Browsing by Subject "BINDING"

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  • Okutachi, Sunday; Manoharan, Ganesh Babu; Kiriazis, Alexandros; Laurini, Christina; Catillon, Marie; McCormick, Frank; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Abankwa, Daniel (2021)
    Recently, the highly mutated oncoprotein K-Ras4B (hereafter K-Ras) was shown to drive cancer cell stemness in conjunction with calmodulin (CaM). We previously showed that the covalent CaM inhibitor ophiobolin A (OphA) can potently inhibit K-Ras stemness activity. However, OphA, a fungus-derived natural product, exhibits an unspecific, broad toxicity across all phyla. Here we identified a less toxic, functional analog of OphA that can efficiently inactivate CaM by covalent inhibition. We analyzed a small series of benzazulenones, which bear some structural similarity to OphA and can be synthesized in only six steps. We identified the formyl aminobenzazulenone 1, here named Calmirasone1, as a novel and potent covalent CaM inhibitor. Calmirasone1 has a 4-fold increased affinity for CaM as compared to OphA and was active against K-Ras in cells within minutes, as compared to hours required by OphA. Calmirasone1 displayed a 2.5-4.5-fold higher selectivity for KRAS over BRAF mutant 3D spheroid growth than OphA, suggesting improved relative on-target activity. Importantly, Calmirasone1 has a 40-260-fold lower unspecific toxic effect on HRAS mutant cells, while it reaches almost 50% of the activity of novel K-RasG12C specific inhibitors in 3D spheroid assays. Our results suggest that Calmirasone1 can serve as a new tool compound to further investigate the cancer cell biology of the K-Ras and CaM associated stemness activities.
  • Colombo, Jessica; Antkowiak, Adrien; Kogan, Konstantin; Kotila, Tommi; Elliott, Jenna; Guillotin, Audrey; Lappalainen, Pekka; Michelot, Alphée (2021)
    Actin polymerization provides force for vital processes of the eukaryotic cell, but our understanding of actin dynamics and energetics remains limited due to the lack of high-quality probes. Most current probes affect dynamics of actin or its interactions with actin-binding proteins (ABPs), and cannot track the bound nucleotide. Here, we identify a family of highly sensitive fluorescent nucleotide analogues structurally compatible with actin. We demonstrate that these fluorescent nucleotides bind to actin, maintain functional interactions with a number of essential ABPs, are hydrolyzed within actin filaments, and provide energy to power actin-based processes. These probes also enable monitoring actin assembly and nucleotide exchange with single-molecule microscopy and fluorescence anisotropy kinetics, therefore providing robust and highly versatile tools to study actin dynamics and functions of ABPs.
  • Ju, Meihua; Ioannidou, Sofia; Munro, Peter; Rämö, Olli; Vihinen, Helena; Jokitalo, Eija; Shima, David T. (2020)
    Fenestrae are transcellular plasma membrane pores that mediate blood-tissue exchange in specialised vascular endothelia. The composition and biogenesis of the fenestra remain enigmatic. We isolated and characterised the protein composition of large patches of fenestrated plasma membrane, termed sieve plates. Loss-of-function experiments demonstrated that two components of the sieve plate, moesin and annexin II, were positive and negative regulators of fenestra formation, respectively. Biochemical analyses showed that moesin is involved in the formation of an actin-fodrin submembrane cytoskeleton that was essential for fenestra formation. The link between the fodrin cytoskeleton and the plasma membrane involved the fenestral pore protein PV-1 and Na,K-ATPase, which is a key regulator of signalling during fenestra formation both in vitro and in vivo. These findings provide a conceptual framework for fenestra biogenesis, linking the dynamic changes in plasma membrane remodelling to the formation of a submembrane cytoskeletal signalling complex.
