Browsing by Subject "BELIEFS"

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  • Poom-Valickis, Katrin; Löfström, Erika (2019)
    The aim of the study was to understand the development of professional identity of prospective teachers, their ideals and experiences during interactions with their surrounding learning environment, including university studies and pedagogical placement during their 5-year studies. We also aimed at understanding how students with different motivational pathways to teacher education may be supported to explore teaching as a possible career choice. The findings reported in this article emerged primarily from interviews with 13 student teachers at the end of their teacher education programme. Survey responses collected during earlier stages of the study were utilised to provide data about the student teachers' professional development prior to the point of the interviews. The findings of the study point to various concerns and dilemmas, which in turn suggest that student teachers take different identity development routes. The study identified four possible "identity routes" to becoming a teacher. The implications of different identity routes on teacher education are discussed.
  • Lavonen, Jari; Henning, Elizabeth; Petersen, Nadine; Loukomies, Anni; Myllyviita, Ari (2019)
    In a comparative study of student teachers in Finland and South Africa, the researchers aimed to capture students' views of how and what they had learned from practice in two university-affiliated primary schools. With data from survey questionnaires, we found that students in the two customized programmes accentuated different domains of teacher knowledge. The newly established teaching practice school in Johannesburg afforded closer integration of university and school practicum experiences for students than the well-established school in Helsinki. The authors conclude that an innovative teacher education model can be re-invented in a significantly different context and also add new dimensions to the original.
  • Svedholm-Häkkinen, Annika M.; Lindeman, Marjaana (2018)
    Actively open-minded thinking (AOT) is often used as a proxy for reflective thinking in research on reasoning and related fields. It is associated with less biased reasoning in many types of tasks. However, few studies have examined its psychometric properties and criterion validity. We developed a shortened, 17-item version of the AOT for quicker administration. AOT17 is highly correlated with the original 41-item scale and has highly similar relationships to other thinking dispositions, social competence and supernatural beliefs. Our analyses revealed that the AOT is not a unitary construct, but comprises four distinct dimensions, some of which concern attitudes towards knowledge, and others concern attitudes towards people. This factor structure was replicated in another data-set, and correlations with other measures in four data-sets (total N = 3345) support the criterion validity of these dimensions. Different dimensions were responsible for the AOT's relationships with other thinking dispositions.
  • Lazarides, Rebecca; Viljaranta, Jaana; Ranta, Mette; Salmela-Aro, Katariina (2017)
    This longitudinal study aims to test the concept of transition preparedness in the context of educational transitions. The study investigates how adolescents' transition preparedness, conceptualized as their self-efficacy beliefs and their inoculation against setbacks, before an educational transition affect the adolescents' school value and effort related to educational goals after the transition through the effects on achievement goal orientations. Student data from three waves of a longitudinal study are used, first collected in 2004 (before the students' transition from comprehensive school to upper secondary education) and then collected twice after the transition. The students included in the analyses are those who participated at all three measurement points (N = 588; 49.5% girls; age M-TI = 15.01, SD = 0.13). Longitudinal structural equation modeling revealed that adolescents' self-efficacy beliefs (Time 1) positively predicted school value and effort (Time 3) through their effect on mastery goal orientation (Time 2). Furthermore, self-efficacy moderated the relation between performance-approach goal orientation (Time 1) on school value (Time 2). Results are discussed in terms of their relevance for enhancing adolescents' adaptive motivational development across educational transitions. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Ketonen, Elina E.; Hotulainen, Risto (2019)
    The development of students' learning and test-taking behavior may derive from the social context and the group of peers they associate with daily for years. Consequently, it is assumed that students' academic achievements are to some degree affected by their classmates and the composition of the classroom. The present study provides evidence on how Finnish students (N = 5071) from different classrooms (N = 435) develop distinct patterns regarding their mathematics and literacy achievement during lower secondary school. We analysed longitudinal large-scale educational assessment data using a multilevel latent profile analysis (MLPA) to investigate the impact of classroom effect on students' achievement patterns, that is, on the development of students' low-stakes mathematics and literacy test scores from 7th to 9th grade. The results demonstrated the added value of modelling the multilevel structure inherent in educational assessment data: we identified four student achievement patterns that displayed different distributions across the school classes. More precisely, besides individual characteristics, the development of students' low-stakes mathematics and literacy test scores was associated with class-level factors and some of the classrooms seemed to have a stronger effect on students' test scores. These results suggest that classroom context is associated with students' achievement patterns, especially regarding the worst achieving students. The findings may reflect a combination of class placement practices as well as classroom and peer effect. Although the differences between Finnish schools have been one of the lowest in the OECD countries, the findings of the present study suggest that the classroom membership may create class level quality differences in both the preconditions and the development of learning.
