Browsing by Subject "BELT"

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  • Chrbolková, Kateřina; Brunetto, Rosario; Ďurech, Josef; Kohout, Tomáš; Mizohata, Kenichiro; Malý, Petr; Dědič, Václav; Lantz, Cateline; Penttilä, Antti; Trojánek, František; Maturilli, Alessandro (2021)
    Context. Space weathering is a process that changes the surface of airless planetary bodies. Prime space weathering agents are solar wind irradiation and micrometeoroid bombardment. These processes alter planetary reflectance spectra and often modify their compositional diagnostic features. Aims. In this work we focused on simulating and comparing the spectral changes caused by solar wind irradiation and by micrometeoroid bombardment to gain a better understanding of these individual space weathering processes. Methods. We used olivine and pyroxene pellets as proxies for planetary materials. To simulate solar wind irradiation we used hydrogen, helium, and argon ions with energies from 5 to 40 keV and fluences of up to 10(18) particles cm(-2). To simulate micrometeoroid bombardment we used individual femtosecond laser pulses. We analysed the corresponding evolution of different spectral parameters, which we determined by applying the Modified Gaussian Model, and we also conducted principal component analysis. Results. The original mineralogy of the surface influences the spectral evolution more than the weathering agent, as seen from the diverse evolution of the spectral slope of olivine and pyroxene upon irradiation. The spectral slope changes seen in olivine are consistent with observations of A-type asteroids, while the moderate to no slope changes observed in pyroxene are consistent with asteroid (4) Vesta. We also observed some differences in the spectral effects induced by the two weathering agents. Ions simulating solar wind have a smaller influence on longer wavelengths of the spectra than laser irradiation simulating micrometeoroid impacts. This is most likely due to the different penetration depths of ions and laser pulses. Our results suggest that in some instances it might be possible to distinguish between the contributions of the two agents on a weathered surface.
  • Järvinen, Ville; Halkoaho, Tapio; Konnunaho, Jukka; Heinonen, Jussi S.; Rämö, O. Tapani (2020)
    About 20 mafic-ultramafic layered intrusions in the northern Fennoscandian shield were emplaced during a widespread magmatic event at 2.5-2.4 Ga. The intrusions host orthomagmatic Ni-Cu-PGE and Cr-V-Ti-Fe deposits. We update the magmatic stratigraphy of the 2.44-Ga Näränkävaara mafic-ultramafic body, northeastern Finland, on the basis of new drill core and outcrop observations. The Näränkävaara body consists of an extensive basal dunite (1700 m thick), and a layered series comprising a peridotitic-pyroxenitic ultramafic zone (600 m thick) and a gabbronoritic-dioritic mafic zone (700 m thick). Two reversals are found in the layered series. The composition of the layered series parental magma was approximated using a previously unidentified marginal series gabbronorite. The parental magma was siliceous high-Mg basalt with high MgO, Ni, and Cr, but also high SiO2 and Zr, which suggests primary magma contamination by felsic crust. Cu/Pd ratio below that of primitive mantle implies PGE-fertility. The structural position of the marginal series indicates that the thick basal dunite represents an older wallrock for the layered intrusion. A subeconomic reef-type PGE-enriched zone is found in the border zone between the ultramafic and mafic zones and has an average thickness of 25 m with 150-250 ppb of Pt + Pd + Au. Offset-type metal distribution and high sulfide tenor (50-300 ppm Pd) and R-factor (105) suggest reef formation by sulfide saturation induced by fractional crystallization. The reef-forming process was probably interrupted by influx of magma related to the first reversal. Metal ratios suggest that this replenishing magma was PGE-depleted before emplacement.
  • Escobar-Cerezo, J.; Penttilä, Antti; Kohout, T.; Munoz, O.; Moreno, F.; Muinonen, K. (2018)
    Lunar soil spectra differ from pulverized lunar rocks spectra by reddening and darkening effects, and shallower absorption bands. These effects have been described in the past as a consequence of space weathering. In this work, we focus on the effects of nanophase iron (npFe(0)) inclusions on the experimental reflectance spectra of lunar regolith particles. The reflectance spectra are computed using SIRIS3, a code that combines ray optics with radiative-transfer modeling to simulate light scattering by different types of scatterers. The imaginary part of the refractive index as a function of wavelength of immature lunar soil is derived by comparison with the measured spectra of the corresponding material. Furthermore, the effect of adding nanophase iron inclusions on the reflectance spectra is studied. The computed spectra qualitatively reproduce the observed effects of space weathered lunar regolith.
  • MacAlasdair, Neil; Pesonen, Maiju; Brynildsrud, Ola; Eldholm, Vegard; Kristiansen, Paul A.; Corander, Jukka; Caugant, Dominique A.; Bentley, Stephen D. (2021)
    Neisseria meningitidis (the meningococcus) is a major human pathogen with a history of high invasive disease burden, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Our current understanding of the evolution of meningococcal genomes is limited by the rarity of large-scale genomic population studies and lack of in-depth investigation of the genomic events associated with routine pathogen transmission. Here, we fill this knowledge gap by a detailed analysis of 2839 meningococcal genomes obtained through a carriage study of over 50,000 samples collected systematically in Burkina Faso, West Africa, before, during, and after the serogroup A vaccine rollout, 2009-2012. Our findings indicate that the meningococcal genome is highly dynamic, with highly recombinant loci and frequent gene sharing across deeply separated lineages in a structured population. Furthermore, our findings illustrate how population structure can correlate with genome flexibility, as some lineages in Burkina Faso are orders of magnitude more recombinant than others. We also examine the effect of selection on the population, in particular how it is correlated with recombination. We find that recombination principally acts to prevent the accumulation of deleterious mutations, although we do also find an example of recombination acting to speed the adaptation of a gene. In general, we show the importance of recombination in the evolution of a geographically expansive population with deep population structure in a short timescale. This has important consequences for our ability to both foresee the outcomes of vaccination programs and, using surveillance data, predict when lineages of the meningococcus are likely to become a public health concern.