adults to their adult children, was associated with increased health and well-being of grandparents. However, these associations were almost completely due to between-person differences and did not hold in within-person analyses that compared the same participants over time. Fewer ADL limitations for grandparents who provided childcare assistance was the only association that remained in the within-individual analyses. These findings suggest that there might be only limited causal association between grandchild care and grandparental well-being and that it may be specific to physical rather than cognitive factors. The results are discussed with regard to evolutionary psychology assumptions of altruistic behavior and positive health outcomes for the helper.
  • Humo, Muris; Ayazgok, Beyza; Becker, Lea J.; Waltisperger, Elisabeth; Rantamäki, Tomi; Yalcin, Ipek (2020)
    Chronic pain produces psychologic distress, which often leads to mood disorders such as depression. Co-existing chronic pain and depression pose a serious socio-economic burden and result in disability affecting millions of individuals, which urges the development of treatment strategies targeting this comorbidity. Ketamine, a noncompetitive antagonist of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, is shown to be efficient in treating both pain and depression-related symptoms. However, the molecular characteristics of its role in chronic pain-induced depression remain largely unexplored. Hence, we studied the behavioral and molecular effects of a single systemic administration of ketamine (15 mg/kg, i.p.) on mechanical hypersensitivity and depressive-like consequences of chronic neuropathic pain. We showed that ketamine transiently alleviated mechanical hypersensitivity (lasting
  • DAGIS Consortium Grp (2018)
    Background: Studies investigating dietary resemblance between parents and their children have gained mixed results, and the resemblance seems to vary across nutrients, foods, dietary-assessment tools used, and parent-child pairs. We investigated parent-child dietary resemblance using a novel approach in applying statistical analysis, which allowed the comparison of 'whole-diet' between parents and their children. Additionally, we sought to establish whether sociodemographic factors or family meals were associated with dietary resemblance and whether parent-child dietary resemblance was dependent on the parent providing food consumption data on behalf of the child (father or mother, "the respondent"). Methods: The DAGIS study investigated health behaviors among Finnish preschoolers using a cross-sectional design. One parent filled in a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) measuring the child's food consumption outside preschool hours during the last week. In addition, we instructed both parents or legal guardians, should the child have two, to fill in a similar FFQ regarding their own food use. Parents also reported their educational level, the number of children living in the same household, and the number of family meals. As a measure of dietary resemblance between a parent and a child, we computed Spearman correlations ranging mostly from no resemblance (0) to complete resemblance (+1) between parent-child pairs over the 'whole-diet' (excluding preschool hours). These resemblance measures were further investigated using linear mixed models. Results: We obtained 665 father-child and 798 mother-child resemblance measures. Mother-child resemblance was on average 0.57 and stronger than father-child resemblance (0.50, p <0.0001), which was explained by a parent-respondent interaction: the diet of the child resembled more the diet of the parent who provided food consumption data for the child. In univariate models, father-and mother-reported number of family meals were positively associated with father-child and mother-child resemblances. Mother-reported number of family meals was positively associated with mother-child resemblance in a full model. Conclusions: The diet of the child seems to resemble more the diet of the parent responsible for the reporting of food consumption. Studies should report who provided the food consumption data for the child and take this into account in analyses, since reporter-bias can influence the results.