  • Heikonen, Lauri; Pietarinen, Janne; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Toom, Auli; Soini, Tiina (2017)
    Teachers' capacity to learn intentionally and responsively in the classroom is particularly vulnerable during the first years in the profession. This study investigated the interrelations between early career teachers' turnover intentions, perceived inadequacy in teacher-student interaction, and sense of professional agency in the classroom. The survey data were collected from 284 in-service teachers with not more than 5 years of experience and analysed by structural equation modelling (SEM). The results showed that the negative relation between turnover intentions and early career teachers' sense of professional agency was completely mediated by perceived inadequacy in teacher-student interaction. The results indicate that experiences of insufficient abilities to solve pedagogically and socially challenging student situations have a crucial effect on early career teacher's capacity for adaptive reflection and active transformation of instruction.
  • Friberg, Kalervo (2020)
    This study detected and analyzed changes that took place in students' attitudes toward their future education and occupation after completion of the 3-year orientation to work-life through Grades 7 to 9 in different regions in Finland. The changes in the correlations of attitudes were seen as both precursors and consequences of the students' engagement in the work-life orientation (WLO) program. The changes were postulated not to correlate with the respondents' region and parents' education. The empirically measured changes in students' attitudes served as indicators of the efficacy of WLO. Efficacy referred to the power of WLO to produce effects in the form of changes in attitudes toward educational and occupational choices. Consequently, tentative hypotheses were formed to be tested through empirical observations (measurement points) of WLO. WLO was expected to positively affect student motivation and to guide idiographic decision-making concerning personal goals. Using an alpha level of .05, an independent samples test was conducted to evaluate whether independence, flexibility, and self-direction differed significantly in the measurement groups. For the WLO effect sizes (ES) estimation and for the comparison of the groups, Cohen's ds were calculated. WLO had a small to medium effect on independence and flexibility, and a near zero effect on self-direction. No notable regional differences in the variance of the students' attitudes were detected although the social environments differed considerably with regard to industrial structure. The statistically significant proportional differences between the parents' educational levels did not correlate with the efficacy of WLO.
  • Kvarnström, Kirsi; Westerholm, Aleksi; Airaksinen, Marja; Liira, Helena (2021)
    Introduction: Medication adherence continues to be a significant challenge in healthcare, and there is a shortage of effective interventions in this area. This scoping review studied the patient-related factors of medication adherence. Methods: We searched Medline Ovid, Scopus, and Cochrane Library from January 2009 to June 2021 to find the most recent original qualitative studies or systematic reviews that addressed the patient-related factors of medication adherence in treating chronic conditions. We used the PRISMA-ScR checklist to ensure the quality of the study. Results: The initial search revealed 4404 studies, of which we included 89 qualitative studies in the scoping review. We inductively organized the patient-related factors causing barriers, as well as the facilitators to medication adherence. The studies more often dealt with barriers than facilitators. We classified the factors as patient-specific, illness-specific, medication-related, healthcare and system-related, sociocultural, as well as logistical and financial factors. Information and knowledge of diseases and their treatment, communication, trust in patient-provider relationships, support, and adequate resources appeared to be the critical facilitators in medication adherence from the patient perspective. Discussion and conclusions: Patients are willing to discuss their concerns about medications. Better communication and better information on medicines appear to be among the critical factors for patients. The findings of this scoping review may help those who plan further interventions to improve medication adherence.
