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  • Aly, Ashraf A.; El-Emary, Talaat; Mourad, Aboul-Fetouh E.; Alyan, Zainab Khallaf; Bräse, Stefan; Nieger, Martin (2019)
    5-Carbohydrazides and 5-carbonylazides of pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridines are used to synthesize new heterocyclic derivatives. Some unexpected behaviors are observed in the reactions of the above two species. The structures of the obtained compounds are proved by spectroscopic studies together with elemental and X-ray structure analyses.
  • Hassan, Alaa A.; Mohamed, Nasr K.; El-Shaieb, Kamal M. A.; Tawfeek, Hendawy N.; Bräse, Stefan; Nieger, Martin (2019)
    2-Substituted hydrazinecarbothioamides and N ,2-disubstituted hydrazinecarbothioamides react in high yield with dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate (DMAD) to give 4-oxo-Z-(thiazolidin-5-ylidene) acetate derivatives. Several mechanistic options involving interaction are presented. The structures of thiazolidin-4-ones have been unambiguously confirmed by single crystal X-ray crystallography. (C) 2014 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of King Saud University.
  • Kaddouri, Yassine; Benabbes, Redouane; Ouahhoud, Sabir; Abdellattif, Magda; Hammouti, Belkheir; Touzani, Rachid (2022)
    Bayoud disease affects date palms in North Africa and the Middle East, and many researchers have used various methods to fight it. One of those methods is the chemical use of synthetic compounds, which raises questions centred around the compounds and common features used to prepare targeted molecules. In this review, 100 compounds of tested small molecules, collected from 2002 to 2022 in Web of Sciences, were divided into ten different classes against the main cause of Bayoud disease pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (F.o.a.) with structure-activity relationship (SAR) interpretations for pharmacophore site predictions as (delta(-)center dot center dot center dot delta(-)), where 12 compounds are the most efficient (one compound from each group). The compounds, i.e., (Z)-1-(1.5-Dimethyl-1H-pyrazole-3-yl)-3-hydroxy but-2-en-1-one 7, (Z)-3-(phenyl)-1-(1,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazole-3-yl)-3-hydroxyprop-2-en-1-one 23, (Z)-1-(1,5-Dimethyl-1H-pyrazole-3-yl)-3-hydroxy-3-(pyridine-2-yl)prop-2-en-1-one 29, and 2,3-bis-[(2-hydroxy-2-phenyl)ethenyl]-6-nitro-quinoxaline 61, have antifungal pharmacophore sites (delta(-)center dot center dot center dot delta(-)) in common in N1---O4, whereas other compounds have only one delta(-) pharmacophore site pushed by the donor effect of the substituents on the phenyl rings. This specificity interferes in the biological activity against F.o.a. Further understanding of mechanistic drug-target interactions on this subject is currently underway.
