Browsing by Subject "BIOMARKER"

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  • Prokic, Ivana; Lahousse, Lies; de Vries, Maaike; Liu, Jun; Kalaoja, Marita; Vonk, Judith M.; van der Plaat, Diana A.; van Diemen, Cleo C.; van der Spek, Ashley; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Fu, Jingyuan; Ghanbari, Mohsen; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Kettunen, Johannes; Havulinna, Aki S.; Perola, Markus; Salomaa, Veikko; Lind, Lars; Arnlov, Johan; Stricker, Bruno H. C.; Brusselle, Guy G.; Boezen, H. Marike; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Amin, Najaf (2020)
    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common lung disorder characterized by persistent and progressive airflow limitation as well as systemic changes. Metabolic changes in blood may help detect COPD in an earlier stage and predict prognosis. Methods We conducted a comprehensive study of circulating metabolites, measured by proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, in relation with COPD and lung function. The discovery sample consisted of 5557 individuals from two large population-based studies in the Netherlands, the Rotterdam Study and the Erasmus Rucphen Family study. Significant findings were replicated in 12,205 individuals from the Lifelines-DEEP study, FINRISK and the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) studies. For replicated metabolites further investigation of causality was performed, utilizing genetics in the Mendelian randomization approach. Results There were 602 cases of COPD and 4955 controls used in the discovery meta-analysis. Our logistic regression results showed that higher levels of plasma Glycoprotein acetyls (GlycA) are significantly associated with COPD (OR = 1.16,P = 5.6 x 10(- 4)in the discovery and OR = 1.30,P = 1.8 x 10(- 6)in the replication sample). A bi-directional two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis suggested that circulating blood GlycA is not causally related to COPD, but that COPD causally increases GlycA levels. Using the prospective data of the same sample of Rotterdam Study in Cox-regression, we show that the circulating GlycA level is a predictive biomarker of COPD incidence (HR = 1.99, 95%CI 1.52-2.60, comparing those in the highest and lowest quartile of GlycA) but is not significantly associated with mortality in COPD patients (HR = 1.07, 95%CI 0.94-1.20). Conclusions Our study shows that circulating blood GlycA is a biomarker of early COPD pathology.
  • Penttila, Patrick; Rautiola, Juhana; Poussa, Tuija; Peltola, Katriina; Bono, Petri (2017)
    Previous preclinical research suggests that angiotensin system inhibitors may have a direct anti-angiogenic effect that may be synergistic with the currently available angiogenesis inhibitors. In this retrospective study, we reviewed 303 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with first-line angiogenesis inhibitors. Our results demonstrate a longer overall and progression-free survival for angiotensin system inhibitor users among patients with treatment-related hypertension. If validated, these results may guide the choice of antihypertensive medication among patients being treated with angiogenesis inhibitors. Background: Research suggests that baseline use of angiotensin system inhibitors (ASIs) improves outcome in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC), but it remains unknown whether the type of antihypertensive medication used to initiate management at onset of treatment-induced hypertension (HTN) is associated with outcome. We evaluated the association of ASIs and outcome among patients with mRCC treated with first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Patients and Methods: We identified 303 consecutive patients with mRCC who were treated with sunitinib or pazopanib in a single university hospital cancer center. Statistical analyses were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression adjusted for known risk factors. Results: Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were similar among patients with baseline HTN (n = 197; 65%) versus patients with no baseline HTN (n = 106; 35%) (PFS; P = .72) (OS; P = .54). There was a significant difference between patients with treatment-induced HTN (n = 110) versus patients with no treatment-induced HTN (n = 193) for PFS (15.6 vs. 6.4 months, respectively; P <.001) and OS (34.9 vs. 13.9 months, respectively; P <.001). Use of ASIs at baseline (n = 126; 41.6%) had no impact on outcome as compared with patients receiving other antihypertensive medication (n = 71; 23.4%) or with patients with no baseline antihypertensive medication (n = 106; 35.0%). Among patients with TKI-induced HTN (n = 110), however, ASI users (n = 91) demonstrated improved OS (37.5 vs. 18.1 months; P = .001) and PFS (17.1 vs. 7.2 months; P = .004) versus ASI nonusers (n = 19), respectively. