Browsing by Subject "BELIEFS"

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  • Poom-Valickis, Katrin; Löfström, Erika (2019)
    The aim of the study was to understand the development of professional identity of prospective teachers, their ideals and experiences during interactions with their surrounding learning environment, including university studies and pedagogical placement during their 5-year studies. We also aimed at understanding how students with different motivational pathways to teacher education may be supported to explore teaching as a possible career choice. The findings reported in this article emerged primarily from interviews with 13 student teachers at the end of their teacher education programme. Survey responses collected during earlier stages of the study were utilised to provide data about the student teachers' professional development prior to the point of the interviews. The findings of the study point to various concerns and dilemmas, which in turn suggest that student teachers take different identity development routes. The study identified four possible "identity routes" to becoming a teacher. The implications of different identity routes on teacher education are discussed.
  • Lavonen, Jari; Henning, Elizabeth; Petersen, Nadine; Loukomies, Anni; Myllyviita, Ari (2019)
    In a comparative study of student teachers in Finland and South Africa, the researchers aimed to capture students' views of how and what they had learned from practice in two university-affiliated primary schools. With data from survey questionnaires, we found that students in the two customized programmes accentuated different domains of teacher knowledge. The newly established teaching practice school in Johannesburg afforded closer integration of university and school practicum experiences for students than the well-established school in Helsinki. The authors conclude that an innovative teacher education model can be re-invented in a significantly different context and also add new dimensions to the original.
  • Svedholm-Häkkinen, Annika M.; Lindeman, Marjaana (2018)
    Actively open-minded thinking (AOT) is often used as a proxy for reflective thinking in research on reasoning and related fields. It is associated with less biased reasoning in many types of tasks. However, few studies have examined its psychometric properties and criterion validity. We developed a shortened, 17-item version of the AOT for quicker administration. AOT17 is highly correlated with the original 41-item scale and has highly similar relationships to other thinking dispositions, social competence and supernatural beliefs. Our analyses revealed that the AOT is not a unitary construct, but comprises four distinct dimensions, some of which concern attitudes towards knowledge, and others concern attitudes towards people. This factor structure was replicated in another data-set, and correlations with other measures in four data-sets (total N = 3345) support the criterion validity of these dimensions. Different dimensions were responsible for the AOT's relationships with other thinking dispositions.
  • Lazarides, Rebecca; Viljaranta, Jaana; Ranta, Mette; Salmela-Aro, Katariina (2017)
    This longitudinal study aims to test the concept of transition preparedness in the context of educational transitions. The study investigates how adolescents' transition preparedness, conceptualized as their self-efficacy beliefs and their inoculation against setbacks, before an educational transition affect the adolescents' school value and effort related to educational goals after the transition through the effects on achievement goal orientations. Student data from three waves of a longitudinal study are used, first collected in 2004 (before the students' transition from comprehensive school to upper secondary education) and then collected twice after the transition. The students included in the analyses are those who participated at all three measurement points (N = 588; 49.5% girls; age M-TI = 15.01, SD = 0.13). Longitudinal structural equation modeling revealed that adolescents' self-efficacy beliefs (Time 1) positively predicted school value and effort (Time 3) through their effect on mastery goal orientation (Time 2). Furthermore, self-efficacy moderated the relation between performance-approach goal orientation (Time 1) on school value (Time 2). Results are discussed in terms of their relevance for enhancing adolescents' adaptive motivational development across educational transitions. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Salmela, Jatta; Kouvonen, Anne; Mauramo, Elina; Rahkonen, Ossi; Roos, Eva; Lallukka, Tea (2022)
    Background Disadvantaged socioeconomic circumstances are associated with certain unhealthy food habits such as inadequate consumption of fruit and vegetables. This study examined whether multiple socioeconomic measures are consistently associated with a variety of food habits. Methods We examined associations of 2 childhood and 6 adult socioeconomic measures with 8 recommended food habits among 19-39-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland. The data were collected in 2017 via online and mailed surveys. Our sample consisted of 4621 employees (80% women). The analyses included adjusted binary logistic regression models. Results More advantaged socioeconomic circumstances were positively associated with the recommended consumption of vegetables, fruit or berries, dark bread, skimmed milk products, fish, and cooking oil, but not consistently with red or processed meat and fat spread. All socioeconomic measures were positively associated with having several (6-8) recommended food habits after gender and age adjustments. The strongest associations were found for participant's education, occupational class, and current financial difficulties. These associations remained after adjustments of childhood and adult socioeconomic measures, although especially participant's education attenuated the associations for occupational class. Conclusions The consistent associations between multiple childhood and adult socioeconomic measures and food habits found among employees highlight the need for improving food habits among people with disadvantaged socioeconomic circumstances in particular. Financial barriers together with social aspects of adhering to healthy diets should be considered in future dietary interventions and policy actions.