  • Benetto Tiz, Davide; Skok, Žiga; Durcik, Martina; Tomašič, Tihomir; Peterlin Mašič, Lucija; Ilaš, Janez; Draskovits, Gábor; Révész, Tamás; Nyerges, Ákos; Pál, Csaba; Cruz, Cristina D.; Tammela, Päivi Sirpa Marjaana; Žigon, Dušan; Kikelj, Danijel; Zidar, Nace (2019)
    ATP competitive inhibitors of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV have great therapeutic potential, but none of the described synthetic compounds has so far reached the market. To optimise the activities and physicochemical properties of our previously reported N-phenylpyrrolamide inhibitors, we have synthesized an improved, chemically variegated selection of compounds and evaluated them against DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV enzymes, and against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The most potent compound displayed IC50 values of 6.9 nM against Escherichia coli DNA gyrase and 960 nM against Staphylococcus aureus topoisomerase IV. Several compounds displayed minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against Gram-positive strains in the 1-50 mu M range, one of which inhibited the growth of Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, S. aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes with MIC values of 1.56 mu M, 1.56 mu M, 0.78 mu M and 0.72 mu M, respectively. This compound has been investigated further on methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and on ciprofloxacin non-susceptible and extremely drug resistant strain of S. aureus (MRSA VISA). It exhibited the MIC value of 2.5 mu M on both strains, and MIC value of 32 mu M against MRSA in the presence of inactivated human blood serum. Further studies are needed to confirm its mode of action. (C) 2019 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • Tranter, Dale; Paatero, Anja O.; Kawaguchi, Shinsaku; Kazemi, Soheila; Serrill, Jeffrey D.; Kellosalo, Juho; Vogel, Walter K.; Richter, Uwe; Mattos, Daphne R.; Wan, Xuemei; Thornburg, Christopher C.; Oishi, Shinya; McPhail, Kerry L.; Ishmael, Jane E.; Paavilainen, Ville O. (2020)
    Coibamide A (CbA) is a marine natural product with potent antiproliferative activity against human cancer cells and a unique selectivity profile. Despite promising antitumor activity, the mechanism of cytotoxicity and specific cellular target of CbA remain unknown. Here, we develop an optimized synthetic CbA photoaffinity probe (photo-CbA) and use it to demonstrate that CbA directly targets the Sec61 alpha subunit of the Sec61 protein translocon. CbA binding to Sec61 results in broad substratenonselective inhibition of ER protein import and potent cytotoxicity against specific cancer cell lines. CbA targets a lumenal cavity of Sec61 that is partially shared with known Sec61 inhibitors, yet profiling against resistance conferring Sec61 alpha mutations identified from human HCT116 cells su ests a distinct binding mode for CbA. Specifically, despite conferring strong resistance to all previously known Sec61 inhibitors, the Sec61 alpha mutant R66I remains sensitive to CbA. A further unbiased screen for Sec61 alpha resistance mutations identified the CbA-resistant mutation S71P, which confirms nonidentical binding sites for CbA and apratoxin A and supports the susceptibility of the Sec61 plug region for channel inhibition. Remarkably, CbA, apratoxin A, and ipomoeassin F do not display comparable patterns of potency and selectivity in the NCI60 panel of human cancer cell lines. Our work connecting CbA activity with selective prevention of secretory and membrane protein biogenesis by inhibition of Sec61 opens up possibilities for developing new Sec61 inhibitors with improved druglike properties that are based on the coibamide pharmacophore.
  • Humisto, Anu; Herfindal, Lars; Jokela, Jouni; Karkman, Antti; Bjørnstad, Ronja; Choudhury, Romi R.; Sivonen, Kaarina (2015)
    Cyanobacteria are an inspiring source of bioactive secondary metabolites. These bioactive agents are a diverse group of compounds which are varying in their bioactive targets, the mechanisms of action, and chemical structures. Cyanobacteria from various environments, especially marine benthic cyanobacteria, are found to be rich sources for the search for novel bioactive compounds. Several compounds with anticancer activities have been discovered from cyanobacteria and some of these have succeeded to enter the clinical trials. Varying anticancer agents are needed to overcome increasing challenges in cancer treatments. Different search methods are used to reveal anticancer compounds from natural products, but cell based methods are the most common. Cyanobacterial bioactive compounds as agents against acute myeloid leukemia are not well studied. Here we examined our new results combined with previous studies of anti-leukemic compounds from cyanobacteria with emphasis to reveal common features in strains producing such activity. We report that cyanobacteria harbor specific anti-leukemic compounds since several studied strains induced apoptosis against AML cells but were inactive against non-malignant cells like hepatocytes. We noted that particularly benthic strains from the Baltic Sea, such as Anabaena sp., were especially potential AML apoptosis inducers. Taken together, this review and re-analysis of data demonstrates the power of maintaining large culture collections for the search for novel bioactivities, and also how anti-AML activity in cyanobacteria can be revealed by relatively simple and low-cost assays.