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate survival benefit for ASI users among patients with TKI-induced HTN. These results, however, require further validation in a prospective setting. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Hänninen, Mikko; Jäntti, Toni; Tolppanen, Heli; Segersvärd, Heli; Tarvasmäki, Tuukka; Lassus, Johan; Vausort, Melanie; Devaux, Yvan; Sionis, Alessandro; Tikkanen, Ilkka; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Lakkisto, Päivi (2020)
    Cardiogenic shock (CS) is a life-threatening emergency. New biomarkers are needed in order to detect patients at greater risk of adverse outcome. Our aim was to assess the characteristics of miR-21-5p, miR-122-5p, and miR-320a-3p in CS and evaluate the value of their expression levels in risk prediction. Circulating levels of miR-21-5p, miR-122-5p, and miR-320a-3p were measured from serial plasma samples of 179 patients during the first 5-10 days after detection of CS, derived from the CardShock study. Acute coronary syndrome was the most common cause (80%) of CS. Baseline (0 h) levels of miR-21-5p, miR-122-5p, and miR-320a-3p were all significantly elevated in nonsurvivors compared to survivors (p <0.05 for all). Above median levels at 0h of each miRNA were each significantly associated with higher lactate and alanine aminotransferase levels and decreased glomerular filtration rates. After adjusting the multivariate regression analysis with established CS risk factors, miR-21-5p and miR-320a-3p levels above median at 0 h were independently associated with 90-day all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 1.8 (95% confidence interval 1.1-3.0), p = 0.018; adjusted hazard ratio 1.9 (95% confidence interval 1.2-3.2), p = 0.009, respectively). In conclusion, circulating plasma levels of miR-21-5p, miR-122-5p, and miR-320a-3p at baseline were all elevated in nonsurvivors of CS and associated with markers of hypoperfusion. Above median levels of miR-21-5p and miR-320a-3p at baseline appear to independently predict 90-day all-cause mortality. This indicates the potential of miRNAs as biomarkers for risk assessment in cardiogenic shock.
  • Jäntti, Toni; Segersvärd, Heli; Tolppanen, Heli; Tarvasmäki, Tuukka; Lassus, Johan; Devaux, Yvan; Vausort, Melanie; Pulkki, Kari; Sionis, Alessandro; Bayes-Genis, Antoni; Tikkanen, Ilkka; Lakkisto, Päivi; Harjola, Veli-Pekka (2019)
    Aims The role of microRNAs has not been studied in cardiogenic shock. We examined the potential role of miR-423-5p level to predict mortality and associations of miR-423-5p with prognostic markers in cardiogenic shock. Methods and results We conducted a prospective multinational observational study enrolling consecutive cardiogenic shock patients. Blood samples were available for 179 patients at baseline to determine levels of miR-423-5p and other biomarkers. Patients were treated according to local practice. Main outcome was 90 day all-cause mortality. Median miR-423-5p level was significantly higher in 90 day non-survivors [median 0.008 arbitrary units (AU) (interquartile range 0.003-0.017) vs. 0.004 AU (0.002-0.009), P = 0.003]. miR-423-5p level above median was associated with higher lactate (median 3.7 vs. 2.4 mmol/L, P = 0.001) and alanine aminotransferase levels (median 68 vs. 35 IU/L, P <0.001) as well as lower cardiac index (1.8 vs. 2.4, P = 0.04) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (56 vs. 70 mL/min/1.73 m(2), P = 0.002). In Cox regression analysis, miR-423-5p level above median was associated with 90 day all-cause mortality independently of established risk factors of cardiogenic shock [adjusted hazard ratio 1.9 (95% confidence interval 1.2-3.2), P = 0.01]. Conclusions In cardiogenic shock patients, above median level of miR-423-5p at baseline is associated with markers of hypoperfusion and seems to independently predict 90 day all-cause mortality.
