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  • Lazaro-Ibanez, Elisa; Lunavat, Taral R.; Jang, Su Chul; Escobedo-Lucea, Carmen; Oliver-De La Cruz, Jorge; Siljander, Pia; Lotvall, Jan; Yliperttula, Marjo (2017)
    Background: Multiple types of extracellular vesicles (EVs), including microvesicles (MVs) and exosomes (EXOs), are released by all cells constituting part of the cellular EV secretome. The bioactive cargo of EVs can be shuffled between cells and consists of lipids, metabolites, proteins, and nucleic acids, including multiple RNA species from non-coding RNAs to messenger RNAs (mRNAs). In this study, we hypothesized that the mRNA cargo of EVs could differ based on the EV cellular origin and subpopulation analyzed. Methods: We isolated MVs and EXOs from PC-3 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells by differential centrifugation and compared them to EVs derived from the benign PNT2 prostate cells. The relative mRNA levels of 84 prostate cancer-related genes were investigated and validated using quantitative reverse transcription PCR arrays. Results: Based on the mRNA abundance, MVs rather than EXOs were enriched in the analyzed transcripts, providing a snapshot of the tumor transcriptome. LNCaP MVs specifically contained significantly increased mRNA levels of NK3 Homeobox 1 (NKX3-1), transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), and tumor protein 53 (TP53) genes, whereas PC-3 MVs carried increased mRNA levels of several genes including, caveolin-2 (CAV2), glutathione S-transferase pi 1 (GSTP1), pescadillo ribosomal biogenesis factor 1 (PES1), calmodulin regulated spectrin associated protein 1 (CAMSAP1), zinc-finger protein 185 (ZNF185), and others compared to PNT2 MVs. Additionally, ETS variant 1 (ETV1) and fatty acid synthase (FASN) mRNAs identified in LNCaP-and PC-3-derived MVs highly correlated with prostate cancer progression. Conclusions: Our study provides new understandings of the variability of the mRNA cargo of MVs and EXOs from different cell lines despite same cancer origin, which is essential to better understand the the proportion of the cell transcriptome that can be detected within EVs and to evaluate their role in disease diagnosis.
  • Barreiro, Karina; Holthofer, Harry (2017)
    Proteomic and genomic techniques have reached full maturity and are providing unforeseen details for the comprehensive understanding of disease pathologies at a fraction of previous costs. However, for kidney diseases, many gaps in such information remain to inhibit major advances in the prevention, treatment and diagnostics of these devastating diseases, which have enormous global impact. The discovery of ubiquitous extracellular vesicles (EV) in all bodily fluids is rapidly increasing the fundamental knowledge of disease mechanisms and the ways in which cells communicate with distant locations in processes of cancer spread, immunological regulation, barrier functions and general modulation of cellular activity. In this review, we describe some of the most prominent research streams and findings utilizing urinary extracellular vesicles as highly versatile and dynamic tools with their extraordinary protein and small regulatory RNA species. While being a highly promising approach, the relatively young field of EV research suffers from a lack of adherence to strict standardization and carefully scrutinized methods for obtaining fully reproducible results. With the appropriate guidelines and standardization achieved, urine is foreseen as forming a unique, robust and easy route for determining accurate and personalized disease signatures and as providing highly useful early biomarkers of the disease pathology of the kidney and beyond.