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  • Jackson, Christopher B.; Hahn, Dagmar; Schroter, Barbara; Richter, Uwe; Battersby, Brendan J.; Schmitt-Mechelke, Thomas; Marttinen, Paula; Nuoffer, Jean-Marc; Schaller, Andre (2017)
    We describe a novel frameshift mutation in the mitochondrial ATP6 gene in a 4-year-old girl associated with ataxia, microcephaly, developmental delay and intellectual disability. A heteroplasmic frameshift mutation in the MT-ATP6 gene was confirmed in the patient's skeletal muscle and blood. The mutation was not detectable in the mother's DNA extracted from blood or buccal cells. Enzymatic and oxymetric analysis of the mitochondrial respiratory system in the patients' skeletal muscle and skin fibroblasts demonstrated an isolated complex V deficiency. Native PAGE with subsequent immunoblotting for complex V revealed impaired complex V assembly and accumulation of ATPase subcomplexes. Whilst northern blotting confirmed equal presence of ATP8/6 mRNA, metabolic S-35-labelling of mitochondrial translation products showed a severe depletion of the ATP6 protein together with aberrant translation product accumulation. In conclusion, this novel isolated complex V defect expands the clinical and genetic spectrum of mitochondrial defects of complex V deficiency. Furthermore, this work confirms the benefit of native PAGE as an additional diagnostic method for the identification of OXPHOS defects, as the presence of complex V subcomplexes is associated with pathogenic mutations of mtDNA. (C) 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • Kostopoulos, Ioannis; Elzinga, Janneke; Ottman, Noora; Klievink, Jay T.; Blijenberg, Bernadet; Aalvink, Steven; Boeren, Sjef; Mank, Marko; Knol, Jan; de Vos, Willem M.; Belzer, Clara (2020)
    Akkermansia muciniphila is a well-studied anaerobic bacterium specialized in mucus degradation and associated with human health. Because of the structural resemblance of mucus glycans and free human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), we studied the ability of A. muciniphila to utilize human milk oligosaccharides. We found that A. muciniphila was able to grow on human milk and degrade HMOs. Analyses of the proteome of A. muciniphila indicated that key-glycan degrading enzymes were expressed when the bacterium was grown on human milk. Our results display the functionality of the key-glycan degrading enzymes (alpha -l-fucosidases, beta -galactosidases, exo-alpha -sialidases and beta -acetylhexosaminidases) to degrade the HMO-structures 2 ' -FL, LNT, lactose, and LNT2. The hydrolysation of the host-derived glycan structures allows A. muciniphila to promote syntrophy with other beneficial bacteria, contributing in that way to a microbial ecological network in the gut. Thus, the capacity of A. muciniphila to utilize human milk will enable its survival in the early life intestine and colonization of the mucosal layer in early life, warranting later life mucosal and metabolic health.
  • Urquhart, Andrew; Mondo, Stephen; Mäkelä, Miia Riitta; Hane, James; Wiebenga, Ad; He, Guifen; Mihaltcheva, Sirma; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Lipzen, Anna; Barry, Kerrie; de Vries, Ronald; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Idnurm, Alexander (2018)
    Species in the genus Paecilomyces, a member of the fungal order Eurotiales, are ubiquitous in nature and impact a variety of human endeavors. Here, the biology of one common species, Paecilomyces variotii, was explored using genomics and functional genetics. Sequencing the genome of two isolates revealed key genome and gene features in this species. A striking feature of the genome was the two-part nature, featuring large stretches of DNA with normal GC content separated by AT-rich regions, a hallmark of many plant-pathogenic fungal genomes. These AT-rich regions appeared to have been mutated by repeat-induced point (RIP) mutations. We developed methods for genetic transformation of P. variotii, including forward and reverse genetics as well as crossing techniques. Using transformation and crossing, RIP activity was identified, demonstrating for the first time that RIP is an active process within the order Eurotiales. A consequence of RIP is likely reflected by a reduction in numbers of genes within gene families, such as in cell wall degradation, and reflected by growth limitations on P. variotii on diverse carbon sources. Furthermore, using these transformation tools we characterized a conserved protein containing a domain of unknown function (DUF1212) and discovered it is involved in pigmentation.
  • Fewer, David P.; Jokela, Jouni; Paukku, Eeva; Osterholm, Julia; Wahlsten, Matti; Permi, Perttu; Aitio, Olli; Rouhiainen, Leo; Gomez-Saez, Gonzalo V.; Sivonen, Kaarina (2013)
  • Heinilä, Lassi Matti Petteri; Fewer, David Peter; Jokela, Jouni Kalevi; Wahlsten, Matti; Ouyang, Xiaodan; Permi, Perttu; Jortikka, Anna; Sivonen, Kaarina (2021)
    Laxaphycins are a family of cyclic lipopeptides with synergistic antifungal and antiproliferative activities. They are produced by multiple cyanobacterial genera and comprise two sets of structurally unrelated 11- and 12-residue macrocyclic lipopeptides. Here, we report the discovery of new antifungal laxaphycins from Nostoc sp. UHCC 0702, which we name heinamides, through antimicrobial bioactivity screening. We characterized the chemical structures of eight heinamide structural variants A1-A3 and B1-B5. These variants contain the rare non-proteinogenic amino acids 3-hydroxy-4-methylproline, 4-hydroxyproline, 3-hydroxy-d-leucine, dehydrobutyrine, 5-hydroxyl beta-amino octanoic acid, and O-carbamoyl-homoserine. We obtained an 8.6-Mb complete genome sequence from Nostoc sp. UHCC 0702 and identified the 93 kb heinamide biosynthetic gene cluster. The structurally distinct heinamides A1-A3 and B1-B5 variants are synthesized using an unusual branching biosynthetic pathway. The heinamide biosynthetic pathway also encodes several enzymes that supply non-proteinogenic amino acids to the heinamide synthetase. Through heterologous expression, we showed that (2S,4R)-4-hydroxy-l-proline is supplied through the action of a novel enzyme LxaN, which hydroxylates l-proline. 11- and 12-residue heinamides have the characteristic synergistic activity of laxaphycins against Aspergillus flavus FBCC 2467. Structural and genetic information of heinamides may prove useful in future discovery of natural products and drug development.