Browsing by Subject "BINGE DRINKING"

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  • Honkalampi, Kirsi; Jokela, Markus; Lehto, Soili M.; Kivimäki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna (2022)
    Alexithymia has been associated with substance use, but the magnitude of the association has not been evaluated and sub-group differences, if any, are unknown. The aim of this meta-analysis is to systematically review the association between alexithymia and substance use (alcohol or illicit drugs). We identified studies through a systematic review of PubMed and Web of Science and obtained a total of 52 publications using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 scale. Random effects meta-analysis was used to evaluate the overall and sub-group associations. Of the studies, 50 were cross-sectional and two longitudinal. Alexithymia was associated with any substance use (Cohen's d = 0.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49-0.76), with little difference between estimates for use of alcohol or illicit drugs. A stronger association was observed for the alexithymia dimension "Difficulty in Identifying Feelings" (d = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.47-0.81) and "Difficulty in Describing Feelings" (d = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.32-0.55) than for "Externally Oriented Thinking" (d = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.09-0.28). The association was stronger in studies with clinical patient populations (d = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.62-1.05) than in those investigating general or student populations, and in studies with a majority of male rather than female participants. These findings suggest a strong overall association between alexithymia and substance use and a very strong association among clinical patient populations. The association may be stronger with the emotion-related dimensions than with the cognition-related dimension of alexithymia. As nearly all the studies were cross-sectional, more longitudinal studies are needed.
  • Kivimäki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Batty, G. David; Sabia, Severine; Sommerlad, Andrew; Floud, Sarah; Jokela, Markus; Vahtera, Jussi; Beydoun, May A.; Suominen, Sakari B.; Koskinen, Aki; Väänänen, Ari; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Alfredsson, Lars; Westerholm, Peter J. M.; Knutsson, Anders; Nyberg, Solja T.; Sipilä, Pyry N.; Lindbohm, Joni V.; Pentti, Jaana; Livingston, Gill; Ferrie, Jane E.; Strandberg, Timo (2020)
    This cohort study examines the association of overall consumption of alcohol and resultant loss of consciousness with risk for dementia. Question Are alcohol-induced loss of consciousness and heavy weekly alcohol consumption associated with increased risk of future dementia? Findings In this multicohort study of 131x202f;415 adults, a 1.2-fold excess risk of dementia was associated with heavy vs moderate alcohol consumption. Those who reported having lost consciousness due to alcohol consumption, regardless of their overall weekly consumption, had a 2-fold increased risk of dementia compared with people who had not lost consciousness and were moderate drinkers. Meaning The findings of this study suggest that alcohol-induced loss of consciousness is a long-term risk factor for dementia among both heavy and moderate drinkers. Importance Evidence on alcohol consumption as a risk factor for dementia usually relates to overall consumption. The role of alcohol-induced loss of consciousness is uncertain. Objective To examine the risk of future dementia associated with overall alcohol consumption and alcohol-induced loss of consciousness in a population of current drinkers. Design, Setting, and Participants Seven cohort studies from the UK, France, Sweden, and Finland (IPD-Work consortium) including 131x202f;415 participants were examined. At baseline (1986-2012), participants were aged 18 to 77 years, reported alcohol consumption, and were free of diagnosed dementia. Dementia was examined during a mean follow-up of 14.4 years (range, 12.3-30.1). Data analysis was conducted from November 17, 2019, to May 23, 2020. Exposures Self-reported overall consumption and loss of consciousness due to alcohol consumption were assessed at baseline. Two thresholds were used to define heavy overall consumption: greater than 14 units (U) (UK definition) and greater than 21 U (US definition) per week. Main Outcomes and Measures Dementia and alcohol-related disorders to 2016 were ascertained from linked electronic health records. Results Of the 131x202f;415 participants (mean [SD] age, 43.0 [10.4] years; 80x202f;344 [61.1%] women), 1081 individuals (0.8%) developed dementia. After adjustment for potential confounders, the hazard ratio (HR) was 1.16 (95% CI, 0.98-1.37) for consuming greater than 14 vs 1 to 14 U of alcohol per week and 1.22 (95% CI, 1.01-1.48) for greater than 21 vs 1 to 21 U/wk. Of the 96x202f;591 participants with data on loss of consciousness, 10x202f;004 individuals (10.4%) reported having lost consciousness due to alcohol consumption in the past 12 months. The association between loss of consciousness and dementia was observed in men (HR, 2.86; 95% CI, 1.77-4.63) and women (HR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.34-3.25) during the first 10 years of follow-up (HR, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.78-4.15), after excluding the first 10 years of follow-up (HR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.16-2.99), and for early-onset (= 65 y: HR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.38-3.66) dementia, Alzheimer disease (HR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.28-3.07), and dementia with features of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (HR, 4.18; 95% CI, 1.86-9.37). The association with dementia was not explained by 14 other alcohol-related conditions. With moderate drinkers (1-14 U/wk) who had not lost consciousness as the reference group, the HR for dementia was twice as high in participants who reported having lost consciousness, whether their mean weekly consumption was moderate (HR, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.42-3.37) or heavy (HR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.57-3.54). Conclusions and Relevance The findings of this study suggest that alcohol-induced loss of consciousness, irrespective of overall alcohol consumption, is associated with a subsequent increase in the risk of dementia.