  • Smits, Dins; Brigis, Girts; Pavare, Jana; Urtane, Inga; Kovalovs, Sandis; Barengo, Noel Christopher (2020)
    Background The problem of nonadherence to therapy is a key reason of insufficient asthma control. Evaluating the beliefs about asthma medication, cognitive and emotional perceptions may help to identify patients with poor adherence to treatment in clinical practice which need additional attention in order to increase the likelihood of them taking their asthma medication according to the prescribed treatment protocol. The purpose of this study is to assess whether beliefs about asthma medication, cognitive and emotional factors are related to poor treatment adherence of asthma medication in a sample of asthma patients in Latvia. Methods Study subjects were asthma patients attending outpatient pulmonologist consultations in Latvia during September 2013 to December 2015. Beliefs about asthma medicine, cognitive and emotional factors related to asthma were determined in a cross-sectional, self-administered survey. The validated Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ) and the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (brief IPQ) were used. Treatment adherence was assessed using 5-item version of the Medication Adherence Reporting Scale (MARS). The total sample size was 352 patients. Logistic regression models were used to predict poor adherence to asthma treatment. The validity of each logistic regression model was assessed by the Hosmer/Lemeshow test. The main outcome measure was self-reported adherence to treatment. Results The more the patients agreed with the statement "My future health depends on my asthma medication" the lower the possibility of poor adherence to asthma treatment (OR 0.42; 95% CI 0.24-0.74). The more concerned the patients were in regard to long-term effects of their medication (OR 2; 95% CI 1.22-3.27), the higher the probability of poor treatment adherence. Conclusions Screening asthma patients using the BMQ may help to identify those to benefit from interventions targeting their concerns and medication beliefs in order to improve adherence to asthma medication.
  • Herranen, Jaana Kristiina; Vesterinen, Veli-Matti; Aksela, Maija Katariina (2018)
    Learner-centered sustainability education has been advocated to be used in higher education, but the pedagogy is blurry. In the discussions, also an idea of a learner-driven approach has been promoted. The aim of this study is to study how these pedagogies have been described and suggested to be used by a group of higher education students responsible for planning a teacher education course on sustainability education. This case study uses grounded theory to analyze the higher education students’ beliefs about learner-centered and learner-driven sustainability education. The data was obtained from audio-recordings of the planning process and two semi-structured interviews of five students acting as course designers. The course designers showed to have beliefs about the nature of learner-centered/learner-driven pedagogy, freedom, meaningfulness, acting and making an influence in the learning environment, the nature and ownership of sustainable development knowledge, the diversity of the learners, and pedagogical support. The results indicate that the learner-centered and learner-driven approach are fundamentally different in terms of all of the categories. In conclusion, it is suggested that the terminology concerning learner-centered and learner-driven approaches should be more precise, and sustainability education should be developed towards a more transformative, learner-driven education
  • Rissanen, Inkeri; Kuusisto, Elina; Tuominen, Moona; Tirri, Kirsi (2019)
    In this article we take up the two-fold task of creating a framework for a growth mindset pedagogy on the basis of our previous studies and exploring the critical points of this pedagogy in the classroom of a mixed-mindset teacher. The data include classroom observations and stimulated recall interviews. The results show how a teacher who is socialized into the Finnish educational system pursues core features of growth mindset pedagogy, despite not having a dominant growth mindset herself. However, we identify critical points in her practices, which suggest that teaching the theory of mindset in teacher education is needed. (C) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Guo, Jiesi; Wang, Ming-Te; Ketonen, Elina E.; Eccles, Jacquelynne Sue; Salmela-Aro, Katariina (2018)
    This study used variable- and pattern-centered approaches to better capture the impact of adolescents’ joint developmental trajectories of subjective task values (STVs) in three domains (Finnish, math and science, and social subject) from grades 9 to 11 on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) aspirations at four years postsecondary school and STEM participation at six years postsecondary school (N = 849 Finnish youth; 52.1% female; 99% native Finnish). Results showed that while adolescents’ average STVs in different domains remained stable, three differential joint STV trajectories emerged across domains. Individual changes of STVs in one domain shaped STVs in other domains to form unique relative STV hierarchies within subgroups that impacted long-term STEM aspirations and participation. Gender differences in STV trajectory profile distributions partially explained the overall underrepresentation of women in STEM fields. This study is among the first to incorporate multiple domains and explore how STVs fluctuate over time in both homogeneous and heterogeneous fashions. These findings underscore the importance of examining heterogeneity in motivational trajectories across domains.