  • Vilhunen, Elisa; Turkkila, Miikka; Lavonen, Jari; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Juuti, Kalle (2022)
    Epistemic emotions (surprise, curiosity, enjoyment, confusion, anxiety, frustration and boredom) have an object focus on knowledge or knowledge construction and are thus hypothesized to affect learning outcomes. In the context of upper secondary school science, the present study clarifies this relation by examining the students' pre- and posttest performance (n = 148 students) and their experiences of situational epistemic emotions (n = 1801 experience sampling method observations). As expected, epistemic emotions correlated with both pre- and posttest performance: curiosity and enjoyment correlated positively, and frustration and boredom correlated negatively with the performance. However, based on structural equation modeling, after controlling for the pretest performance, only boredom was found to have a significant negative effect on posttest performance. The findings underline the complexity of the interplay between emotions and learning. Thus, the state versus trait nature of epistemic emotions, and the implications for research and practice are being discussed.
  • Myyry, Liisa; Kallunki, Veera; Katajavuori, Nina; Repo, Saara; Tuononen, Tarja; Anttila, Henrika; Kinnunen, Päivi Anneli; Haarala-Muhonen, Anne; Pyörälä, Eeva (2022)
    This study examines, using a cross-sectional approach, the digital competence of academic teachers at a time when teaching shifted to digital distance learning at the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. Teachers from different academic fields at a large multidisciplinary Finnish university (N = 265) responded to a questionnaire about the purposes for which they use digital tools in teaching, how they evaluated their competence at distance teaching during the lockdown of March-May 2020 and their beliefs about distance teaching. The respondents used digital tools in teaching mostly for delivering information. According to their evaluations, their competence in distance teaching increased during the early stages of COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, but their beliefs about distance teaching did not relate to the feelings of competence. Respondents with no experience in distance teaching before the lockdown evaluated their competence as having increased more than did respondents with previous experience. The implications of the findings for understanding competence development are then discussed.
  • Ketonen, Elina E.; Hotulainen, Risto (2019)
    The development of students' learning and test-taking behavior may derive from the social context and the group of peers they associate with daily for years. Consequently, it is assumed that students' academic achievements are to some degree affected by their classmates and the composition of the classroom. The present study provides evidence on how Finnish students (N = 5071) from different classrooms (N = 435) develop distinct patterns regarding their mathematics and literacy achievement during lower secondary school. We analysed longitudinal large-scale educational assessment data using a multilevel latent profile analysis (MLPA) to investigate the impact of classroom effect on students' achievement patterns, that is, on the development of students' low-stakes mathematics and literacy test scores from 7th to 9th grade. The results demonstrated the added value of modelling the multilevel structure inherent in educational assessment data: we identified four student achievement patterns that displayed different distributions across the school classes. More precisely, besides individual characteristics, the development of students' low-stakes mathematics and literacy test scores was associated with class-level factors and some of the classrooms seemed to have a stronger effect on students' test scores. These results suggest that classroom context is associated with students' achievement patterns, especially regarding the worst achieving students. The findings may reflect a combination of class placement practices as well as classroom and peer effect. Although the differences between Finnish schools have been one of the lowest in the OECD countries, the findings of the present study suggest that the classroom membership may create class level quality differences in both the preconditions and the development of learning.
  • Niemi, Hannele; Niu, Shuanghong Jenny (2021)
    The aim of this study was to uncover how digital storytelling advances students’ self-efficacy in mathematics learning and what kinds of learning experiences contribute to self-efficacy. Four Chinese classes with 10- to 11-year-old students (N = 121) participated in the project. The mathematics learning theme was geometry. Quantitative data was collected with questionnaires. The qualitative data was based on teachers’ and students’ interviews and observations. Both data sets showed that the students’ self-efficacy increased significantly during the project. The most important mediator was students’ perception of the meaningfulness of mathematics learning; digital storytelling enhanced the students’ ability to see mathematics learning as useful. They became more confident that they could learn mathematics and understand what they had learned. They also felt more confident in talking with their classmates about mathematical concepts. The role of self-efficacy was twofold: it supported students’ learning during the project and it increased due to meaningful mathematics learning experiences.