  • Liskola, Joni; Haravuori, Henna; Lindberg, Nina; Niemelä, Solja; Karlsson, Linnea; Kiviruusu, Olli; Marttunen, Mauri (2018)
    Background: The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) is commonly used in adults to screen for harmful alcohol consumption but few studies exist on its use among adolescents. Our aim was to validate the AUDIT and its derivative consumption questionnaire (AUDIT-C) as screening instruments for the detection of problem use of alcohol in adolescents. Methods: 621 adolescents (age-range, 12-19 years) were drawn from clinical and population samples who completed the AUDIT questionnaire. Psychiatric diagnoses were assessed using K-SADS-PL. A rating based on the K-SADS-PL was used to assess alcohol use habits, alcohol use disorders, screening and symptom criteria questions. Screening performance of the AUDIT and AUDIT-C sum scores and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated. The diagnostic odds ratios (dOR) were calculated to express the overall discrimination between cut-offs. Results: Comparisons of ROC between the AUDIT and AUDIT-C pairs indicated a slightly better test performance by AUDIT for the whole sample and in a proportion of the subsamples. Optimal cut-off value for the AUDIT was >= 5 (sensitivity 0.931, specificity 0.772, dOR 45.22; 95% CI: 24.72-83.57) for detecting alcohol problem use. The corresponding optimal cut-off value for the AUDIT-C was >= 3 in detecting alcohol problem use (sensitivity 0.952, specificity 0.663, dOR 39.31; 95% CI: 19.46-78.97). Agreement between the AUDIT and AUDIT-C using these cut-off scores was high at 91.9%. Conclusions: Our results for the cut-off scores for the early detection of alcohol problem use in adolescents are >= 5 for AUDIT, and >= 3 for AUDIT-C.
  • Åberg, Fredrik; Färkkilä, Martti; Männistö, Ville (2020)
    Coexistence of alcohol use and metabolic risk-the 2 commonest population risk factors for nonviral chronic liver disease-is a growing concern. Clinical evidence and mechanistic evidence point to considerable supraadditive interaction effects for the development and progression of chronic liver disease between hazardous alcohol use and metabolic abnormalities including obesity, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Intermittent binge drinking once monthly or more often seems to be associated with progression of liver disease even when average alcohol intake is within the currently allowed limits for a diagnosis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and supraadditive interaction between binge drinking and the MetS has been reported. There are contradictory findings regarding the association between low alcohol use and liver steatosis, but, clearly, the mechanisms of alcoholic hepatotoxicity extend beyond simple fat accumulation. The presence of liver steatosis seems to amplify alcoholic hepatotoxicity. Recent longitudinal studies of NAFLD subjects report low alcohol use associated with both increased fibrosis progression and an elevated risk for liver cancer and severe liver disease. There is no clear safe limit of alcohol intake in the presence of NAFLD or metabolic risk. The interaction effects between alcohol and metabolic dysfunction merit increased attention in public health policy, individual counseling, and risk stratification. Based on current evidence, a strict dichotomization of liver disease into either pure alcoholic or nonalcoholic may be inappropriate.
  • Paljarvi, Tapio; Martikainen, Pekka; Pensola, Tiina; Leinonen, Taina; Herttua, Kimmo; Makela, Pia (2015)
    Background Long-term employment trajectories of young problem drinkers are poorly understood. Methods We constructed retrospective labour market participation histories at ages 18-34 of 64 342 persons born in 1969-1982. Beginning from the year of each subject's 18th birthday, we extracted information from the records of Statistics Finland on educational attainment, main type of economic activity, months in employment, and months in unemployment for a minimum of seven years (range 7-16 years). We used information on the timing of alcohol-related hospitalizations and deaths in the same period to define problem drinkers with early onset limited course, early onset persistent course, and late onset problem drinking. Results Early onset limited course problem drinkers improved their employment considerably by age, whereas early onset persistent problem drinkers experienced a constant decline in their employment by age. From the age of 18 to 34, early onset persistent problem drinkers were in employment merely 12% of the time, in comparison with 39% among the early onset limited course problem drinkers, and 58% among the general population. Conclusions These results indicate that young adults who were retrospectively defined as having early onset persistent course problem drinking were extensively marginalized from the labour market early on during their life course, and that their employment trajectory was significantly worse compared to other problem drinkers.