  • Kieseppä, Valentina J; Jokela, Markus; Holm, Minna; Suvisaari, Jaana; Gissler, Mika; Lehti, Venla (2021)
    The aim of this study was to compare differences in comorbidity between immigrants and Finnish-born controls, and to examine the treatment received by immigrants with PTSD. Our original data included all the immigrants living in Finland by the end of 2010 and matched controls. For this study, we selected individuals who had received a diagnosis of PTSD during 2010-2015 (immigrants: n = 754, Finnish-born controls: n = 311). We compared the frequency of different comorbid conditions between immigrants and natives. Multinomial logistic regression was used to predict categorized treatment intensity with the region of origin and length of residence among the immigrants. Psychiatric comorbidity was much more extensive among the Finnish-born controls than among immigrants. Immigrants from Africa and the Middle East more often received treatment of low intensity compared with immigrants from Western countries. The length of residence was associated with more frequent treatment. The important differences in comorbidity and background characteristics between immigrants and natives should be taken into account in planning treatment guidelines for PTSD. The disparities in treatment intensity across different immigrant groups indicate a need to improve the services for immigrants with PTSD.
  • Havu-Nuutinen, Sari; Kervinen, Anttoni; Uitto, Anna; Laine, Aulikki; Koliseva, Annina; Pyykkö, Lassi; Impiö, Pentti; Aittola, Tiina (2019)
    This research clarifies how a collaborative team teaching model (CTTM) can support both pre-service and in-service teachers’ professional development in using inquiry-based science teaching in primary schools. The data were collected via a questionnaire-based survey approach after inquiry projects implementation at public schools in four Finnish cities. In total, 98 pre-service teachers and 51 inservice class teachers were involved in the research. According to their experiences collaborative team teaching was seen as an adequate teaching approach in primary school science lessons. Both in-service and pre-service teachers experienced inquirybased science teaching enthusiastically and received new ideas, knowledge and skills to carry out inquiries during the school projects. Also, they became more confident to use inquiry-based approach in their teaching. The findings indicate that the CTTM combines pre-service teachers’ professional development and in-service teachers’ expertise and the model successfully support the use of inquiry-based practices in primary school science education.
  • Ekstam, Ulrika; Korhonen, Johan; Linnanmäki, Karin; Aunio, Pirjo (2018)
    Educational reforms during the last decade have led to a more inclusive environment for students with different needs and have placed demands on teachers' readiness to instruct diverse students in the general classroom. Previous research has ascertained that student achievement is correlated with teacher quality and teachers' efficacy beliefs. Today, basic competence in mathematics is more important than ever for managing routine day-to-day activities and therefore, identifying and educationally supporting students with low performance in mathematics is necessary. The aim of the study was to investigate the perceived teacher efficacy beliefs of special education and mathematics teachers when teaching mathematics to low-performing middle school students. Results indicated that special education teachers had higher teacher efficacy beliefs than mathematics teachers. Teacher experience, certification or gender had no effect on teachers' efficacy beliefs. Furthermore, subject teachers reported high pedagogical knowledge for teaching low-performing students, and special education teachers reported having moderate mathematical subject knowledge.
  • Aivelo, Tuomas; Uitto, Anna (2019)
    Science education strives to increase interest in science and facilitate active citizenship. Thus, the aspects of personal and societal relevance are increasingly emphasised in science curricula. Still, little is known about how teachers choose content for their teaching, although their choices translate curricula to teaching practice. We explored how teachers choose genetics content and contexts for biology courses on cells, heredity and biotechnology by interviewing ten Finnish upper-secondary school teachers. We studied how the teachers described teaching on three themes in which they have varying freedom afforded by curricula: genetically modified organisms, hereditary disorders, and complex human traits. We analysed interviews with theory-guiding content analysis and found consistent patterns in teachers' perceptions of the themes in genetics teaching and teacher inclinations towards teaching genetics in human context. These patterns, which we call emphasis of content in genetics teaching were Developmental, Structural and Hereditary. Teachers with Developmental emphasis embraced teaching genetics in a human context, while teachers with a Structural emphasis avoided them. In general, teachers justified their choices by national, local school, and personal factors. While teachers mentioned that societal and personal contexts are important, at the same time teachers never framed the main themes in genetics with these contexts.