  • Holm, Matilda; Saraswat, Mayank; Joenväärä, Sakari; Ristimäki, Ari; Haglund, Caj; Renkonen, Risto (2018)
    Over 1.4 million people are diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC) each year, making it the third most common cancer in the world. Increased screening and therapeutic modalities including improved combination treatments have reduced CRC mortality, although incidence and mortality rates are still increasing in some areas. Serum-based biomarkers are mainly used for follow-up of cancer, and are ideal due to the ease and minimally invasive nature of sample collection. Unfortunately, CEA and other serum markers have too low sensitivity for screening and preoperative diagnostic purposes. Increasing interest is focused on the possible use of biomarkers for predicting treatment response and prognosis in cancer. In this study, we have performed mass spectrometry analysis (UPLC-UDMSE) of serum samples from 19 CRC patients. Increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), which occur during local inflammation and the presence of a systemic inflammatory response, have been linked to poor prognosis in CRC patients. We chose to analyze samples according to CRP values by dividing them into the categories CRP 30, and, separately, according to short and long 5-year survival. The aim was to discover differentially expressed proteins associated with poor prognosis and shorter survival. We quantified 256 proteins and performed detailed statistical analyses and pathway analysis. We discovered multiple proteins that are up- or downregulated in patients with CRP >30 as compared to CRP
  • Saraswat, Mayank; Joenvaara, Sakari; Seppanen, Hanna; Mustonen, Harri; Haglund, Caj; Renkonen, Risto (2017)
    Finland ranks sixth among the countries having highest incidence rate of pancreatic cancer with mortality roughly equaling incidence. The average age of diagnosis for pancreatic cancer is 69years in Nordic males, whereas the average age of diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis is 40-50years, however, many cases overlap in age. By radiology, the evaluation of a pancreatic mass, that is, the differential diagnosis between chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer is often difficult. Preoperative needle biopsies are difficult to obtain and are demanding to interpret. New blood based biomarkers are needed. The accuracy of the only established biomarker for pancreatic cancer, CA 19-9 is rather poor in differentiating between benign and malignant mass of the pancreas. In this study, we have performed mass spectrometry analysis (High Definition MSE) of serum samples from patients with chronic pancreatitis (13) and pancreatic cancer (22). We have quantified 291 proteins and performed detailed statistical analysis such as principal component analysis, orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis and receiver operating curve analysis. The proteomic signature of chronic pancreatitis versus pancreatic cancer samples was able to separate the two groups by multiple statistical techniques. Some of the enriched pathways in the proteomic dataset were LXR/RXR activation, complement and coagulation systems and inflammatory response. We propose that multiple high-confidence biomarker candidates in our pilot study including Inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H2 (Area under the curve, AUC: 0.947), protein AMBP (AUC: 0.951) and prothrombin (AUC: 0.917), which should be further evaluated in larger patient series as potential new biomarkers for differential diagnosis.
  • Gong, BS; Li, D; Kusko, R; Novoradovskaya, N; Zhang, YF; Wang, SZ; Pabon-Pena, C; Zhang, ZH; Lai, K; Cai, WS; LoCoco, JS; Lader, E; Richmond, TA; Mittal, VK; Liu, LC; Johann, DJ; Willey, JC; Bushel, PR; Yu, Y; Xu, C; Chen, GC; Burgess, D; Cawley, S; Giorda, K; Haseley, N; Qiu, FJ; Wilkins, K; Arib, H; Attwooll, C; Babson, K; Bao, LL; Bao, WJ; Lucas, AB; Best, H; Bhandari, A; Bisgin, H; Blackburn, J; Blomquist, TM; Boardman, L; Burgher, B; Butler, DJ; Chang, CJ; Chaubey, A; Chen, T; Chierici, M; Chin, CR; Close, D; Conroy, J; Coleman, JC; Craig, DJ; Crawford, E; del Pozo, A; Deveson, IW; Duncan, D; Eterovic, AK; Fan, XH; Foox, J; Furlanello, C; Ghosal, A; Glenn, S; Guan, MJ; Haag, C; Hang, XY; Happe, S; Hennigan, B; Hipp, J; Hong, HX; Horvath, K; Hu, JH; Hung, LY; Jarosz, M; Kerkhof, J; Kipp, B; Kreil, DP; Lapunzina, P; Li, P; Li, QZ; Li, WH; Li, ZG; Liang, Y; Liu, SQ; Liu, ZC; Ma, C; Marella, N; Martin-Arenas, R; Megherbi, DB; Meng, QC; Mieczkowski, PA; Morrison, T; Muzny, D; Ning, BT; Parsons, BL; Paweletz, CP; Pirooznia, M; Qu, WB; Raymond, A; Rindler, P; Ringler, R; Sadikovic, B; Scherer, A; Schulze, E; Sebra, R; Shaknovich, R; Shi, Q; Shi, TL; Silla-Castro, JC; Smith, M; Lopez, MS; Song, P; Stetson, D; Strahl, M; Stuart, A; Supplee, J; Szankasi, P; Tan, HW; Tang, LY; Tao, YH; Thakkar, S; Thierry-Mieg, D; Thierry-Mieg, J; Thodima, VJ; Thomas, D; Tichy, B; Tom, N; Garcia, EV; Verma, S; Walker, K; Wang, C; Wang, JW; Wang, YX; Wen, ZN; Wirta, V; Wu, LH; Xiao, CL; Xiao, WZ; Xu, SB; Yang, M; Ying, JM; Yip, SH; Zhang, GL; Zhang, S; Zhao, MR; Zheng, YT; Zhou, XY; Mason, CE; Mercer, T; Tong, WD; Shi, LM; Jones, W; Xu, JS (2021)
    BackgroundTargeted sequencing using oncopanels requires comprehensive assessments of accuracy and detection sensitivity to ensure analytical validity. By employing reference materials characterized by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration-led SEquence Quality Control project phase2 (SEQC2) effort, we perform a cross-platform multi-lab evaluation of eight Pan-Cancer panels to assess best practices for oncopanel sequencing.ResultsAll panels demonstrate high sensitivity across targeted high-confidence coding regions and variant types for the variants previously verified to have variant allele frequency (VAF) in the 5-20% range. Sensitivity is reduced by utilizing VAF thresholds due to inherent variability in VAF measurements. Enforcing a VAF threshold for reporting has a positive impact on reducing false positive calls. Importantly, the false positive rate is found to be significantly higher outside the high-confidence coding regions, resulting in lower reproducibility. Thus, region restriction and VAF thresholds lead to low relative technical variability in estimating promising biomarkers and tumor mutational burden.ConclusionThis comprehensive study provides actionable guidelines for oncopanel sequencing and clear evidence that supports a simplified approach to assess the analytical performance of oncopanels. It will facilitate the rapid implementation, validation, and quality control of oncopanels in clinical use.