  • Minkkinen, Jaana L.; Kinnunen, Jaana M.; Karvonen, Sakari; Hotulainen, Risto H.; Lindfors, Pirjo L.; Rimpelä, Arja H. (2019)
    Low academic achievement has been associated with smoking but factors behind this association are poorly known. Such factors could include schoolwork disengagement and schoolwork difficulties. To assess the extent to which they contribute to the explanation of how health inequalities emerge, we study in a longitudinal design whether these have an independent effect on smoking or whether their effect is mediated through academic achievement. Longitudinal data were collected in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland in 2011 and 2014. Participants were seventh-graders (12 13 years, N=9497). In the follow-up, 6534 students reported their smoking status in the ninth grade (15 16 years). Smoking, schoolwork behavioural engagement, i.e. participation in academic activities, and disengagement, schoolwork difficulties and cognitive competence were self-reported by adolescents. Academic achievement was obtained from the Finnish national application register on upper secondary education. A mediation analysis was executed with bootstrapped confidence intervals. Higher schoolwork behavioural engagement and cognitive competence in the seventh grade predicted that adolescents were more likely not to smoke in the ninth grade (all P <0.001) while higher schoolwork disengagement and schoolwork difficulties predicted adolescents smoking (all P <0.001). The effects were mediated through academic achievement. Students behavioural disengagement with schoolwork and schoolwork difficulties are risks for smoking initiation. Their effect is mediated through poor school achievement. As smoking often continues in adulthood and poor school performance typically leads to lower education, schoolwork disengagement and difficulties in adolescence constitute potential pathways to inequalities in health.
  • Urtamo, Annele; Jyväkorpi, Satu K.; Kautiainen, Hannu; Pitkälä, Kaisu H.; Strandberg, Timo E. (2020)
    Background The studies on the association of various midlife risk factors with reaching 90 years or more are scarce. We studied this association in a socioeconomically homogenous cohort of businessmen. Methods The study consists of men (n = 970) from the Helsinki Businessmen Study cohort (born 1919-1928). Five major cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors (smoking, BMI, blood pressure, serum lipids, fasting glucose), consumption of alcohol and coffee, self-rated health and self-rated fitness, were assessed in 1974, at an average age of 50 years. The number of major risk factors was tested as a risk burden. The Charlson Comorbidity Index and the RAND-36 (SF-36) Physical and Mental health summary scores were calculated from surveys in year 2000, at age of 73 years. Mortality dates were retrieved through 31 March 2018 from the Population Information System of Finland. Results 244 men survived to the age of 90 representing 25.2% of the study cohort. The survivors had less risk factor burden in midlife, and less morbidity and higher physical health summary score in 2000. Of those with five major risk factors only 7% survived up to 90 years, whereas 51% of those without any risk factors reached that age. Single risk factors reducing odds of reaching 90 years were smoking (odds ratio [OR] 0.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.34-0.67), glucose (0.66, 0.49-0.88), BMI (0.63, 0.46-0.86), and cholesterol (0.71, 0.53-0.96). Conclusion Lack of five major CVD risk factors in midlife strongly increased odds of reaching 90 years of age and also predicted factors related to successful ageing in late life.
  • Siren, Maria; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Arokoski, Jari; Solovieva, Svetlana (2020)
    Objectives To determine the associations of lifestyle factors and cumulative physical workload exposures with sickness absence (SA) due to a shoulder lesion and to calculate their population attributable fractions (PAF). Methods Our nationally representative cohort consisted of 4344 individuals aged 30-62 years who participated in the Finnish Health 2000 Survey. Education, smoking, chronic diseases and work exposures were assessed during interviews and leisure time physical activity with a questionnaire. Weight and height were measured. We followed the individuals for 15 years for the first SA due to a shoulder lesion. We used competing risk regression models. We calculated PAFs to assess the proportion of SA that was attributed to modifiable risk factors. Results In the entire study population, risk factors of SA were age, daily smoking, being exposed for more than 10 years to physically heavy work and being exposed for more than 10 years to at least two specific physical workload factors. The overall PAF for the modifiable risk factors was 49%. In men, number of specific cumulative exposures, obesity and daily smoking predicted SA with PAF values of 34%, 30% and 14%, respectively. Among women, being exposed for more than 10 years to physically heavy work, number of specific cumulative exposures and daily smoking accounted for 23%, 22% and 15% of SA, respectively. Conclusions Reducing significantly prolonged exposure to physical workload factors, avoiding regular smoking in both genders and obesity in men has a high potential to prevent SA due to a shoulder lesion.