  • Kort, Remco; Westerik, Nieke; Serrano, L. Mariela; Douillard, Francois P.; Gottstein, Willi; Mukisa, Ivan M.; Tuijn, Coosje J.; Basten, Lisa; Hafkamp, Bert; Meijer, Wilco C.; Teusink, Bas; de Vos, Willem M.; Reid, Gregor; Sybesma, Wilbert (2015)
    Background: The lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is the most studied probiotic bacterium with proven health benefits upon oral intake, including the alleviation of diarrhea. The mission of the Yoba for Life foundation is to provide impoverished communities in Africa increased access to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG under the name Lactobacillus rhamnosus yoba 2012, world's first generic probiotic strain. We have been able to overcome the strain's limitations to grow in food matrices like milk, by formulating a dried starter consortium with Streptococcus thermophilus that enables the propagation of both strains in milk and other food matrices. The affordable seed culture is used by people in resource-poor communities. Results: We used S. thermophilus C106 as an adjuvant culture for the propagation of L. rhamnosus yoba 2012 in a variety of fermented foods up to concentrations, because of its endogenous proteolytic activity, ability to degrade lactose and other synergistic effects. Subsequently, L. rhamnosus could reach final titers of 1E+09 CFU ml(-1), which is sufficient to comply with the recommended daily dose for probiotics. The specific metabolic interactions between the two strains were derived from the full genome sequences of L. rhamnosus GG and S. thermophilus C106. The piliation of the L. rhamnosus yoba 2012, required for epithelial adhesion and inflammatory signaling in the human host, was stable during growth in milk for two rounds of fermentation. Sachets prepared with the two strains, yoba 2012 and C106, retained viability for at least 2 years. Conclusions: A stable dried seed culture has been developed which facilitates local and low-cost production of a wide range of fermented foods that subsequently act as delivery vehicles for beneficial bacteria to communities in east Africa.
  • Rahikkala, Elisa; Urpa, Lea; Ghimire, Bishwa; Topa, Hande; Kurki, Mitja; Koskela, Maryna; Airavaara, Mikko; Hämäläinen, Eija; Pylkäs, Katri; Körkkö, Jarmo; Savolainen, Helena; Suoranta, Anu; Bertoli-Avella, Aida; Rolfs, Arndt; Mattila, Pirkko; Daly, Mark; Palotie, Aarno; Pietiläinen, Olli; Moilanen, Jukka; Kuismin, Outi (2022)
    Biallelic loss-of-function variants in the SMG9 gene, encoding a regulatory subunit of the mRNA nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) machinery, are reported to cause heart and brain malformation syndrome. Here we report five patients from three unrelated families with intellectual disability (ID) and a novel pathogenic SMG9 c.551 T > C p.(Val184Ala) homozygous missense variant, identified using exome sequencing. Sanger sequencing confirmed recessive segregation in each family. SMG9 c.551T > C p.(Val184Ala) is most likely an autozygous variant identical by descent. Characteristic clinical findings in patients were mild to moderate ID, intention tremor, pyramidal signs, dyspraxia, and ocular manifestations. We used RNA sequencing of patients and age- and sex-matched healthy controls to assess the effect of the variant. RNA sequencing revealed that the SMG9 c.551T > C variant did not affect the splicing or expression level of SMG9 gene products, and allele-specific expression analysis did not provide evidence that the nonsense mRNA-induced NMD was affected. Differential gene expression analysis identified prevalent upregulation of genes in patients, including the genes SMOX, OSBP2, GPX3, and ZNF155. These findings suggest that normal SMG9 function may be involved in transcriptional regulation without affecting nonsense mRNA-induced NMD. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the SMG9 c.551T > C missense variant causes a neurodevelopmental disorder and impacts gene expression. NMD components have roles beyond aberrant mRNA degradation that are crucial for neurocognitive development.