  • Lopes, Nair; Bergsland, Christian Holst; Bjornslett, Merete; Pellinen, Teijo; Svindland, Aud; Nesbakken, Arild; Almeida, Raquel; Lothe, Ragnhild A.; David, Leonor; Bruun, Jarle (2020)
    Flourescence-based multiplex immunohistochemistry (mIHC) combined with multispectral imaging and digital image analysis (DIA) is a quantitative high-resolution method for determination of protein expression in tissue. We applied this method for five biomarkers (CDX2, SOX2, SOX9, E-cadherin, and beta-catenin) using tissue microarrays of a Norwegian unselected series of primary colorectal cancer. The data were compared with previously obtained chromogenic IHC data of the same tissue cores, visually assessed by the Allred method. We found comparable results between the methods, although confirmed that DIA offered improved resolution to differentiate cases with high and low protein expression. However, we experienced inherent challenges with digital image analysis of membrane staining, which was better assessed visually. DIA and mIHC enabled quantitative analysis of biomarker coexpression on the same tissue section at the single-cell level, revealing a strong negative correlation between the differentiation markers CDX2 and SOX2. Both methods confirmed known prognostic associations for CDX2, but DIA improved data visualization and detection of clinicopathological and biological associations. In summary, mIHC combined with DIA is an efficient and reliable method to evaluate protein expression in tissue, here shown to recapitulate and improve detection of known clinicopathological and survival associations for the emerging biomarker CDX2, and is therefore a candidate approach to standardize CDX2 detection in pathology laboratories.
  • Gupta, Richa; van Dongen, Jenny; Fu, Yu; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Tyndale, Rachel F.; Velagapudi, Vidya; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Korhonen, Tellervo; Kaprio, Jaakko; Loukola, Anu; Ollikainen, Miina (2019)
    BackgroundDNA methylation alteration extensively associates with smoking and is a plausible link between smoking and adverse health. We examined the association between epigenome-wide DNA methylation and serum cotinine levels as a proxy of nicotine exposure and smoking quantity, assessed the role of SNPs in these associations, and evaluated molecular mediation by methylation in a sample of biochemically verified current smokers (N=310).ResultsDNA methylation at 50 CpG sites was associated (FDR
  • Nocera, Irene; Bonelli, Francesca; Vitale, Valentina; Meucci, Valentina; Conte, Giuseppe; Jose-Cunilleras, Eduard; Gracia-Calvo, Luis Alfonso; Sgorbini, Micaela (2021)
    Simple Summary Procalcitonin (PCT) increased in the case of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), especially due to bacterial infection. The correlation between SIRS score and plasma PCT levels in horses have not been evaluated, and no studies investigated plasma PCT concentration over time. In the present study, PCT and SIRS score were evaluated in colic horses at admission to the hospital and at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. Statistically differences were detected between healthy vs. all colic horses and between healthy vs. SIRS positive or SIRS negative horses. No correlation was observed between SIRS score and PCT. This suggests a role of plasmatic PCT as good biomarker for colic. Colic horses show systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) clinical signs. Procalcitonin (PCT) showed increased circulating levels in sick horses. This study compares plasma PCT concentrations in healthy vs. SIRS negative/positive colic horses over time, and evaluates PCT and SIRS score potential correlation, to verify the usefulness of PCT for the evaluation of SIRS severity. Ninety-one horses were included; 43/91 were healthy, on basis of physical examination, blood work and SIRS score (score = 0), while 48/91 were sick colic horses, classified as SIRS-negative (score < 2) and positive (score >= 2). Moreover, a 0-6 point-scale SIRS score was calculated (assessing mucous membrane color and blood lactate concentration). PCT was evaluated at admission, and at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, using a commercial kit for equine species. We verified by the ANOVA test PCT differences between healthy vs. colic horses, healthy vs. SIRS-negative or SIRS-positive colic horses, at all sampling times, and the correlation between the SIRS score at admission with the SIRS score. Statistically significant differences were detected between healthy vs. all colic horses and between healthy vs. SIRS-positive or negative horses at all sampling times. No correlation was observed between the SIRS score at admission and PCT values. PCT was statistically higher in colic horses compared to the healthy ones, suggesting a role as a biomarker for colic.