  • Mesquita, Rochelly da Silva; Kyrylchuk, Andrii; Cherednichenko, Anton; Costa Sa, Ingrity Suelen; Bastos, Lilian Macedo; Araujo da Silva, Felipe Moura; Saraiva Nunomura, Rita de Cassia; Grafov, Andriy (2022)
    Alkaloids are natural products known as ethnobotanicals that have attracted increasing attention due to a wide range of their pharmacological properties. In this study, cholinesterase inhibitors were obtained from branches of Abuta panurensis Eichler (Menispermaceae), an endemic species from the Amazonian rainforest. Five alkaloids were isolated, and their structure was elucidated by a combination of 1D and 2D H-1 and C-13 NMR spectroscopy, HPLC-MS, and high-resolution MS: Lindoldhamine isomer m/z 569.2674 (1), stepharine m/z 298.1461 (2), palmatine m/z 352.1616 (3), 5-N-methylmaytenine m/z 420.2669 (4) and the N-trans-feruloyltyramine m/z 314.1404 (5). The compounds 1, 3, and 5 were isolated from A. panurensis for the first time. Interaction of the above-mentioned alkaloids with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes was investigated in silico by molecular docking and molecular dynamics. The molecules under investigation were able to bind effectively with the active sites of the AChE and BChE enzymes. The compounds 1-4 demonstrated in vitro an inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase with IC50 values in the range of 19.55 mu M to 61.24 mu M. The data obtained in silico corroborate the results of AChE enzyme inhibition.
  • Zong, Guanghui; Hu, Zhijian; O'Keefe, Sarah; Tranter, Dale; Iannotti, Michael J.; Baron, Ludivine; Hall, Belinda; Corfield, Katherine; Paatero, Anja O.; Henderson, Mark J.; Roboti, Peristera; Zhou, Jianhong; Sun, Xianwei; Govindarajan, Mugunthan; Rohde, Jason M.; Blanchard, Nicolas; Simmonds, Rachel; Inglese, James; Du, Yuchun; Demangel, Caroline; High, Stephen; Paavilainen, Ville O.; Shi, Wei Q. (2019)
    Ipomoeassin F is a potent natural cytotoxin that inhibits growth of many tumor cell lines with single-digit nanomolar potency. However, its biological and pharmacological properties have remained largely unexplored. Building upon our earlier achievements in total synthesis and medicinal chemistry, we used chemical proteomics to identify Sec61 alpha (protein transport protein Sec61 subunit alpha isoform 1), the pore-forming subunit of the Sec61 protein translocon, as a direct binding partner of ipomoeassin F in living cells. The interaction is specific and strong enough to survive lysis conditions, enabling a biotin analogue of ipomoeassin F to pull down Sec61 alpha from live cells, yet it is also reversible, as judged by several experiments including fluorescent streptavidin staining, delayed competition in affinity pulldown, and inhibition of TNF biogenesis after washout. Sec61 alpha forms the central subunit of the ER protein translocation complex, and the binding of ipomoeassin F results in a substantial, yet selective, inhibition of protein translocation in vitro and a broad ranging inhibition of protein secretion in live cells. Lastly, the unique resistance profile demonstrated by specific amino acid single-point mutations in Sec61 alpha provides compelling evidence that Sec61 alpha is the primary molecular target of ipomoeassin F and strongly suggests that the binding of this natural product to Sec61 alpha is distinctive. Therefore, ipomoeassin F represents the first plant-derived, carbohydrate-based member of a novel structural class that offers new opportunities to explore Sec61 alpha function and to further investigate its potential as a therapeutic target for drug discovery.
