Browsing by Subject "BIOMARKERS"

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  • Hernández, Marcela; Baeza, Mauricio; Räisänen, Ismo T.; Contreras, Johanna; Tervahartiala, Taina; Chaparro, Alejandra; Sorsa, Timo; Hernández-Ríos, Patricia (2021)
    Periodontitis is a host-mediated bacterial disease that affects the tooth attachment apparatus. Metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8), a validated biomarker, could aid in clinical diagnosis. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of active (a) MMP-8 immunotest versus total (t) MMP-8 ELISA for quantitative real-time diagnosis and assessment of periodontitis severity at the site level. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) was sampled from 30 healthy, 42 mild, and 59 severe periodontitis sites from thirty-one volunteers. MMP-8 concentrations were determined by time-resolved immunofluorometric assay (IFMA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Statistical analysis was performed using the STATA package. Both active and total MMP-8-based methods discriminated among sites according to periodontal diagnosis and severity, with a positive correlation between the two tests (p < 0.001). (a) MMP-8 models showed the best performance in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to discriminate between healthy and periodontitis sites (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.89), while (t) MMP-8 demonstrated a high diagnostic precision in the detection of mild from severe periodontitis sites (AUC ≥ 0.80). The use of (a) MMP-8 and (t) MMP-8 could represent a useful adjunctive tool for periodontitis diagnosis and severity. These results support the applicability of new point-of-care methods in the monitoring of high-risk periodontal patients.
  • Zhu, Ruixin; Fogelholm, Mikael; Poppitt, Sally D.; Silvestre, Marta P.; Møller, Grith; Huttunen-Lenz, Maija; Stratton, Gareth; Sundvall, Jouko; Råman, Laura; Jalo, Elli; Taylor, Moira A.; Macdonald, Ian A.; Handjiev, Svetoslav; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Martinez, J. Alfredo; Muirhead, Roslyn; Brand-Miller, Jennie; Raben, Anne (2021)
    Plant-based diets are recommended by dietary guidelines. This secondary analysis aimed to assess longitudinal associations of an overall plant-based diet and specific plant foods with weight-loss maintenance and cardiometabolic risk factors. Longitudinal data on 710 participants (aged 26–70 years) with overweight or obesity and pre-diabetes from the 3-year weight-loss maintenance phase of the PREVIEW intervention were analyzed. Adherence to an overall plant-based diet was evaluated using a novel plant-based diet index, where all plant-based foods received positive scores and all animal-based foods received negative scores. After adjustment for potential confounders, linear mixed models with repeated measures showed that the plant-based diet index was inversely associated with weight regain, but not with cardiometabolic risk factors. Nut intake was inversely associated with regain of weight and fat mass and increments in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. Fruit intake was inversely associated with increments in diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol. Vegetable intake was inversely associated with an increment in diastolic blood pressure and triglycerides and was positively associated with an increase in HDL cholesterol. All reported associations with cardiometabolic risk factors were independent of weight change. Long-term consumption of nuts, fruits, and vegetables may be beneficial for weight management and cardiometabolic health, whereas an overall plant-based diet may improve weight management only.
  • Posti, Jussi P.; Takala, Riikka S. K.; Raj, Rahul; Luoto, Teemu M.; Azurmendi, Leire; Lagerstedt, Linnea; Mohammadian, Mehrbod; Hossain, Iftakher; Gill, Jessica; Frantzen, Janek; van Gils, Mark; Hutchinson, Peter J.; Katila, Ari J.; Koivikko, Pia; Maanpää, Henna-Riikka; Menon, David K.; Newcombe, Virginia F.; Tallus, Jussi; Blennow, Kaj; Tenovuo, Olli; Zetterberg, Henrik; Sanchez, Jean-Charles (2020)
    Background: Blood biomarkers may enhance outcome prediction performance of head computed tomography scores in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Objective: To investigate whether admission levels of eight different protein biomarkers can improve the outcome prediction performance of the Helsinki computed tomography score (HCTS) without clinical covariates in TBI. Materials and methods: Eighty-two patients with computed tomography positive TBIs were included in this study. Plasma levels of beta-amyloid isoforms 1-40 (A beta 40) and 1-42 (A beta 42), glial fibrillary acidic protein, heart fatty acid-binding protein, interleukin 10 (IL-10), neurofilament light, S100 calcium-binding protein B, and total tau were measured within 24 h from admission. The patients were divided into favorable (Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended 5-8, n = 49) and unfavorable (Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended 1-4, n = 33) groups. The outcome was assessed 6-12 months after injury. An optimal predictive panel was investigated with the sensitivity set at 90-100%. Results: The HCTS alone yielded a sensitivity of 97.0% (95% CI: 90.9-100) and specificity of 22.4% (95% CI: 10.2-32.7) and partial area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic of 2.5% (95% CI: 1.1-4.7), in discriminating patients with favorable and unfavorable outcomes. The threshold to detect a patient with unfavorable outcome was an HCTS > 1. The three best individually performing biomarkers in outcome prediction were A beta 40, A beta 42, and neurofilament light. The optimal panel included IL-10, A beta 40, and the HCTS reaching a partial area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic of 3.4% (95% CI: 1.7-6.2) with a sensitivity of 90.9% (95% CI: 81.8-100) and specificity of 59.2% (95% CI: 40.8-69.4). Conclusion: Admission plasma levels of IL-10 and A beta 40 significantly improve the prognostication ability of the HCTS after TBI.