  • Viljaranta, Jaana; Aunola, Kaisa; Mullola, Sari; Luonua, Marjaana; Tuomas, Anne; Nurmi, Jan-Erik (2020)
    It has repeatedly been found that temperamental inhibition and low academic achievement are associated with each other: children with cautious and wary or shy behaviour are at risk for low academic achievement. Several suggestions about the mechanism behind this association have been made, these highlighting for example, the fewer learning opportunities of cautious and wary children and more negative interaction between teachers and inhibited children. However, the empirical studies about these mechanisms are rare and, thus, they have remained unclear. This study examined whether children's maths-related self-concept of ability acts as a mediator between their temperamental inhibition and maths performance. 156 children (M-age 7.25 years) were followed during the first grade of primary school. Children's temperamental inhibition was assessed in the beginning of Grade 1. Their maths performance was tested twice, in the beginning and at the end of Grade 1, and their self-concept of ability was measured at the end of Grade 1. The research question was analysed using structural equation modelling. The results showed that children's self-concept of ability did mediate the association between temperamental inhibition and maths performance at Grade 1: that more inhibited children feel they are less capable and competent in maths than less inhibited children, and this contributes to their poorer maths performance. The findings highlight that it is important for teachers and other practitioners to be aware of this effect of temperamental inhibition on self-concept and put effort on promoting positive views of children's competencies and abilities.
  • Anspal, Tiina; Leijen, Äli; Löfström, Erika (2019)
    This paper describes a 2-year follow-up study on teacher identity development in different types of teacher education programmes. Teacher identity development was analysed with a focus on student teachers' views of teacher's roles and tensions experienced during their studies. Student teachers (n = 20) were interviewed at the beginning and end of the master-level studies. Three types of tensions were identified: (1) conception of self versus professional role, (2) role expectations versus university training, (3) and multiple professional role expectations. The follow-up study showed that tensions tended to accumulate to some extent. However, successful consolidation of tensions appeared to depend on how the student teachers were able to recognise resources at their disposal, with implications for organisation of reflection support in teacher education.
  • Hilden, Raili; Fröjdendal, Birgitta (2018)
    The paper addresses Finnish student teachers’ conceptions of assessment literacy in foreign languages. Student teachers’ assessment literacy (STAL) is a focal constituent of teacher cognition and can, according to prior research, be enhanced by principled instruction (DeLuca & Klinger, 2010; Volante & Fazio, 2007). STAL is suggested to imply knowledge, practice and ethical considerations. The nature and priorities of STAL are guided by local needs. Hence, topical issues in the Finnish language education were taken into account alongside general assessment theory. The research questions targeted firstly the emergent factorial structure of STAL, and secondly, the validity of a predetermined theory-driven model in alignment with official national priorities. The data were gathered on a web-based survey to 77 students prior to the lectures, and to 65 students after the lectures. The survey consisted of 75 statements about attitudes and practices related to various domains of assessment. Mainstream inferential statistics was used to compare the pre- and post-dataset. The componential structure of STAL attitudes remained more stable than the construct of practices across the study unit. The major dimension of both measurements was Acquired confidence in assessment of multiple aspects of language ability in the classroom. The envisaged or real practices underwent a substantial transformation towards a more learner-centered architecture highlighting flexibility and communication. Of the predetermined domains, working skills and professional self-esteem seemed to be most sensitive to a short-term pedagogical intervention. The tentative results pave the way for progressive development in raising the impact of teacher education for improved assessment literacy skills.
  • Vilppu, Henna; Södervik, Ilona; Postareff, Liisa; Murtonen, Mari (2019)
    The aim of the study was to explore whether short online pedagogy courses can have an effect on university teachers’ interpretations of teaching–learning situations. Before and after participating in a short online pedagogical training programme, a total of 66 participants wrote their interpretations of two short video clips, which depicted a content-focused teacher and a learning-focused teacher, respectively. The training was successful in changing participants’ interpretations from a knowledge-transmission view to a learning-facilitation view of teaching. This result indicates that even short online training programmes have the potential to affect participants’ interpretations of teaching–learning situations, especially when participants are not very experienced in teaching. Therefore, pedagogical training should be offered already at the early stages of teaching careers.