  • Tiainen, Leena; Korhonen, Emilia A.; Leppänen, Veli-Matti; Luukkaala, Tiina; Hämäläinen, Mari; Tanner, Minna; Lahdenperä, Outi; Vihinen, Pia; Jukkola, Arja; Karihtala, Peeter; Aho, Sonja; Moilanen, Eeva; Alitalo, Kari; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa (2019)
    BackgroundAngiopoietin growth factors (Angs) regulate angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis by binding to the endothelial Tie2 receptor. Ang2 expression is elevated in tissue hypoxia and inflammation, which also induce cleavage of the extracellular domain of the orphan Tie1 receptor. Here we have examined if the concentrations of Ang2 and the soluble extracellular domain of Tie1 in patient plasma are associated with the prognosis of patients with metastatic breast cancer.MethodsPlasma Tie1 and Ang2 levels were measured in metastatic breast cancer patients treated in a phase II trial with a taxane-bevacizumab combination chemotherapy in the first-line treatment setting. They were analyzed before treatment, after 6weeks and 6months of treatment, and at the final study visit. Using the median concentrations as cutoffs, Tie1 and Ang2 data were dichotomized into low and high concentration groups. Additionally, we analyzed Tie1 concentrations in plasma from 10 healthy women participating in a breast cancer primary prevention study.ResultsPlasma samples were available from 58 (89%) of the 65 patients treated in the trial. The baseline Tie1 levels of the healthy controls were significantly lower than those of the metastatic patients (p
  • Lemmelä, Susanna; Wigmore, Eleanor M.; Benner, Christian; Havulinna, Aki S.; Ong, Rachel M. Y.; Kempf, Tibor; Wollert, Kai C.; Blankenberg, Stefan; Zeller, Tanja; Peters, James E.; Salomaa, Veikko; Fritsch, Maria; March, Ruth; Palotie, Aarno; Daly, Mark; Butterworth, Adam S.; Kinnunen, Mervi; Paul, Dirk S.; Matakidou, Athena (2022)
    Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF15) is a stress response cytokine that is elevated in several cardiometabolic diseases and has attracted interest as a potential therapeutic target. To further explore the association of GDF15 with human disease, we conducted a broad study into the phenotypic and genetic correlates of GDF15 concentration in up to 14,099 individuals. Assessment of 772 traits across 6610 participants in FINRISK identified associations of GDF15 concentration with a range of phenotypes including all-cause mortality, cardiometabolic disease, respiratory diseases and psychiatric disorders, as well as inflammatory markers. A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of GDF15 concentration across three different assay platforms (n=14,099) confirmed significant heterogeneity due to a common missense variant (rs1058587; p.H202D) in GDF15, potentially due to epitope-binding artefacts. After conditioning on rs1058587, statistical fine mapping identified four independent putative causal signals at the locus. Mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis found evidence of a causal relationship between GDF15 concentration and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) but not body mass index (BMI). Using reverse MR, we identified a potential causal association of BMI on GDF15 (IVW p(FDR) = 0.0040). Taken together, our data derived from human population cohorts do not support a role for moderately elevated GDF15 concentrations as a causal factor in human cardiometabolic disease but support its role as a biomarker of metabolic stress.