  • Heikonen, Lauri; Pietarinen, Janne; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Toom, Auli; Soini, Tiina (2017)
    Teachers' capacity to learn intentionally and responsively in the classroom is particularly vulnerable during the first years in the profession. This study investigated the interrelations between early career teachers' turnover intentions, perceived inadequacy in teacher-student interaction, and sense of professional agency in the classroom. The survey data were collected from 284 in-service teachers with not more than 5 years of experience and analysed by structural equation modelling (SEM). The results showed that the negative relation between turnover intentions and early career teachers' sense of professional agency was completely mediated by perceived inadequacy in teacher-student interaction. The results indicate that experiences of insufficient abilities to solve pedagogically and socially challenging student situations have a crucial effect on early career teacher's capacity for adaptive reflection and active transformation of instruction.
  • Friberg, Kalervo (2020)
    This study detected and analyzed changes that took place in students' attitudes toward their future education and occupation after completion of the 3-year orientation to work-life through Grades 7 to 9 in different regions in Finland. The changes in the correlations of attitudes were seen as both precursors and consequences of the students' engagement in the work-life orientation (WLO) program. The changes were postulated not to correlate with the respondents' region and parents' education. The empirically measured changes in students' attitudes served as indicators of the efficacy of WLO. Efficacy referred to the power of WLO to produce effects in the form of changes in attitudes toward educational and occupational choices. Consequently, tentative hypotheses were formed to be tested through empirical observations (measurement points) of WLO. WLO was expected to positively affect student motivation and to guide idiographic decision-making concerning personal goals. Using an alpha level of .05, an independent samples test was conducted to evaluate whether independence, flexibility, and self-direction differed significantly in the measurement groups. For the WLO effect sizes (ES) estimation and for the comparison of the groups, Cohen's ds were calculated. WLO had a small to medium effect on independence and flexibility, and a near zero effect on self-direction. No notable regional differences in the variance of the students' attitudes were detected although the social environments differed considerably with regard to industrial structure. The statistically significant proportional differences between the parents' educational levels did not correlate with the efficacy of WLO.
  • Kvarnström, Kirsi; Westerholm, Aleksi; Airaksinen, Marja; Liira, Helena (2021)
    Introduction: Medication adherence continues to be a significant challenge in healthcare, and there is a shortage of effective interventions in this area. This scoping review studied the patient-related factors of medication adherence. Methods: We searched Medline Ovid, Scopus, and Cochrane Library from January 2009 to June 2021 to find the most recent original qualitative studies or systematic reviews that addressed the patient-related factors of medication adherence in treating chronic conditions. We used the PRISMA-ScR checklist to ensure the quality of the study. Results: The initial search revealed 4404 studies, of which we included 89 qualitative studies in the scoping review. We inductively organized the patient-related factors causing barriers, as well as the facilitators to medication adherence. The studies more often dealt with barriers than facilitators. We classified the factors as patient-specific, illness-specific, medication-related, healthcare and system-related, sociocultural, as well as logistical and financial factors. Information and knowledge of diseases and their treatment, communication, trust in patient-provider relationships, support, and adequate resources appeared to be the critical facilitators in medication adherence from the patient perspective. Discussion and conclusions: Patients are willing to discuss their concerns about medications. Better communication and better information on medicines appear to be among the critical factors for patients. The findings of this scoping review may help those who plan further interventions to improve medication adherence.
