Browsing by Subject "BIM"

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  • Howard, Rob; Björk, Bo-Christer (Elsevier, 2008)
    The goal of the single building information model has existed for at least thirty years and various standards have been published leading up to the ten-year development of the Industry Foundation Classes. These have been initiatives from researchers, software developers and standards committees. Now large property owners are becoming aware of the benefits of moving IT tools from specific applications towards more comprehensive solutions. This study addresses the state of Building Information Models and the conditions necessary for them to become more widely used. It is a qualitative study based on information from a number of international experts and has asked a series of questions about the feasibility of BIMs, the conditions necessary for their success, and the role of standards with particular reference to the IFCs. Some key statements were distilled from the diverse answers received and indicate that BIM solutions appear too complex for many and may need to be applied in limited areas initially. Standards are generally supported but not applied rigorously and a range of these are relevant to BIM. Benefits will depend upon the building procurement methods used and there should be special roles within the project team to manage information. Case studies are starting to appear and these could be used for publicity. The IFCs are rather oversold and their complexities should be hidden within simple-to-use software. Inevitably major questions remain and property owners may be the key to answering some of these. A framework for presenting standards, backed up by case studies of successful projects, is the solution proposed to provide better information on where particular BIM standards and solutions should be applied in building projects.
  • Laakso, Mikael (CRC Press, 2009)
    The industry foundation classes (IFC) file format is one of the most complex and ambitious IT standardization projects currently being undertaken in any industry, focusing on the development of an open and neutral standard for exchanging building model data. Scientific literature related to the IFC standard has dominantly been technical so far; research looking at the IFC standard from an industry standardization per- spective could offer valuable new knowledge for both theory and practice. This paper proposes the use of IT standardization and IT adoption theories, supported by studies done within construction IT, to lay a theoretical foundation for further empirical analysis of the standardization process of the IFC file format.
  • Samuelson, Olle (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2010)
    Economics and Society
    Utvecklingen inom informationsteknologin (IT) har under de senaste decennierna bidragit till stora förändringar i vårt samhälle och i våra industrier. Tillgången till bland annat persondatorer, mobiltelefoner och Internet har förändrat vårt sätt att hantera information och att kommunicera. Att IT också ökat företags och industriers produktivitet och effektivitet har kunnat mätas. Detta har utgjort bakgrunden till avhandlingens frågeställning, nämligen hur IT har påverkat bygg- och fastighetssektorn. Syftet har varit att undersöka hur och i vilken utsträckning IT används inom sektorn, samt varför användningen inom sektorn sker på det sättet och i den utsträckningen. Fem datainsamlingar har utförts för att uppfylla forskningens syfte. Tre har utförts kvantitativt genom enkätundersökningar och två kvalitativt genom intervjustudier. Den kvantitativa delen inleddes med att skapa enkätverktyget, vilket sedan använts tre gånger. Datainsamlingarna har skett under perioden 1998 till 2009 och de skapar därmed, förutom ögonblicksbilder, ett longitudinellt perspektiv på utvecklingen. Tre fokusområden har identifierats som särskilt intressanta ur ett sektorsperspektiv: elektroniska affärer (EDI), elektronisk dokumenthantering (EDM) samt byggnadsinformationsmodeller (BIM). Dessa har studerats både kvantitativt och kvalitativt. Undersökningarna visar att tillgången till IT-infrastruktur inom sektorn är god, men att IT huvudsakligen används för att effektivisera befintliga arbetssätt och processer med fokus på administration. IT har också bidragit starkt till bättre kommunikationer. Dock används IT i liten omfattning för att skapa nya produkter, processer eller affärsmodeller. Entreprenörerna är de som använder IT i lägst utsträckning. Bygg- och fastighetssektorns starkt projektbaserade organisation medför svårigheter för innovationsspridning, särskilt när innovationerna kräver engagemang från flera aktörer. Tre sådana innovationer, EDM, EDI och BIM har under de senaste åren börjat spridas inom sektorn där EDM hittills nått högst användning och BIM lägst. Olika modeller för införande och implementering av IT i företagen inom sektorn har använts för att studera vilka faktorer som påverkar beslut på olika nivåer. Den praktiska nyttan eller det förväntade resultatet av varje innovation är en starkt pådrivande faktor för beslut. Initiala beslut för införande har visat sig ske på olika nivåer. För EDM sker detta i projekt, för EDI i de enskilda företagen och för BIM hos individer. EDM har tydligast fullföljt implementeringsmodellens steg, följt av EDI och därefter BIM. Fokusområdet BIM har störst potential att skapa positiva effekter samt påverkar processer och metoder i störst utsträckning. Tidiga tillämpare bland företagen har börjat tillsätta resurser för dessa förändringar, men det har ännu inte skett i samma omfattning som för de två andra områdena.