  • Provenzani, Riccardo; San-Martin-Galindo, Paola; Hassan, Ghada; Legehar, Ashenafi; Kallio, Aleksi Onni Oskari; Xhaard, Henri; Fallarero, Adyary; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari (2021)
    Biofilms are multicellular communities of microorganisms that generally attach to surfaces in a self-produced matrix. Unlike planktonic cells, biofilms can withstand conventional antibiotics, causing significant challenges in the healthcare system. Currently, new chemical entities are urgently needed to develop novel anti-biofilm agents. In this study, we designed and synthesized a set of 2,4,5,6-tetrasubstituted pyrimidines and assessed their antibacterial activity against planktonic cells and biofilms formed by Staphylococcus aureus. Compounds 9e, 10d, and 10e displayed potent activity for inhibiting the onset of biofilm formation as well as for killing pre-formed biofilms of S. aureus ATCC 25923 and Newman strains, with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values ranging from 11.6 to 62.0 mu M. These pyrimidines, at 100 mu M, not only decreased the number of viable bacteria within the pre-formed biofilm by 2-3 log(10) but also reduced the amount of total biomass by 30-50%. Furthermore, these compounds were effective against planktonic cells with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values lower than 60 mu M for both staphylococcal strains. Compound 10d inhibited the growth of S. aureus ATCC 25923 in a concentration-dependent manner and displayed a bactericidal anti-staphylococcal activity. Taken together, our study highlights the value of multisubstituted pyrimidines to develop novel anti-biofilm agents.
  • Luesch, Hendrik; Paavilainen, Ville O. (2020)
    Covering: up to the end of 2019 Diverse natural product small molecules have allowed critical insights into processes that govern eukaryotic cells' ability to secrete cytosolically synthesized secretory proteins into their surroundings or to insert newly synthesized integral membrane proteins into the lipid bilayer of the endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, many components of the endoplasmic reticulum, required for protein homeostasis or other processes such as lipid metabolism or maintenance of calcium homeostasis, are being investigated for their potential in modulating human disease conditions such as cancer, neurodegenerative conditions and diabetes. In this review, we cover recent findings up to the end of 2019 on natural products that influence protein secretion or impact ER protein homeostasis, and serve as powerful chemical tools to understand protein flux through the mammalian secretory pathway and as leads for the discovery of new therapeutics.
  • Figueras, Eduard; Martins, Ana; Borbely, Adina; Le Joncour, Vadim; Cordella, Paola; Perego, Raffaella; Modena, Daniela; Pagani, Paolo; Esposito, Simone; Auciello, Giulio; Frese, Marcel; Gallinari, Paola; Laakkonen, Pirjo; Steinkuhler, Christian; Sewald, Norbert (2019)
    Tumor targeting has emerged as an advantageous approach to improving the efficacy and safety of cytotoxic agents or radiolabeled ligands that do not preferentially accumulate in the tumor tissue. The somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) belong to the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily and they are overexpressed in many neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). SSTRs can be efficiently targeted with octreotide, a cyclic octapeptide that is derived from native somatostatin. The conjugation of cargoes to octreotide represents an attractive approach for effective tumor targeting. In this study, we conjugated octreotide to cryptophycin, which is a highly cytotoxic depsipeptide, through the protease cleavable Val-Cit dipeptide linker using two different self-immolative moieties. The biological activity was investigated in vitro and the self-immolative part largely influenced the stability of the conjugates. Replacement of cryptophycin by the infrared cyanine dye Cy5.5 was exploited to elucidate the tumor targeting properties of the conjugates in vitro and in vivo. The compound efficiently and selectively internalized in cells overexpressing SSTR2 and accumulated in xenografts for a prolonged time. Our results on the in vivo properties indicate that octreotide may serve as an efficient delivery vehicle for tumor targeting.