  • Hepojoki, Satu; Nurmi, Visa; Vaheri, Antti; Hedman, Klaus; Vapalahti, Olli; Hepojoki, Jussi (2014)
  • Kaukonen, Maria; Quintero, Ileana B.; Mukarram, Abdul Kadir; Hytönen, Marjo K.; Holopainen, Saila; Wickström, Kaisa; Kyöstilä, Kaisa; Arumilli, Meharji; Jalomäki, Sari; Daub, Carsten O.; Kere, Juha; Lohi, Hannes; Consortium, the DoGA (2020)
    Author summary Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a blinding eye disease that affects nearly two million people worldwide. Several genes and variants have been associated with the disease, but still 30-80% of the patients lack genetic diagnosis. There is currently no standard treatment for RP, and much is expected from gene therapy. A similar disease, called progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), affects many dog breeds. We performed clinical, genetic and functional analyses to find the genetic cause for PRA in Miniature Schnauzers. We discovered two forms of PRA in the breed, named type 1 and 2, and show that they are genetically distinct as they map to different chromosomes, 15 and X, respectively. Further genetic, bioinformatic and functional analyses discovered a fully penetrant recessive variant in a putative silencer region for type 1 PRA. Silencer regions are important for gene regulation and we found that two of its predicted target genes, EDN2 and COL9A2, were overexpressed in the retina of the affected dog. Defects in both EDN2 and COL9A2 have been associated with retinal degeneration. This study provides new insights to retinal biology while the genetic test guides better breeding choices. Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is the leading cause of blindness with nearly two million people affected worldwide. Many genes have been implicated in RP, yet in 30-80% of the RP patients the genetic cause remains unknown. A similar phenotype, progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), affects many dog breeds including the Miniature Schnauzer. We performed clinical, genetic and functional experiments to identify the genetic cause of PRA in the breed. The age of onset and pattern of disease progression suggested that at least two forms of PRA, types 1 and 2 respectively, affect the breed, which was confirmed by genome-wide association study that implicated two distinct genomic loci in chromosomes 15 and X, respectively. Whole-genome sequencing revealed a fully segregating recessive regulatory variant in type 1 PRA. The associated variant has a very recent origin based on haplotype analysis and lies within a regulatory site with the predicted binding site of HAND1::TCF3 transcription factor complex. Luciferase assays suggested that mutated regulatory sequence increases expression. Case-control retinal expression comparison of six best HAND1::TCF3 target genes were analyzed with quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR assay and indicated overexpression of EDN2 and COL9A2 in the affected retina. Defects in both EDN2 and COL9A2 have been previously associated with retinal degeneration. In summary, our study describes two genetically different forms of PRA and identifies a fully penetrant variant in type 1 form with a possible regulatory effect. This would be among the first reports of a regulatory variant in retinal degeneration in any species, and establishes a new spontaneous dog model to improve our understanding of retinal biology and gene regulation while the affected breed will benefit from a reliable genetic testing.
  • EuroEPINOMICS-RES Consortium; GRIN Consortium; Helbig, Ingo; Lopez-Hernandez, Tania; Shor, Oded; Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina; Linnankivi, Tarja; Palotie, Aarno (2019)
    The developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) are heterogeneous disorders with a strong genetic contribution, but the underlying genetic etiology remains unknown in a significant proportion of individuals. To explore whether statistical support for genetic etiologies can be generated on the basis of phenotypic features, we analyzed whole-exome sequencing data and phenotypic similarities by using Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) in 314 individuals with DEEs. We identified a de novo c.508C>T (p.Arg170Trp) variant in AP2M1 in two individuals with a phenotypic similarity that was higher than expected by chance (p = 0.003) and a phenotype related to epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures. We subsequently found the same de novo variant in two individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders and generalized epilepsy in a cohort of 2,310 individuals who underwent diagnostic whole-exome sequencing. AP2M1 encodes the mu-subunit of the adaptor protein complex 2 (AP-2), which is involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) and synaptic vesicle recycling. Modeling of protein dynamics indicated that the p.Arg170Trp variant impairs the conformational activation and thermodynamic entropy of the AP-2 complex. Functional complementation of both the mu-subunit carrying the p.Arg170Trp variant in human cells and astrocytes derived from AP-2 mu conditional knockout mice revealed a significant impairment of CME of transferrin. In contrast, stability, expression levels, membrane recruitment, and localization were not impaired, suggesting a functional alteration of the AP-2 complex as the underlying disease mechanism. We establish a recurrent pathogenic variant in AP2M1 as a cause of DEEs with distinct phenotypic features, and we implicate dysfunction of the early steps of endocytosis as a disease mechanism in epilepsy.
  • Amanat, Fatima; Stadlbauer, Daniel; Strohmeier, Shirin; Nguyen, Thi H. O.; Chromikova, Veronika; McMahon, Meagan; Jiang, Kaijun; Arunkumar, Guha Asthagiri; Jurczyszak, Denise; Polanco, Jose; Bermudez-Gonzalez, Maria; Kleiner, Giulio; Aydillo, Teresa; Miorin, Lisa; Fierer, Daniel S.; Lugo, Luz Amarilis; Kojic, Erna Milunka; Stoever, Jonathan; Liu, Sean T. H.; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte; Felgner, Philip L.; Moran, Thomas; Garcia-Sastre, Adolfo; Caplivski, Daniel; Cheng, Allen C.; Kedzierska, Katherine; Vapalahti, Olli; Hepojoki, Jussi M.; Simon, Viviana; Krammer, Florian (2020)
    Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in human sera and plasma. Here, we describe a serological enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the screening and identification of human SARS-CoV-2 seroconverters. This assay does not require the handling of infectious virus, can be adjusted to detect different antibody types in serum and plasma and is amenable to scaling. Serological assays are of critical importance to help define previous exposure to SARS-CoV-2 in populations, identify highly reactive human donors for convalescent plasma therapy and investigate correlates of protection.
