Browsing by Subject "BIOGENIC-AMINES"

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  • Suominen, Tina; Uutela, Paivi; Ketola, Raimo A.; Bergquist, Jonas; Hillered, Lars; Finel, Moshe; Zhang, Hongbo; Laakso, Aki; Kostiainen, Risto (2013)
    An UPLC-MS/MS method was developed for the determination of serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA), their phase I metabolites 5-HIAA, DOPAC and HVA, and their sulfate and glucuronide conjugates in human brain microdialysis samples obtained from two patients with acute brain injuries, ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples obtained from four patients with obstructive hydrocephalus, and a lumbar CSF sample pooled mainly from patients undergoing spinal anesthesia in preparation for orthopedic surgery. The method was validated by determining the limits of detection and quantification, linearity, repeatability and specificity. The direct method enabled the analysis of the intact phase II metabolites of 5-HT and DA, without hydrolysis of the conjugates. The method also enabled the analysis of the regioisomers of the conjugates, and several intact glucuronide and sulfate conjugates were identified and quantified for the first time in the human brain microdialysis and CSF samples. We were able to show the presence of 5-HIAA sulfate, and that dopamine-3-O-sulfate predominates over dopamine-4-O-sulfate in the human brain. The quantitative results suggest that sulfonation is a more important phase II metabolism pathway than glucuronidation in the human brain.
  • Säde, Elina; Johansson, Per; Heinonen, Tytti; Hultman, Jenni; Björkroth, Johanna (2020)
    Lactobacillus algidus is a meat spoilage bacterium often dominating the bacterial communities on chilled, packaged meat. Yet, L. algidus strains are rarely recovered from meat, and only few studies have focused on this species. The main reason limiting detailed studies on L. algidus is related to its poor growth on the media routinely used for culturing food spoilage bacteria. Thus, our study sought to develop reliable culture media for L. algidus to enable its recovery from meat, and to allow subculturing and phenotypic analyses of the strains. We assessed the growth of meat-derived L. algidus strains on common culture media and their modifications, and explored the suitability of potential media for the recovery of L. algidus from meat. Moreover, we determined whether 12 meat-derived L. algidus strains selected from our culture collection produce biogenic amines that may compromise safety or quality of meat, and finally, sequenced de novo and annotated the genomes of two meat-derived L. algidus strains to uncover genes and metabolic pathways relevant for phenotypic traits observed. MRS agar supplemented with complex substances (peptone, meat and yeast extract, liver digest) supported the growth of L. algidus, and allowed the recovery of new L. algidus isolates from meat. However, most strains grew poorly on standard MRS agar and on general-purpose media. In MRS broth, most strains grew well but a subset of strains required supplementation of MRS broth with additional cysteine. Supplementation of MRS broth with catalase allowed growth in aerated cultures suggesting that the strains produced hydrogen peroxide when grown aerobically. The strains tested (n = 12) produced ornithine from arginine and putrescine from agmatine, and two strains produced tyramine from tyrosine. Our findings reveal that L. algidus populations are underestimated if routine culture protocols are applied, and prompt concerns that L. algidus may generate tyramine or putrescine in meat or fermented meat products.
  • Fernandez, Maria; Hudson, John Andrew; Korpela, Riitta; de los Reyes-Gavilsn, Clara G. (2015)
  • Jaaskelainen, Elina; Sade, Elina; Ronkko, Tuukka; Hultman, Jenni; Johansson, Per; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa; Bjorkroth, Johanna (2023)
    Marinades are increasingly used to manufacture raw fish products. In corresponding meats, marinating is known to have a major effect on the composition of the microbiome, but the effect of marinating on fish is not known as well. This knowledge gap prompted our study of the microbial ecology and amine formation in marinated and unmarinated modified atmosphere commercially packaged rainbow trout fillet strips. According to our findings, marination increased the maximum concentrations (7-8 log CFU/g) of psychrotrophic bacteria by one loga-rithmic unit and led to 5 times higher average tyramine concentrations than the corresponding unmarinated product. Instead, trimethylamine concentrations were 30 times higher in the unmarinated product than those in the marinated one. According to the 16 S rRNA sequence analyses, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) predominated in the marinated strips one day after the use-by date, whereas in the unmarinated strips Fusobacteriaceae and LAB were the dominating taxa. Based on the culture-dependent analysis, Latilactobacillus fuchuensis was the prevailing LAB in both products. Since the subset of L. fuchuensis strains tested was able to produce tyramine in vitro, we hypothesise that the use of the acidic marinade activated the production of tyrosine-decarboxylating enzymes in L. fuchuensis and led to the increased tyramine concentrations.