  • Åberg, Fredrik; Puukka, Pauli; Salomaa, Veikko; Männistö, Satu; Lundqvist, Annamari; Valsta, Liisa; Perola, Markus; Färkkilä, Martti; Jula, Antti (2020)
    Background and Aims The effects of alcohol use in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease are unclear. We investigated the impact of alcohol use in fatty liver disease on incident liver, cardiovascular, and malignant disease, as well as death. Approach and Results Our study comprised 8,345 persons with hepatic steatosis (fatty liver index >60) who participated in health-examination surveys (FINRISK 1992-2012 or Health 2000), with available data on baseline alcohol intake. Main exclusions were baseline clinical liver disease, viral hepatitis, ethanol intake >50 g/day, and current abstainers. Data were linked with national registers for hospital admissions, malignancies, and death regarding liver, cardiovascular, and malignant disease, as well as all-cause death. Adjustment were for multiple confounders. Alcohol consumption showed a dose-dependent risk increase for incident advanced liver disease and malignancies. Consuming 10-19 g/day of alcohol in general or 0-9 g/day as nonwine beverages doubled the risk for advanced liver disease compared to lifetime abstainers. In contrast, alcohol intake up to 49 g/day was associated with a 22%-40% reduction of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). We observed a J-shaped association between alcohol intake and all-cause death with a maximal risk reduction of 21% (95% confidence interval, 5%-34%) at alcohol intake of 0-9 g/day compared to lifetime abstainers. However, these benefits on CVD and mortality were only observed in never smokers. Alcohol intake >30 g/day yielded increased risk estimates for mortality compared to lifetime abstainers. In a subpopulation with longitudinal data, alcohol intake remained stable over time in >80% of subjects. Conclusions Even low alcohol intake in fatty liver disease is associated with increased risks for advanced liver disease and cancer. Low to moderate alcohol use is associated with reduced mortality and CVD risk but only among never smokers.
  • Savolainen, Iina; Oksanen, Atte; Kaakinen, Markus; Sirola, Anu; Miller, Bryan Lee; Paek, Hye-Jin; Zych, Izabela (2020)
    Aims: To examine the continuing role of daily popular social media use in youth hazardous alcohol consumption in four countries across continents. Methods: A web-based survey was given to youths aged 15-25 in the USA (n = 1212), South Korea (n = 1192), Finland (n = 1200) and Spain (n = 1212). Hazardous alcohol use (alcohol use disorders identification test-C) was the dependent variable. Main independent variables measured daily use of different social media services. Controls included compulsive Internet use, offline belonging, psychological distress, impulsivity, risk-taking, age and gender. Linear regression models and mediation analyses with bootstrapping were done for each country. Results: Daily use of Facebook and Instagram was associated with higher hazardous alcohol use among youths in Finland, South Korea and Spain. Daily instant messaging was related to higher hazardous alcohol use among South Korean and Finnish youths. Daily YouTube use was associated with higher hazardous alcohol use among youths in South Korea, but lower hazardous alcohol use among youths in the USA and Finland. Daily Twitter use was related to lower hazardous drinking among youths in Finland but higher hazardous drinking among youths in Spain. The mediation analyses revealed that uploading pictures to social media is a possible facilitator of social media-related hazardous alcohol use among youths in the USA and Spain. Conclusion: Certain social media platforms might inspire and/or attract hazardously drinking youths, contributing to the growing opportunities for social media interventions.