  • Puurunen, Jenni; Ottka, Claudia; Salonen, Milla; Niskanen, Julia E.; Lohi, Hannes (2022)
    As an individual's metabolism reflects health and disease states well, metabolomics holds a vast potential in biomedical applications. However, normal physiological factors, such as age, can also influence metabolism, challenging the establishment of disease-specific metabolic aberrations. Here, we examined how physiological and diet-related factors drive variance in the metabolism of healthy pet dogs. We analysed 2068 serum samples using a canine nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy-based metabolomics platform. With generalized linear models, we discovered that age, breed, sex, sterilization, diet type and fasting time significantly affected the canine metabolite profiles. Especially, breed and age caused considerable variation in the metabolite concentrations, and breeds with very different body conformations systematically differed in several lipid measurands. Our results enhance the understanding how normal physiological factors influence canine metabolism, aid accurate interpretation of the NMR results, and suggest the NMR platform might be applied in identifying aberrations in nutrient absorption and metabolism.
  • Lähteenmäki, Hanna; Umeizudike, Kehinde A.; Heikkinen, Anna Maria; Räisänen, Ismo T.; Rathnayake, Nilminie; Johannsen, Gunnar; Tervahartiala, Taina; Nwhator, Solomon O.; Sorsa, Timo (2020)
    This communication article addresses currently available rapid non-invasive methods to screen and detect periodontitis and dental peri-implantitis. In this regard, oral fluid biomarkers have been researched extensively but self-reported oral health (SROH)-questionnaires have also been developed. Both alternatives may offer a quick and easy way to screen and detect diseased patients. Active matrix metalloproteinase (aMMP-8) is one of the most validated biomarkers for screening and detecting periodontal breakdown related to periodontitis and peri-implantitis and monitoring their treatment effects revealing successful, less- and non-successful treatment results. Currently available aMMP-8 lateral-flow technologies allow this kind of analysis, as demonstrated here, to be conducted quantitatively online and real-time as point-of-care/chairside testing in dental and even medical care settings. In this study, an aMMP-8 peri-implant sulcular fluid point-of-care-test diagnosed peri-implantitis and healthy implants far more accurately than bleeding-on-probing or the other biomarkers, such as polymorphonuclear (PMN)/neutrophil elastase, myeloperoxidase and MMP-9. Although, SROH-questionnaires allow screening in similar settings but they lack the information about the current disease activity of periodontitis and peri-implantitis, which is of essential value in periodontal diagnostics and treatment monitoring. Thus, both methods can be considered as adjunct methods for periodontitis and peri-implant diagnostics, but the value of oral fluid biomarkers analysis does not seem to be substitutable.
  • Int League Against Epilepsy Consor; Stevelink, Remi; Pangilinan, Faith; Jansen, Floor E.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Kälviäinen, Reetta; Kantanen, Anne-Mari; Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina; Palotie, Aarno (2019)
    Altered vitamin B6 metabolism due to pathogenic variants in the gene PNPO causes early onset epileptic encephalopathy, which can be treated with high doses of vitamin B6. We recently reported that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that influence PNPO expression in the brain are associated with genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE). However, it is not known whether any of these GGE-associated SNPs influence vitamin B6 metabolite levels. Such an influence would suggest that vitamin B6 could play a role in GGE therapy. Here, we performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to assess the influence of GGE associated genetic variants on measures of vitamin B6 metabolism in blood plasma in 2232 healthy individuals. We also asked if SNPs that influence vitamin B6 were associated with GGE in 3122 affected individuals and 20,244 controls. Our GWAS of vitamin B6 metabolites reproduced a previous association and found a novel genome-wide significant locus. The SNPs in these loci were not associated with GGE. We found that 84 GGE-associated SNPs influence expression levels of PNPO in the brain as well as in blood. However, these SNPs were not associated with vitamin B6 metabolism in plasma. By leveraging polygenic risk scoring (PRS), we found suggestive evidence of higher catabolism and lower levels of the active and transport forms of vitamin B6 in GGE, although these findings require further replication.