  • Mahalka, Ajay K.; Code, Christian; Jahromi, Behnam Rezai; Kirkegaard, Thomas; Jaattela, Marja; Kinnunen, Paavo K. J. (2011)
  • Zhang, Yuezhou; Jumppanen, Antti Mikael; Maksimainen, Mirko M.; Auno, Atte Samuli; Awol , Zulfa; Ghemtio, Leo; Venkannagari, Harikanth; Lehtiö, Lari; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Xhaard, Henri; Boije af Gennäs, Gustav (2018)
    The human O-acetyl-ADP-ribose deacetylase MDO1 is a mono-ADP-ribosylhydrolase involved in the reversal of post-translational modifications. Until now MDO1 has been poorly characterized, partly since no ligand is known besides adenosine nucleotides. Here, we synthesized thirteen compounds retaining the adenosine moiety and bearing bioisosteric replacements of the phosphate at the ribose 50-oxygen. These compounds are composed of either a squaryldiamide or an amide group as the bioisosteric replacement and/or as a linker. To these groups a variety of substituents were attached such as phenyl, benzyl, pyridyl, carboxyl, hydroxy and tetrazolyl. Biochemical evaluation showed that two compounds, one from both series, inhibited ADP-ribosyl hydrolysis mediated by MDO1 in high concentrations. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Ahlberg, Sara; Randolph, Delia; Okoth, Sheila; Lindahl, Johanna (2019)
    Aflatoxins continue to be a food safety problem globally, especially in developing regions. A significant amount of effort and resources have been invested in an attempt to control aflatoxins. However, these efforts have not substantially decreased the prevalence nor the dietary exposure to aflatoxins in developing countries. One approach to aflatoxin control is the use of binding agents in foods, and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been studied extensively for this purpose. However, when assessing the results comprehensively and reviewing the practicality and ethics of use, risks are evident, and concerns arise. In conclusion, our review suggests that there are too many issues with using LAB for aflatoxin binding for it to be safely promoted. Arguably, using binders in human food might even worsen food safety in the longer term.
  • Öörni, Katariina; Kovanen, Petri T. (2021)
    Circulating low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles enter the arterial intima where they bind to the extracellular matrix and become modified by lipases, proteases, and oxidizing enzymes and agents. The modified LDL particles aggregate and fuse into larger matrix-bound lipid droplets and, upon generation of unesterified cholesterol, cholesterol crystals are also formed. Uptake of the aggregated/fused particles and cholesterol crystals by macrophages and smooth muscle cells induces their inflammatory activation and conversion into foam cells. In this review, we summarize the causes and consequences of LDL aggregation and describe the development and applications of an assay capable of determining the susceptibility of isolated LDL particles to aggregate when exposed to human recombinant sphingomyelinase enzyme ex vivo. Significant person-to-person differences in the aggregation susceptibility of LDL particles were observed, and such individual differences largely depended on particle lipid composition. The presence of aggregation-prone LDL in the circulation predicted future cardiovascular events in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We also discuss means capable of reducing LDL particles' aggregation susceptibility that could potentially inhibit LDL aggregation in the arterial wall. Whether reductions in LDL aggregation susceptibility are associated with attenuated atherogenesis and a reduced risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases remains to be studied.