  • Lehtomäki, Kaisa; Mustonen, Harri; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa; Joensuu, Heikki; Hermunen, Kethe; Soveri, Leena-Maija; Boisen, Mogens Karsbol; Dehlendorff, Christian; Johansen, Julia Sidenius; Haglund, Caj; Österlund, Pia (2021)
    Simple Summary Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide. Recurrence risk after curative intent surgery combined with adjuvant chemotherapy is substantial. Unlike many other cancers, curative metastasectomy is possible upon recurrence, which raises the question of personalized surveillance strategies according to individual risk factors. We studied whether elevated biomarkers, such as gold standard CEA and experimental CA19-9, IL-6, CRP, and YKL-40 after adjuvant therapy, are associated with disease-free and/or overall survival, and whether the diagnostic time from the elevated biomarker to the diagnosis of metastases can be prolonged by combining these biomarkers. We show that elevated post-adjuvant CEA, IL-6, and CRP are associated with impaired survival and that elevated IL-6 finds recurrences in patients with normal CEA. Lead time is shorter with CEA than with experimental biomarkers. Our findings thus may impact the follow-up strategies after curative intent treatment aiming at finding operable relapses. These biomarkers are readily available and feasible in clinical practice. In colorectal cancer (CRC), 20-50% of patients relapse after curative-intent surgery with or without adjuvant therapy. We investigated the lead times and prognostic value of post-adjuvant (8 months from randomisation to adjuvant treatment) serum CEA, CA19-9, IL-6, CRP, and YKL-40. We included 147 radically resected stage II-IV CRC treated with 24 weeks of adjuvant 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy in the phase III LIPSYT-study (ISRCTN98405441). All 147 were included in lead time analysis, but 12 relapsing during adjuvant therapy were excluded from post-adjuvant analysis. Elevated post-adjuvant CEA, IL-6, and CRP were associated with impaired disease-free survival (DFS) with hazard ratio (HR) 5.21 (95% confidence interval 2.32-11.69); 3.72 (1.99-6.95); 2.58 (1.18-5.61), respectively, and elevated IL-6 and CRP with impaired overall survival (OS) HR 3.06 (1.64-5.73); 3.41 (1.55-7.49), respectively. Elevated post-adjuvant IL-6 in CEA-normal patients identified a subgroup with impaired DFS. HR 3.12 (1.38-7.04) and OS, HR 3.20 (1.39-7.37). The lead times between the elevated biomarker and radiological relapse were 7.8 months for CEA and 10.0-53.1 months for CA19-9, IL-6, CRP, and YKL-40, and the lead time for the five combined was 27.3 months. Elevated post-adjuvant CEA, IL-6, and CRP were associated with impaired DFS. The lead time was shortest for CEA.
  • Khatun, Masuma; Urpilainen, Elina; Ahtikoski, Anne; Arffman, Riikka K.; Pasanen, Annukka; Puistola, Ulla; Tapanainen, Juha S.; Andersson, Leif C.; Butzow, Ralf; Loukovaara, Mikko; Piltonen, Terhi T. (2021)
    Stanniocalcin-1 (STC-1) is a glycoprotein hormone involved in diverse biological processes, including regulation of calcium phosphate homeostasis, cell proliferation, apoptosis, inflammation, oxidative stress responses, and cancer development. The role of STC-1 in endometrial cancer (EC) is yet to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the protein expression pattern of STC-1 in a tissue microarray (TMA) cohort of hysterectomy specimens from 832 patients with EC. We then evaluated the prognostic value of STC-1 expression regarding the clinicopathologic features and patients survival over a period of 140 months. Our results revealed that in EC tissue samples, STC-1 is mainly localized in the endometrial epithelium, although some expression was also observed in the stroma. Decreased STC-1 expression was associated with factors relating to a worse prognosis, such as grade 3 endometrioid tumors (p = 0.030), deep myometrial invasion (p = 0.003), lymphovascular space invasion (p = 0.050), and large tumor size (p = 0.001). Moreover, STC-1 expression was decreased in tumors obtained from obese women (p = 0.014) and in women with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2; p = 0.001). Interestingly, the data also showed an association between DNA mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency and weak STC-1 expression, specifically in the endometrial epithelium (p = 0.048). No association was observed between STC-1 expression and disease-specific survival. As STC-1 expression was particularly low in cases with obesity and DMT2 in the TMA cohort, we also evaluated the correlation between metformin use and STC-1 expression in an additional EC cohort that only included women with DMT2 (n = 111). The analysis showed no difference in STC-1 expression in either the epithelium or the stroma in women undergoing metformin therapy compared to metformin non-users. Overall, our data may suggest a favorable role for STC-1 in EC behavior; however, further studies are required to elucidate the detailed mechanism and possible applications to cancer treatment.