  • Smits, Dins; Brigis, Girts; Pavare, Jana; Urtane, Inga; Kovalovs, Sandis; Barengo, Noel Christopher (2020)
    Background The problem of nonadherence to therapy is a key reason of insufficient asthma control. Evaluating the beliefs about asthma medication, cognitive and emotional perceptions may help to identify patients with poor adherence to treatment in clinical practice which need additional attention in order to increase the likelihood of them taking their asthma medication according to the prescribed treatment protocol. The purpose of this study is to assess whether beliefs about asthma medication, cognitive and emotional factors are related to poor treatment adherence of asthma medication in a sample of asthma patients in Latvia. Methods Study subjects were asthma patients attending outpatient pulmonologist consultations in Latvia during September 2013 to December 2015. Beliefs about asthma medicine, cognitive and emotional factors related to asthma were determined in a cross-sectional, self-administered survey. The validated Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ) and the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (brief IPQ) were used. Treatment adherence was assessed using 5-item version of the Medication Adherence Reporting Scale (MARS). The total sample size was 352 patients. Logistic regression models were used to predict poor adherence to asthma treatment. The validity of each logistic regression model was assessed by the Hosmer/Lemeshow test. The main outcome measure was self-reported adherence to treatment. Results The more the patients agreed with the statement "My future health depends on my asthma medication" the lower the possibility of poor adherence to asthma treatment (OR 0.42; 95% CI 0.24-0.74). The more concerned the patients were in regard to long-term effects of their medication (OR 2; 95% CI 1.22-3.27), the higher the probability of poor treatment adherence. Conclusions Screening asthma patients using the BMQ may help to identify those to benefit from interventions targeting their concerns and medication beliefs in order to improve adherence to asthma medication.
  • Herranen, Jaana Kristiina; Vesterinen, Veli-Matti Juhana; Aksela, Maija Katariina (2018)
    Learner-centered sustainability education has been advocated to be used in higher education, but the pedagogy is blurry. In the discussions, also an idea of a learner-driven approach has been promoted. The aim of this study is to study how these pedagogies have been described and suggested to be used by a group of higher education students responsible for planning a teacher education course on sustainability education. This case study uses grounded theory to analyze the higher education students’ beliefs about learner-centered and learner-driven sustainability education. The data was obtained from audio-recordings of the planning process and two semi-structured interviews of five students acting as course designers. The course designers showed to have beliefs about the nature of learner-centered/learner-driven pedagogy, freedom, meaningfulness, acting and making an influence in the learning environment, the nature and ownership of sustainable development knowledge, the diversity of the learners, and pedagogical support. The results indicate that the learner-centered and learner-driven approach are fundamentally different in terms of all of the categories. In conclusion, it is suggested that the terminology concerning learner-centered and learner-driven approaches should be more precise, and sustainability education should be developed towards a more transformative, learner-driven education
  • Seilo, Noora; Paldanius, Susanna; Autio, Reija; Kunttu, Kristina; Kaila, Minna (2022)
    Background: General health checks are an established component of preventive health care in many countries. Declining participation rates have raised concerns in health care providers. Understanding the reasons for attendance and non-attendance is necessary to improve the preventive health care system. The aim of this study was to examine health- and study-related factors associated with university entrants' health check attendance. Methods: Since 2009, an electronic health questionnaire (eHQ) has been conducted yearly to all Finnish university entrants by the Finnish Student Health Service (FSHS) to screen students for a general health check. The questionnaire comprises 26 questions about health, health habits and studying. The study population consisted of the 3346 entrants from the 2011-2012 academic year who were referred to a health check based on their eHQ responses. The eHQ data were linked with health check attendance information. Multivariable logistic regression was used to study the associations between the questionnaire responses and non-attendance of the health check. Results: Male sex (OR 1.6, 95% CI % 1.4-1.9) and low engagement with studies (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-2.0) were the variables most strongly associated with non-attendance. Having low state of mind was negatively associated with health check non-attendance thus enhanced the health-check attendance (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.5-0.8). Conclusions: The results suggest that providing health checks in student health care may serve as a way of reaching students with health concerns. However, motivating males and smokers to attend general health checks continue to be a challenge also in a university student population. That low engagement with studies associates with health check non-attendance points to need to improve collaboration between universities and student health care.
  • Marin, Pinja; Lindeman, Marjaana (2021)
    Although the relationship between religion and science has long been the subject of discussion, investigations into the how and why of people's science-religion perspectives are rare. This study examined how epistemic and ontological cognition predict agreement with four science-religion perspectives: conflict, independence, dialogue, and integration. Participants (N = 3911) were Finnish, Danish, and Dutch adults who had answered an online study. Most people held views that were not well captured by the commonly used four categories. When more specific perspectives were examined, differences were found especially in supernatural beliefs, over-mentalizing, and justifications for religious arguments and scientific knowledge. Thinking styles and epistemic sophistication played only a minor role. The results suggest that non-scientists evaluate the relationship between religion and science more based on their ontological beliefs than their epistemic reflection.