  • Hautala, Laura C.; Pang, Poh-Choo; Antonopoulos, Aristotelis; Pasanen, Annukka; Lee, Cheuk-Lun; Chiu, Philip C. N.; Yeung, William S. B.; Loukovaara, Mikko; Bützow, Ralf; Haslam, Stuart M.; Dell, Anne; Koistinen, Hannu (2020)
    Glycodelin is a major glycoprotein expressed in reproductive tissues, like secretory and decidualized endometrium. It has several reproduction related functions that are dependent on specific glycosylation, but it has also been found to drive differentiation of endometrial carcinoma cells toward a less malignant phenotype. Here we aimed to elucidate whether the glycosylation and function of glycodelin is altered in endometrial carcinoma as compared with a normal endometrium. We carried out glycan structure analysis of glycodelin expressed in HEC-1B human endometrial carcinoma cells (HEC-1B Gd) by mass spectrometry glycomics strategies. Glycans of HEC-1B Gd were found to comprise a typical mixture of high-mannose, hybrid, and complex-type N-glycans, often containing undecorated LacNAc (Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc) antennae. However, several differences, as compared with previously reported glycan structures of normal human decidualized endometrium-derived glycodelin isoform, glycodelin-A (GdA), were also found. These included a lower level of sialylation and more abundant poly-LacNAc antennae, some of which are fucosylated. This allowed us to select lectins that showed different binding to these classes of glycodelin. Despite the differences in glycosylation between HEC-1B Gd and GdA, both showed similar inhibitory activity on trophoblast cell invasion and peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation. For the detection of cancer associated glycodelin, we established a novel in situ proximity-ligation based histochemical staining method using a specific glycodelin antibody and UEAI lectin. We found that the UEAI reactive glycodelin was abundant in endometrial carcinoma, but virtually absent in normal endometrial tissue even when glycodelin was strongly expressed. In conclusion, we established a histochemical staining method for the detection of endometrial carcinoma-associated glycodelin and showed that this specific glycodelin is exclusively expressed in cancer, not in normal endometrium. Similar methods can be used for studies of other glycoproteins. Glycodelin is a major endometrial glycoprotein. The authors analyzed glycan structures of endometrial carcinoma associated glycodelin and established a novel glycodelin-glycoform specific histochemical staining method. With this, they showed that glycodelin is differentially glycosylated in endometrial carcinoma tissue, as compared to normal endometrium, representing a neoantigen with potential clinical applications.
  • Meneses-Salas, Elsa; García-Melero, Ana; Kanerva, Kristiina; Blanco-Muñoz, Patricia; Morales-Paytuvi, Frederic; Bonjoch, Júlia; Heeren, Joerg; Lu, Albert; Pol, Albert; Tebar, Francesc; Ikonen, Elina; Grewal, Thomas; Enrich, Carlos; Rentero, Carles (2020)
    Cholesterol accumulation in late endosomes is a prevailing phenotype of Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) mutant cells. Likewise, annexin A6 (AnxA6) overexpression induces a phenotype reminiscent of NPC1 mutant cells. Here, we demonstrate that this cellular cholesterol imbalance is due to AnxA6 promoting Rab7 inactivation via TBC1D15, a Rab7-GAP. In NPC1 mutant cells, AnxA6 depletion and eventual Rab7 activation was associated with peripheral distribution and increased mobility of late endosomes. This was accompanied by an enhanced lipid accumulation in lipid droplets in an acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT)-dependent manner. Moreover, in AnxA6-deficient NPC1 mutant cells, Rab7-mediated rescue of late endosome-cholesterol export required the StAR-related lipid transfer domain-3 (StARD3) protein. Electron microscopy revealed a significant increase of membrane contact sites (MCS) between late endosomes and ER in NPC1 mutant cells lacking AnxA6, suggesting late endosome-cholesterol transfer to the ER via Rab7 and StARD3-dependent MCS formation. This study identifies AnxA6 as a novel gatekeeper that controls cellular distribution of late endosome-cholesterol via regulation of a Rab7-GAP and MCS formation.
  • Bogacheva, Mariia; Egorova, Anna; Slita, Anna; Maretina, Marianna; Baranov, Vladislav; Kiselev, Anton (2017)
    The major barriers for intracellular DNA transportation by cationic polymers are their toxicity, poor endosomal escape and inefficient nuclear uptake. Therefore, we designed novel modular peptide-based carriers modified with SV40 nuclear localization signal (NLS). Core peptide consists of arginine, histidine and cysteine residues for DNA condensation, endosomal escape promotion and interpeptide cross-linking, respectively. We investigated three polyplexes with different NLS content (10 mol%, 50 mol% and 90 mol% of SV40 NLS) as vectors for intranuclear DNA delivery. All carriers tested were able to condense DNA, to protect it from DNAase I and were not toxic to the cells. We observed that cell cycle arrest by hydroxyurea did not affect transfection efficacy of NLS-modified carriers which we confirmed using quantitative confocal microscopy analysis. Overall, peptide carrier modified with 90 mol% of SV40 NLS provided efficient transfection and nuclear uptake in non-dividing cells. Thus, incorporation of NLS into arginine-rich cross-linking peptides is an adequate approach to the development of efficient intranuclear gene delivery vehicles. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Martin, Isabel M.; Nava, Michele M.; Wickström, Sara A.; Graeter, Frauke (2022)
    Focal adhesions link the actomyosin cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix regulating cell adhesion, shape, and migration. Adhesions are dynamically assembled and disassembled in response to extrinsic and intrinsic forces, but how the essential adhesion component integrin-linked kinase (ILK) dynamically responds to mechanical force and what role adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bound to this pseudokinase plays remain elusive. Here, we apply force-probe molecular-dynamics simulations of human ILK:alpha-parvin coupled to traction force microscopy to explore ILK mechanotransducing functions. We identify two key salt-bridge-forming arginines within the allosteric, ATP-dependent force-propagation network of ILK. Disrupting this network by mutation impedes parvin binding, focal adhesion stabilization, force generation, and thus migration. Under tension, ATP shifts the balance from rupture of the complex to protein unfolding, indicating that ATP increases the force threshold required for focal adhesion disassembly. Our study proposes a role of ATP as an obligatory binding partner for structural and mechanical integrity of the pseudokinase ILK, ensuring efficient cellular force generation and migration.