  • Kerosuo, Hannele; Mäki, Tarja; Korpela, Jenni (2013)
    Knotworking represents a distributed collaborative expertise in pursuit of a task that is organized among designers from different design disciplines. Construction processes involve phases and tasks that cannot be solved in one organization only, as integration of expert knowledge from various sources is needed. Through knotworking, groups of people, tasks and tools are set to work intensively for a short period of time to solve a problem or accomplish a task. Knotworking requires intensive collaboration across organizational boundaries and hierarchies. The practice of knotworking has been developed and applied in the development of healthcare organizations, libraries and school-university relationships, but it has not previously been applied in the construction industry. In this paper, we describe the concept of knotworking and the findings of a case study that we completed in the Finnish construction industry. We will also compare the similarities and differences of the Big Room and knotworking in terms of participants, duration, target, space/infrastructure, benefits and challenges. Finally, we present some suggestions for further research and experimentation on knotworking in construction projects.
  • Penttinen, Sakari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The topic of this master’s thesis is the collaborative use of the building information management systems. The present national standards require collaborative use of the 3-dimensional models both. The research is focused on the multidisciplinary use of the building information model in the building design and planning. This master’s thesis is a case study concerning a planning phase of a large public building project. The study is based on three meetings of the planning phase of the project. The research method of this study is qualitative content analysis of the recorded meetings. The content analysis is partially based on the theory of messy talk introduced by Carrie Sturts Dossick and Gina Neff. Messy talk and its typologies form a theoretical context for the analysis of the collaborative procedures. The BIM program family recognizes automatically low-level design faults and clashes. However, the higher-level problems, like water damage risks, were not implicated by programs or simulations. In this thesis, I claim that multidisciplinary collaboration is the key to solving these more abstract design problems. The collaborative use of building information management largely remains a utopia. According the content analysis the problems in the multidisciplinary collaboration and communication are the insufficient identification and voicing the issues using the building information model.
  • Haikala, Heidi M.; Anttila, Johanna M.; Marques, Elsa; Raatikainen, Tiina; Ilander, Mette; Hakanen, Henna; Ala-Hongisto, Hanna; Savelius, Mariel; Balboa, Diego; Von Eyss, Bjoern; Eskelinen, Vilja; Munne, Pauliina; Nieminen, Anni I.; Otonkoski, Timo; Schüler, Julia; Laajala, Teemu D.; Aittokallio, Tero; Sihto, Harri; Mattson, Johanna; Heikkilä, Päivi; Leidenius, Marjut; Joensuu, Heikki; Mustjoki, Satu; Kovanen, Panu; Eilers, Martin; Leverson, Joel D.; Klefström, Juha (2019)
    Elevated MYC expression sensitizes tumor cells to apoptosis but the therapeutic potential of this mechanism remains unclear. We find, in a model of MYC-driven breast cancer, that pharmacological activation of AMPK strongly synergizes with BCL-2/BCL-X-L inhibitors to activate apoptosis. We demonstrate the translational potential of an AMPK and BCL-2/BCL-X-L co-targeting strategy in ex vivo and in vivo models of MYC-high breast cancer. Metformin combined with navitoclax or venetoclax efficiently inhibited tumor growth, conferred survival benefits and induced tumor infiltration by immune cells. However, withdrawal of the drugs allowed tumor re-growth with presentation of PD-1+/CD8+ T cell infiltrates, suggesting immune escape. A two-step treatment regimen, beginning with neoadjuvant metformin+venetoclax to induce apoptosis and followed by adjuvant metformin+venetoclax+anti-PD-1 treatment to overcome immune escape, led to durable antitumor responses even after drug withdrawal. We demonstrate that pharmacological reactivation of MYC-dependent apoptosis is a powerful antitumor strategy involving both tumor cell depletion and immunosurveillance.