  • Rissanen, Inkeri; Kuusisto, Elina; Tuominen, Moona; Tirri, Kirsi (2019)
    In this article we take up the two-fold task of creating a framework for a growth mindset pedagogy on the basis of our previous studies and exploring the critical points of this pedagogy in the classroom of a mixed-mindset teacher. The data include classroom observations and stimulated recall interviews. The results show how a teacher who is socialized into the Finnish educational system pursues core features of growth mindset pedagogy, despite not having a dominant growth mindset herself. However, we identify critical points in her practices, which suggest that teaching the theory of mindset in teacher education is needed. (C) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Guo, Jiesi; Wang, Ming-Te; Ketonen, Elina E.; Eccles, Jacquelynne Sue; Salmela-Aro, Katariina (2018)
    This study used variable- and pattern-centered approaches to better capture the impact of adolescents’ joint developmental trajectories of subjective task values (STVs) in three domains (Finnish, math and science, and social subject) from grades 9 to 11 on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) aspirations at four years postsecondary school and STEM participation at six years postsecondary school (N = 849 Finnish youth; 52.1% female; 99% native Finnish). Results showed that while adolescents’ average STVs in different domains remained stable, three differential joint STV trajectories emerged across domains. Individual changes of STVs in one domain shaped STVs in other domains to form unique relative STV hierarchies within subgroups that impacted long-term STEM aspirations and participation. Gender differences in STV trajectory profile distributions partially explained the overall underrepresentation of women in STEM fields. This study is among the first to incorporate multiple domains and explore how STVs fluctuate over time in both homogeneous and heterogeneous fashions. These findings underscore the importance of examining heterogeneity in motivational trajectories across domains.
  • Valtonen, Jussi; Ahn, Woo-kyoung; Cimpian, Andrei (2021)
    People commonly think of the mind and the brain as distinct entities that interact, a view known as dualism. At the same time, the public widely acknowledges that science attributes all mental phenomena to the workings of a material brain, a view at odds with dualism. How do people reconcile these conflicting perspectives? We propose that people distort claims about the brain from the wider culture to fit their dualist belief that minds and brains are distinct, interacting entities: Exposure to cultural discourse about the brain as the physical basis for the mind prompts people to posit that mind–brain interactions are asymmetric, such that the brain is able to affect the mind more than vice versa. We term this hybrid intuitive theory neurodualism. Five studies involving both thought experiments and naturalistic scenarios provided evidence of neurodualism among laypeople and, to some extent, even practicing psychotherapists. For example, lay participants reported that “a change in a person's brain” is accompanied by “a change in the person's mind” more often than vice versa. Similarly, when asked to imagine that “future scientists were able to alter exactly 25% of a person's brain,” participants reported larger corresponding changes in the person's mind than in the opposite direction. Participants also showed a similarly asymmetric pattern favoring the brain over the mind in naturalistic scenarios. By uncovering people's intuitive theories of the mind–brain relation, the results provide insights into societal phenomena such as the allure of neuroscience and common misperceptions of mental health treatments.
  • Kieseppä, Valentina J; Jokela, Markus; Holm, Minna; Suvisaari, Jaana; Gissler, Mika; Lehti, Venla (2021)
    The aim of this study was to compare differences in comorbidity between immigrants and Finnish-born controls, and to examine the treatment received by immigrants with PTSD. Our original data included all the immigrants living in Finland by the end of 2010 and matched controls. For this study, we selected individuals who had received a diagnosis of PTSD during 2010-2015 (immigrants: n = 754, Finnish-born controls: n = 311). We compared the frequency of different comorbid conditions between immigrants and natives. Multinomial logistic regression was used to predict categorized treatment intensity with the region of origin and length of residence among the immigrants. Psychiatric comorbidity was much more extensive among the Finnish-born controls than among immigrants. Immigrants from Africa and the Middle East more often received treatment of low intensity compared with immigrants from Western countries. The length of residence was associated with more frequent treatment. The important differences in comorbidity and background characteristics between immigrants and natives should be taken into account in planning treatment guidelines for PTSD. The disparities in treatment intensity across different immigrant groups indicate a need to improve the services for immigrants with PTSD.