  • Han, Huijie; Bartolo, Raquel; Li, Jiachen; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Santos, Helder A. (2022)
    The development of cell membrane-modified biomimetic nanoparticles has extensively increased during the past years due to their exceptional biocompatibility, evasion from the immune system, and targeting ability. Known as a cutting-edge area of research in nanomedicine, such novel nanoplatforms can mimic different functions of the primary cells, while successfully delivering their cargos to the defect site with the aim of enhancing the therapeutic responses and reducing the side effects. Platelet is a key factor for haemostasis and a major player in wound healing, inflammation, and many other biological functions and pathological conditions. As a highly responsive cell, platelets can adapt to environment modifications and release several soluble biomolecules, such as growth factors, coagulant factors, and extracellular vesicles. Additionally, platelets are capable of immune system evasion, sub-endothelial adhesion, and pathogen interaction. These characteristics have inspired the design of several platelet membrane-coated nanoparticles as drug delivery systems. This review describes the current developments in platelet membrane-coated nanoparticles for targeted therapy, specifically, their advantages compared to other biomimetic cell-derived nanoparticles and their applicability in the medical field are elucidated. Finally, the challenges and future perspectives associated with this nanoplatform are summarised.
  • Chen, Tingting; Hedman, Lea; Mattila, Petri S.; Jartti, Laura; Jartti, Tuomas; Ruuskanen, Olli; Söderlund-Venermo, Maria; Hedman, Klaus (2012)
  • Karsten, Lennard; Janson, Nils; Le Joncour, Vadim; Alam, Sarfaraz; Müller, Benjamin; Tanjore Ramanathan, Jayendrakishore; Laakkonen, Pirjo; Sewald, Norbert; Mueller, Kristian M. (2022)
    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a validated tumor marker overexpressed in various cancers such as squamous cell carcinoma (SSC) of the head and neck and gliomas. We constructed protein-drug conjugates based on the anti-EGFR Designed Ankyrin Repeat Protein (DARPin) E01, and compared the bivalent DARPin dimer (DD1) and a DARPin-Fc (DFc) to the monomeric DARPin (DM) and the antibody derived scFv425-Fc (scFvFc) in cell culture and a mouse model. The modular conjugation system, which was successfully applied for the preparation of protein-drug and -dye conjugates, uses bio-orthogonal protein-aldehyde generation by the formylglycine-generating enzyme (FGE). The generated carbonyl moiety is addressed by a bifunctional linker with a pyrazolone for a tandem Knoevenagel reaction and an azide for strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC). The latter reaction with a PEGylated linker containing a dibenzocyclooctyne (DBCO) for SPAAC and monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) as the toxin provided the stable conjugates DD1-MMAE (drug-antibody ratio, DAR = 2.0) and DFc-MMAE (DAR = 4.0) with sub-nanomolar cytotoxicity against the human squamous carcinoma derived A431 cells. In vivo imaging of Alexa Fluor 647-dye conjugates in A431-xenografted mice bearing subcutaneous tumors as the SCC model revealed unspecific binding of bivalent DARPins to the ubiquitously expressed EGFR. Tumor-targeting was verified 6 h post-injection solely for DD1 and scFvFc. The total of four administrations of 6.5 mg/kg DD1-MMAE or DFc-MMAE twice weekly did not cause any sequela in mice. MMAE conjugates showed no significant anti-tumor efficacy in vivo, but a trend towards increased necrotic areas (p = 0.2213) was observed for the DD1-MMAE (n = 5).