  • Levola, Jonna; Pitkanen, Tuuli; Kampman, Olli; Aalto, Mauri (2018)
    To compare the associations of alcohol-related variables with Quality of Life (QoL) in depressed and non-depressed individuals of the general population. This cross-sectional study utilized data from the FINRISK 2007 general population survey. A subsample (n = 4020) was invited to participate in an interview concerning alcohol use. Of them, 2215 (1028 men, 1187 women; response rate 55.1%) were included in the analyses. Bivariate associations between mean weekly alcohol consumption, frequency of binge drinking, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)-score and QoL were analysed according to categorization into depressed and non-depressed using the Beck Depression Inventory, Short Form. Linear regression models were calculated in order to determine the associations of the alcohol variables and QoL after adjusting for socio-demographic variables as well as somatic and mental illness. Depressed individuals had lower mean QoL and higher AUDIT-scores than non-depressed respondents. Bivariate correlations showed that mean weekly alcohol consumption, frequency of binge drinking and AUDIT-scores were statistically significantly associated with impaired QoL in depressed individuals. Abstinence was not associated with QoL. After adjustment for covariates, frequency of binge drinking and AUDIT-score were statistically significantly associated with QoL in depressed individuals and AUDIT-score in the non-depressed group. When analysing all respondents regardless of depression, both AUDIT-score and binge drinking were associated with QoL. Of the alcohol-related variables, binge drinking and alcohol problems indicated by AUDIT-score contributed to impaired QoL in depressed individuals and both should be assessed as part of the clinical management of depression.
  • Liskola, Joni; Haravuori, Henna; Lindberg, Nina; Kiviruusu, Olli; Niemelä, Solja; Karlsson, Linnea; Marttunen, Mauri (2021)
    Aim: The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) has been validated for use with adolescents to screen their harmful alcohol consumption. How well AUDIT or its derivative consumption version AUDIT-C predicts the development of problematic alcohol use among adolescents remains unknown. The aim of our study was to examine the predictive capacity of AUDIT and AUDIT-C among adolescents in a one-year follow-up. Methods: Finnish adolescents (N = 337) were examined at baseline with AUDIT and one year later with the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children - Present and Lifetime version (KSADS-PL) interview to assess alcohol problem use. Test characteristics and regression models were analyzed in predicting alcohol problem use. Results: The sensitivity of AUDIT (cut-off >= 5) was 0.809 and specificity 0.621 in predicting alcohol problem use among adolescents one year later. The positive test posterior probability was 0.51. For those who screened negative at baseline, the positive test posterior probability was 0.13. With AUDIT-C (cut-off =3), the posterior probabilities were 0.47 and 0.12, respectively (sensitivity 0.855, specificity 0.529). The odds ratio was 6.95 for those screening positive with AUDIT and 6.59 with AUDIT-C at baseline to have alcohol problem use one year later. Conclusions: AUDIT has utility in screening youth at risk for developing alcohol problem use. It has significant predictive capacity in detecting risk especially among adolescents with depression.
  • Halonen, Jaana I.; Stenholm, Sari; Pulakka, Anna; Kawachi, Ichiro; Aalto, Ville; Pentti, Jaana; Lallukka, Tea; Virtanen, Marianna; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimaki, Mika (2017)
    Background and AimsLife transitions such as retirement may influence alcohol consumption, but only a few studies have described this using longitudinal data. We identified patterns and predictors of risky drinking around the time of retirement. DesignA cohort study assessing trajectories and predictors of risky drinking among employees entering statutory retirement between 2000 and 2011. Setting and ParticipantsA total of 5805 men and women from the Finnish Public Sector study who responded to questions on alcohol consumption one to three times prior to (w(-3), w(-2), w(-1)), and one to three times after (w(+1), w(+2), w(+3)) retirement. MeasurementsWe assessed trajectories of risky drinking (> 24 units per week among men, > 16 units among women, or an extreme drinking occasion during past year) from pre- to post-retirement, as well as predictors of each alcohol consumption trajectory. FindingsThree trajectories were identified: sustained healthy drinking (81% of participants), temporary increase in risky drinking around retirement (12%) and slowly declining risky drinking after retirement (7%). The strongest pre-retirement predictors for belonging to the group of temporary increase in risky drinking were current smoking [odds ratio (OR)=3.90, 95% confidence interval (CI)=2.70-5.64], male sex (OR=2.77, 95% CI=2.16-3.55), depression (OR=1.44, 95% CI=1.05-1.99) and work-place in the metropolitan area (OR=1.29, 95% CI=1.00-1.66). Compared with the slowly declining risky drinking group, the temporary increase in risky drinking group was characterized by lower occupational status and education, and work-place outside the metropolitan area. ConclusionsIn Finland, approximately 12% of people who reach retirement age experience a temporary increase in alcohol consumption to risky levels, while approximately 7% experience a slow decline in risky levels of alcohol consumption. Male gender, smoking, being depressed and working in a metropolitan area are associated with increased likelihood of increased alcohol consumption.