Browsing by Subject "BIOCHEMICAL MARKERS"

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  • Lehikoinen, Anni I.; Kärkkäinen, Olli K.; Lehtonen, Marko A.S.; Auriola, Seppo O.K.; Hanhineva, Kati J.; Heinonen, Seppo T. (2018)
    Background: Although the effects of alcohol on metabolic processes in the body have been studied widely, there do not appear to be any previous reports clarifying how substance abuse changes metabolic profiles of pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Objective: Our aim was to evaluate the effect of substance abuse, especially alcohol use, on the metabolic profile of pregnant women during the first trimester. Study design: We applied mass spectrometry based non-targeted metabolite profiling of serum collected during routine visit to the hospital between gestational weeks 9 + 0 to 11 + 6 from controls (n = 55), alcohol users (n = 19), drug users (n = 24) and tobacco smokers (n = 40). Results: We observed statistically significantly differences among the study groups in serum levels of glutamate, glutamine, and serotonin (p-values Conclusion: The present study shows that alcohol and drug use were associated with increased glutamate, and decreased glutamine levels, and alcohol use is associated with decreased serotonin levels. This study serves as a proof-of-concept that the metabolite profile of human first trimester serum samples could be used to detect alcohol exposure during pregnancy. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Sober, Siim; Reiman, Mario; Kikas, Triin; Rull, Kristiina; Inno, Rain; Vaas, Pille; Teesalu, Pille; Marti, Jesus M. Lopez; Mattila, Pirkko; Laan, Maris (2015)
    One in five pregnant women suffer from gestational complications, prevalently driven by placental malfunction. Using RNASeq, we analyzed differential placental gene expression in cases of normal gestation, late-onset preeclampsia (LO-PE), gestational diabetes (GD) and pregnancies ending with the birth of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) or large-for-gestational-age (LGA) newborns (n = 8/group). In all groups, the highest expression was detected for small noncoding RNAs and genes specifically implicated in placental function and hormonal regulation. The transcriptome of LO-PE placentas was clearly distinct, showing statistically significant (after FDR) expressional disturbances for hundreds of genes. Taqman RT-qPCR validation of 45 genes in an extended sample (n = 24/group) provided concordant results. A limited number of transcription factors including LRF, SP1 and AP2 were identified as possible drivers of these changes. Notable differences were detected in differential expression signatures of LO-PE subtypes defined by the presence or absence of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). LO-PE with IUGR showed higher correlation with SGA and LO-PE without IUGR with LGA placentas. Whereas changes in placental transcriptome in SGA, LGA and GD cases were less prominent, the overall profiles of expressional disturbances overlapped among pregnancy complications providing support to shared placental responses. The dataset represent a rich catalogue for potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets.
  • Rakkolainen, Ilmari; Vuola, Jyrki (2016)
    Introduction: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a novel biomarker used in acute kidney injury (AKI) diagnostics. Studies on burn patients have highlighted it as a promising biomarker for early detection of AKI. This study was designed to discover whether plasma NGAL is as a biomarker superior to serum creatinine and cystatin C in detecting AKI in severely burned patients. Methods: Nineteen subjects were enrolled from March 2013 to September 2014 in the Helsinki Burn Centre. Serum creatinine, cystatin C, and plasma NGAL were collected from the patients at admission and every 12 h during the first 48 h and thereafter daily until seven days following admission. AKI was defined by acute kidney injury network criteria. Results: Nine (47%) developed AKI during their intensive care unit stay and two (11%) underwent renal replacement therapy. All biomarkers were significantly higher in the AKI group but serum creatinine-and cystatin C values reacted more rapidly to changes in kidney function than did plasma NGAL. Plasma NGAL tended to rise on average 72 h perpendicular to 29 h (95% CI) later in patients with early AKI than did serum creatinine. Area-under-the-curve values calculated for each biomarker were 0.92 for serum creatinine, 0.87 for cystatin C, and 0.62 for plasma NGAL predicting AKI by the receiver-operating-characteristic method. Conclusion: This study demonstrated serum creatinine and cystatin C as faster and more reliable biomarkers than plasma NGAL in detecting early AKI within one week of injury in patients with severe burns. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
  • Paldanius, Päivi M.; Ivaska, Kaisa K.; Mäkitie, Outi; Viljakainen, Heli (2021)
    Children and adolescents have high bone turnover marker (BTM) levels due to high growth velocity and rapid bone turnover. Pediatric normative values for BTMs reflecting bone formation and resorption are vital for timely assessment of healthy bone turnover, investigating skeletal diseases, or monitoring treatment outcomes. Optimally, clinically feasible measurement protocols for BTMs would be validated and measurable in both urine and serum. We aimed to (a) establish sex- and age-specific reference intervals for urinary and serum total and carboxylated osteocalcin (OC) in 7- to 19-year-old healthy Finnish children and adolescents (n = 172), (b) validate these against standardized serum and urinary BTMs, and (c) assess the impact of anthropometry, pubertal status, and body composition on the OC values. All OC values in addition to other BTMs increased with puberty and correlated with pubertal growth, which occurred and declined earlier in girls than in boys. The mean serum total and carboxylated OC and urinary OC values and percentiles for sex-specific age categories and pubertal stages were established. Correlation between serum and urinary OC was weak, especially in younger boys, but improved with increasing age. The independent determinants for OC varied, the urinary OC being the most robust while age, height, weight, and plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH) influenced serum total and carboxylated OC values. Body composition parameters had no influence on any of the OC values. In children and adolescents, circulating and urinary OC reflect more accurately growth status than bone mineral density (BMD) or body composition. Thus, validity of OC, similar to other BTMs, as a single marker of bone turnover, remains limited. Yet, serum and urinary OC similarly to other BTMs provide a valuable supplementary tool when assessing longitudinal changes in bone health with repeat measurements, in combination with other clinically relevant parameters.
  • Lehikoinen, Anni; Voutilainen, Raimo; Romppanen, Jarkko; Heinonen, Seppo (2020)
    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine whether first trimester trisomy screening (FTS) parameters are affected by alcohol and drug use. Methods: A routine combined FTS including measurements of maternal serum levels of free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin subunit (free beta-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) were measured at 9-11 weeks of gestation, and fetal nuchal translucency thickness (NTT) at 11-13 weeks of gestation. In total 544 women with singleton pregnancies [71 alcohol and drug abusers, 88 smokers, 168 non-smokers delivering a small for gestational age (SGA) child, and 217 unexposed control women] were assessed. Results: Free beta-hCG levels were higher in alcohol and drug abusing than in unexposed pregnant women [mean 1.5 vs. 1.2 multiples of medians (MoM); P=0.013]. However, stepwise multiple linear regression analyses suggested that smoking could explain increased free beta-hCG. Additionally, we observed lower PAPP-A levels in the smoking mothers (0.9 vs. 1.2 MoM; P=0.045) and in those giving birth to an SGA child compared to the controls (1.1 vs.. 1.2 MoM; P Conclusions: The present study shows increased free beta-hCG levels in alcohol and drug abusers, but maternal smoking may explain the result. Maternal serum PAPP-A levels were lower in smoking than non-smoking mothers, and in mothers delivering an SGA child. However, FTS parameters (PAPP-A, free beta-hCG and NTT) seem not to be applicable for the use as alcohol biomarkers because of their clear overlap between alcohol abusers and healthy controls.