  • Aly, Ashraf A.; Bräse, Stefan; Hassan, Alaa A.; Mohamed, Nasr K.; Abd El-Haleem, Lamiaa E.; Nieger, Martin (2020)
    The manuscript describes the synthesis of new racemic and chiral linked paracyclophane assigned asN-5-(1,4(1,4)-dibenzenacyclohexaphane-1(2)-yl)carbamoyl)-5'-(1,4(1,4)-dibenzenacyclohexaphane-1(2)-yl)carboxamide. The procedure depends upon the reaction of 5-(1,4(1,4)-dibenzenacyclohexaphane-1(2)-yl)hydrazide with 5-(1,4(1,4)-dibenzenacyclohexaphane-1(2)-yl)isocyanate. To prepare the homochiral linked paracyclophane of a compound, the enantioselectivity of 5-(1,4(1,4)-dibenzenacyclohexaphane-1(2)-yl)carbaldehyde (enantiomeric purity 60% ee), was oxidized to the corresponding acid, which on chlorination, gave the corresponding acid chloride of [2.2]paracyclophane. Following up on the same procedure applied for the preparation of racemic-carbamoyl and purified by HPLC purification, we succeeded to obtain the targetSp-Sp-N-5-(1,4(1,4)-dibenzenacyclohexaphane-1(2)-yl)carbamoyl)-5'-(1,4(1,4)-dibenzenacyclohexaphane-1(2)-yl)carboxamide. SubjectingN-5-(1,4(1,4)-dibenzenacyclohexaphane-1(2)-yl)hydrazide to various isothiocyanates, the corresponding paracyclophanyl-acylthiosemicarbazides were obtained. The latter compounds were then cyclized to a new series of 5-(1,4(1,4)-dibenzenacyclohexaphane-1(2)-yl)-2,4-dihydro-3H-1,2,4-triazol-3-thiones. 5-(1,4(1,4)-Dibenzenacyclohexaphane-1(2)-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-amines were also synthesized in good yields via internal cyclization of the same paracyclophanyl-acylthiosemicarbazides. NMR, IR, and mass spectra (HRMS) were used to elucidate the structure of the obtained products. The X-ray structure analysis was also used as an unambiguous tool to elucidate the structure of the products.
  • Aly, Ashraf A.; El-Sheref, Essmat M.; Bakheet, Momtaz E. M.; Mourad, Mai A. E.; Brown, Alan B.; Bräse, Stefan; Nieger, Martin; Ibrahim, Mahmoud A. A. (2018)
    Two novel series of N-2,3-bis(6-substituted-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinolin-3-yl)naphthalene-1,4-diones 3a-d and substituted N-(methyl/ethyl)bisquinolinone triethyl-ammonium salts 4e,f were successfully synthesized. The synthesized compounds were targeted as new candidates to extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) with considerable antineoplastic activity. The synthesis involved the reactions of 2 equivalents of 4-hydroxy-2(1H)-quinolinones la-f and one equivalent of 1,4-naphthoquinone (2) in a mixture of ethanol/dimethylformamide (1:1) as a solvent and 0.5 mL Et3N. In the reaction of 6-methyl-4-hydroxyquinolone 1b with 2, a side product 4b of the second series was obtained. In general, the presence of free NH-quinolone gave a single compound of the first series, whereas reaction of N-methyl/ethyl-quinolones 1e, f with 2 enhanced the formation of compounds of the second series. The structures of the new compounds were proved by different spectroscopic techniques such as IR, NMR (2D-NMR) and mass spectra, elemental analysis, and X-ray crystallography. To further elucidate the mechanism of action of these newly synthesized compounds, compounds 3a, 3b, 4e and 4f were selected to investigate for their MAP Kinases pathway inhibition together with molecular docking using ATP-binding site of ERK2. The results revealed that compounds 3a, 3b and 4f inhibited ETS-1 phosphorylation by ERK2 in a dose dependent manner. Also, compound 4f showed highest potency for ERK2 inhibition with ATPcompetitive inhibition mechanism which was confirmed by the formation of three hydrogen bond in the molecular docking studies. The synthesized compounds were then tested for their in vitro anticancer activity against the NCI-60 panel of tumor cell lines. Interestingly, the selected compounds displayed from modest to strong cytotoxic activities. Compound 3b demonstrated broad spectrum anti-tumor activity against the nine tumor subpanels tested, while compound 3d proved to be lethal to most of the cancer cell lines as shown by their promising GI(50) and TGI values in NCI in vitro five dose testing. These results revealed that the synthesized compounds can potentially serve as leads for the development of novel chemotherapeutic agents and structure improvement will be necessary for some derivatives for enhancing their cellular activities and pharmacokinetic profile.