  • Imbery, Carolin A.; Dieterle, Frank; Ottka, Claudia; Weber, Corinna; Schlotterbeck, Goetz; Mueller, Elisabeth; Lohi, Hannes; Giger, Urs (2022)
    Hepatopathies can cause major metabolic abnormalities in humans and animals. This study examined differences in serum metabolomic parameters and patterns in left-over serum samples from dogs with either congenital portosystemic shunts (cPSS, n = 24) or high serum liver enzyme activities (HLEA, n = 25) compared to control dogs (n = 64). A validated targeted proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy platform was used to assess 123 parameters. Principal component analysis of the serum metabolome demonstrated distinct clustering among individuals in each group, with the cluster of HLEA being broader compared to the other groups, presumably due to the wider spectrum of hepatic diseases represented in these samples. While younger and older adult control dogs had very similar metabolomic patterns and clusters, there were changes in many metabolites in the hepatopathy groups. Higher phenylalanine and tyrosine concentrations, lower branched-chained amino acids (BCAAs) concentrations, and altered fatty acid parameters were seen in cPSS dogs compared to controls. In contrast, dogs with HLEA had increased concentrations of BCAAs, phenylalanine, and various lipoproteins. Machine learning based solely on the metabolomics data showed excellent group classification, potentially identifying a novel tool to differentiate hepatopathies. The observed changes in metabolic parameters could provide invaluable insight into the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and prognosis of hepatopathies.
  • Kidakova, Anna; Boroznjak, Roman; Reut, Jekaterina; Öpik, Andres; Saarma, Mart; Syritski, Vitali (2020)
    In this study we report on a surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor modified with a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) film that selectively recognizes the cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) protein, a potential biomarker for early-stage diagnosis and/or the follow-up of neuroprotective therapies. CDNF-MIP as a synthetic recognition element was prepared by a simple electrochemical surface imprinting approach allowing its reliable interfacing with SAW sensor. The optimal thickness of the MIP layer as well as a suitable pretreatment method were adjusted to improve the recognition capacity and selectivity of the resulting CDNF-MIP sensor. The 4.7 nm thick CDNF-MIP layers treated in 0.04 mg/ml HSA solution demonstrated the highest relative rebinding towards CDNF. The selectivity of the sensor was studied by the carefully designed competitive binding experiments, which revealed that the sensor can sense CDNF confidently in a label-free manner starting from 0.1 pg/ml. We anticipate that the findings can be a premise for fabricating the desired cost-effective research or diagnostics tools in the field of neurodegenerative diseases.
  • Mito, Takayuki; Vincent, Amy E.; Faitg, Julie; Taylor, Robert W.; Khan, Nahid A.; McWilliams, Thomas G.; Suomalainen, Anu (2022)
    Mitophagy is a quality control mechanism that eliminates damaged mitochondria, yet its significance in mammalian pathophysiology and aging has remained unclear. Here, we report that mitophagy contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle of aged mice and human patients. The early disease stage is characterized by muscle fibers with central nuclei, with enhanced mitophagy around these nuclei. However, progressive mitochondrial dysfunction halts mitophagy and disrupts lysosomal homeostasis. Interestingly, activated or halted mitophagy occur in a mosaic manner even in adjacent muscle fibers, indicating cell-autonomous regulation. Rapamycin restores mitochondrial turnover, indicating mTOR-dependence of mitochondrial recycling in advanced disease stage. Our evidence suggests that (1) mitophagy is a hallmark of age-related mitochondrial pathology in mammalian muscle, (2) mosaic halting of mitophagy is a mechanism explaining mosaic respiratory chain deficiency and accumulation of pathogenic mtDNA variants in adult-onset mitochondrial diseases and normal aging, and (3) augmenting mitophagy is a promising therapeutic approach for muscle mitochondrial dysfunction.
  • Wang, Xiao-Jun; Gao, Jing; Yu, Qin; Zhang, Min; Hu, Wei-Dong (2022)
    BackgroundThe competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network-mediated regulatory mechanisms in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) remain largely unknown. This study aimed to integrate multi-omics profiles, including the transcriptome, regulome, genome and pharmacogenome profiles, to elucidate prioritised ceRNA characteristics, pathways and drug candidates in SCLC. MethodWe determined the plasma messenger RNA (mRNA), microRNA (miRNA), long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) and circular RNA (circRNA) expression levels using whole-transcriptome sequencing technology in our SCLC plasma cohort. Significantly expressed plasma mRNAs were then overlapped with the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) tissue mRNA data (GSE 40275, SCLC tissue cohort). Next, we applied a multistep multi-omics (transcriptome, regulome, genome and pharmacogenome) integration analysis to first construct the network and then to identify the lncRNA/circRNA-miRNA-mRNA ceRNA characteristics, genomic alterations, pathways and drug candidates in SCLC. ResultsThe multi-omics integration-based prioritisation of SCLC ceRNA regulatory networks consisted of downregulated mRNAs (CSF3R/GAA), lncRNAs (AC005005.4-201/DLX6-AS1-201/NEAT1-203) and circRNAs (hsa_HLA-B_1/hsa_VEGFC_8) as well as upregulated miRNAs (hsa-miR-4525/hsa-miR-6747-3p). lncRNAs (lncRNA-AC005005.4-201 and NEAT1-203) and circRNAs (circRNA-hsa_HLA-B_1 and hsa_VEGFC_8) may regulate the inhibited effects of hsa-miR-6747-3p for CSF3R expression in SCLC, while lncRNA-DLX6-AS1-201 or circRNA-hsa_HLA-B_1 may neutralise the negative regulation of hsa-miR-4525 for GAA in SCLC. CSF3R and GAA were present in the genomic alteration, and further identified as targets of FavId and Trastuzumab deruxtecan, respectively. In the SCLC-associated pathway analysis, CSF3R was involved in the autophagy pathways, while GAA was involved in the glucose metabolism pathways. ConclusionsWe identified potential lncRNA/cirRNA-miRNA-mRNA ceRNA regulatory mechanisms, pathways and promising drug candidates in SCLC, providing novel potential diagnostics and therapeutic targets in SCLC.
  • Passov, Arie; Ilmakunnas, Minna; Pihlajoki, Marjut; Hermunen, Kethe; Lempinen, Marko; Helanterä, Ilkka; Kailari, Villemikko; Heikinheimo, Markku; Andersson, Sture; Pesonen, Eero (2021)
    Background: Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is a common clinical complication. Plasma/serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) has been proposed as a rapid marker of AKI. However, NGAL is not kidney-specific. It exists in three isoforms (monomeric, homo-dimeric and hetero-dimeric). Only the monomeric isoform is produced by renal tubular cells and plasma NGAL levels are confounded by the release of all NGAL isoforms from neutrophils. Our aim was to investigate whether NGAL is released into blood from injured renal tubules. Methods: Kidney transplantation (n = 28) served as a clinical model of renal ischaemic injury. We used ELISA to measure NGAL concentrations at 2 minutes after kidney graft reperfusion in simultaneously taken samples of renal arterial and renal venous blood. Trans-renal gradients (venous-arterial) of NGAL were calculated. We performed Western blotting to distinguish between renal and non-renal NGAL isoforms. Liver-type fatty acid binding protein (LFABP) and heart-type fatty acid binding protein (HFABP) served as positive controls of proximal and distal tubular damage. Results: Significant renal release of LFABP [trans-renal gradient 8.4 (1.7-30.0) ng/ml, p = 0.005] and HFABP [trans-renal gradient 3.7 (1.1-5.0) ng/ml, p = 0.003] at 2 minutes after renal graft reperfusion indicated proximal and distal tubular damage. NGAL concentrations were comparable in renal venous and renal arterial blood. Thus, there was no trans-renal gradient of NGAL. Western blotting revealed that the renal NGAL isoform represented only 6% of the total NGAL in renal venous blood. Conclusions: Ischaemic proximal and distal tubular damage occurs in kidney transplantation without concomitant NGAL washout from the kidney graft into blood. Plasma/serum NGAL levels are confounded by the release of NGAL from neutrophils. Present results do not support the interpretation that increase in plasma NGAL is caused by release from the renal tubules.
  • Pirinen, Eija; Auranen, Mari; Khan, Nahid A.; Brilhante, Virginia; Urho, Niina; Pessia, Alberto; Hakkarainen, Antti; Kuula, Juho; Heinonen, Ulla; Schmidt, Mark S.; Haimilahti, Kimmo; Piirilä, Päivi; Lundbom, Nina; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Brenner, Charles; Velagapudi, Vidya; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Suomalainen, Anu (2020)
    NAD(+) is a redox-active metabolite, the depletion of which has been proposed to promote aging and degenerative diseases in rodents. However, whether NAD(+) depletion occurs in patients with degenerative disorders and whether NAD(+) repletion improves their symptoms has remained open. Here, we report systemic NAD(+) deficiency in adult-onset mitochondrial myopathy patients. We administered an increasing dose of NAD(+) booster niacin, a vitamin B3 form (to 750-1,000 mg/day; clinicaltrials.gov NCT03973203) for patients and their matched controls for 10 or 4 months, respectively. Blood NAD(+) increased in all subjects, up to 8-fold, and muscle-NAD(+) of patients reached the level of their controls. Some patients showed anemia tendency, while muscle strength and mitochondrial biogenesis increased in all subjects. In patients, muscle metabolome shifted toward controls and liver fat decreased even 50%. Our evidence indicates that blood analysis is useful in identifying NAD(+) deficiency and points niacin to be an efficient NAD(+) booster for treating mitochondrial myopathy.