  • Mostafa, Sara M.; Aly, Ashraf A.; Brase, Stefan; Nieger, Martin; Abdelhafez, Sara Mohamed Naguib; Abdelzaher, Walaa Yehia; Abdelhafez, El-Shimaa M. N. (2022)
    The present study aims to discover novel derivatives as antiapoptotic agents and their protective effects against renal ischemia/reperfusion. Therefore, a series of new thiadiazole analogues 2a-g was designed and synthesized through cyclization of the corresponding opened hydrazinecarbothioamides 1a-g, followed by confirmation of the structure via spectroscopic tools (NMR, IR and mass spectra) and elemental analyses. The antiapoptotic activity showed alongside decreasing of tissue damage induced by I/R in the kidneys of rats using N-acetylcysteine (NAC) as an antiapoptotic reference. Most of the cyclized thiadiazoles are better antiapoptotic agents than their corresponding opened precursors. Particularly, compounds 2c and 2g were the most active antiapoptotic compounds with significant biomarkers. A preliminary mechanistic study was performed through caspase-3 inhibition. Compound 2c was selected along with its corresponding opened precursor 1c. An assay of cytochrome C revealed that there is an attenuation of cytochrome C level of about 5.5-fold, which was better than 1c with a level of 4.1-fold. In caspases-3, 8 and 9 assays, compound 2c showed more potency and selectivity toward caspase-3 and 9 compared with 1c. The renal histopathological investigation indicated normal renal tissue for most of the compounds, especially 2c and 2g, relative to the control. Finally, a molecular docking study was conducted at the caspase-3 active site to suggest possible binding modes.
  • Kazemi, Soheila; Kawaguchi, Shinsaku; Badr, Christian E.; Mattos, Daphne R.; Ruiz-Saenz, Ana; Serrill, Jeffrey D.; Moasser, Mark M.; Dolan, Brian P.; Paavilainen, Ville O.; Oishi, Shinya; McPhail, Kerry L.; Ishmael, Jane E. (2021)
    Coibamide A is a potent cancer cell toxin and one of a select group of natural products that inhibit protein entry into the secretory pathway via a direct inhibition of the Sec61 protein translocon. Many Sec61 client proteins are clinically relevant drug targets once trafficked to their final destination in or outside the cell, however the use of Sec61 inhibitors to block early biosynthesis of specific proteins is at a pre-clinical stage. In the present study we evaluated the action of coibamide A against human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER, ErbB) proteins in representative breast and lung cancer cell types. HERs were selected for this study as they represent a family of Sec61 clients that is frequently dysregulated in human cancers, including coibamide-sensitive cell types. Although coibamide A inhibits biogenesis of a broad range of Sec61 substrate proteins in a presumed substrate nonselective manner, endogenous HER3 (ErbB-3) and EGFR (ErbB-1) proteins were more sensitive to coibamide A, and the related Sec61 inhibitor apratoxin A, than HER2 (ErbB-2). Despite this rank order of sensitivity (HER3 > EGFR > HER2), Sec61-dependent inhibition by coibamide A was sufficient to decrease cell surface expression of HER2. We report that coibamide Aor apratoxin A-mediated block of HER3 entry into the secretory pathway is unlikely to be mediated by the HER3 signal peptide alone. HER3 (G11L/S15L), that is fully resistant to the highly substrate-selective cotransin analogue CT8, was more resistant than wild-type HER3 but only at low coibamide A (3 nM) concentrations; HER3 (G11L/S15L) expression was inhibited by higher concentrations of either natural product. Timeand concentration-dependent decreases in HER protein expression induced a commensurate reduction in AKT/MAPK signaling in breast and lung cancer cell types and loss in cell viability. Coibamide A potentiated the cytotoxic efficacy of small molecule kinase inhibitors lapatinib and erlotinib in breast and lung cancer cell types, respectively. These data indicate that natural product modulators of Sec61 function have value as chemical probes to interrogate HER/ErbB signaling in treatment-resistant human cancers.