  • Heikkinen, Ilkka; Bello, Ibrahim O.; Wahab, Awais; Hagström, Jaana; Haglund, Caj; Coletta, Ricardo D.; Nieminen, Pentti; Makitie, Antti A.; Salo, Tuula; Leivo, Ilmo; Almangush, Alhadi (2019)
    Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have shown a promising prognostic value in many epithelial cancers. We sought to assess the prognostic value of TILs in a multicenter cohort of early oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC). The percentage of TILs was assessed on the surgical resection slides stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The assessment of TILs was performed in the stromal compartment and in the intraepithelial compartment (at the invasive front and at the center of the tumor). We followed the method that was described recently by the International Immuno-Oncology Biomarker Working Group for the assessment of TILs. A total of 308 cases from the 5 Finnish university hospitals and from A.C. Camargo Cancer Center, Sao Paulo, Brazil, were included. We found a promising prognostic value for stromal TILs at the invasive front in the multivariable analysis with a hazard ratio of 2.61 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.77-3.83; P
  • Koulaouzidis, Anastasios; Sipponen, Taina; Nemeth, Artur; Makins, Richard; Kopylov, Uri; Nadler, Moshe; Giannakou, Andry; Yung, Diana E.; Johansson, Gabriele Wurm; Bartzis, Leonidas; Thorlacius, Henrik; Seidman, Ernest G.; Eliakim, Rami; Plevris, John N.; Toth, Ervin (2016)
    Accurate inflammation reporting in capsule endoscopy (CE) is important for diagnosis and monitoring of treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Fecal calprotectin (FC) is a highly specific biomarker of gut inflammation. Lewis score (LS) was developed to standardize quantification of inflammation in small-bowel (SB) CE images. Multicenter retrospective study aiming to investigate correlation between LS and FC in a large group of patients undergoing CE for suspected or known small-bowel IBD, and to develop a model for prediction of CE results (LS) based on FC levels. Five academic centers and a district general hospital offering CE in UK, Finland, Sweden, Canada, and Israel. In total, 333 patients were recruited. They had small-bowel CE and FC done within 3 months. Overall, correlation between FC and LS was weak (r (s): 0.232, P <0.001). When two clinically significant FC thresholds (100 and 250 mu g/g) were examined, the r (s) between FC and LS was 0.247 (weak) and 0.337 (moderate), respectively (P = 0.307). For clinically significant (LS a parts per thousand yen 135) or negative (LS <135) for SB inflammation, ROC curves gave an optimum cutoff point of FC 76 mu g/g with sensitivity 0.59 and specificity 0.41. Limitations: Retrospective design. LS appears to show low correlation with FC as well as other serology markers of inflammation. FC does not appear to be a reliable biomarker for significant small-bowel inflammation. Nevertheless, FC level a parts per thousand yen 76 mu g/g may be associated with appreciable visual inflammation on small-bowel CE in patients with negative prior diagnostic workup.
  • Rautiola, Juhana; Lampinen, Anita; Mirtti, Tuomas; Ristimaki, Ari; Joensuu, Heikki; Bono, Petri; Saharinen, Pipsa (2016)
    The Angiopoietin-2 (Ang2, Angpt2) growth factor is a context-dependent antagonist/agonist ligand of the endothelial Tie2 receptor tyrosine kinase and known to promote tumour angiogenesis and metastasis. Angiopoietin antagonists have been tested in clinical cancer trials in combination with VEGF-based anti-angiogenic therapy, including sunitinib, which is widely used as a first-line therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). However, little is known about Ang2 protein expression in human tumours and the correlation of tumour Ang2 expression with tumour vascularization, tumour cell proliferation and response to anti-angiogenic therapies. Here, we evaluated, using immunohistochemistry, the expression of Ang2, CD31 and the cell proliferation marker Ki-67 in the primary kidney cancer from 136 mRCC patients, who received first-line sunitinib after nephrectomy. Ang2 protein expression was restrained to RCC tumour vessels, and correlated with tumour vascularization and response to sunitinib. High pre-therapeutic Ang2 expression, and more strongly, combined high expression of both Ang2 and CD31, were associated with a high clinical benefit rate (CBR). Low cancer Ki-67 expression, but not Ang2 or CD31 expression, was associated with favourable progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) as compared to patients with high Ki-67 expression (PFS 6.5 vs. 10.6 months, P = 0.009; OS, 15.7 vs. 28.5 months, P = 0.015). In summary, in this study to investigate endothelial Ang2 in mRCC patients treated with first-line sunitinib, high cancer Ang2 expression was associated with the CBR, but not PFS or OS, whereas low Ki-67 expression was significantly associated with long PFS and OS.
  • Karhula, Kati; Harma, Mikko; Sallinen, Mikael; Lindholm, Harri; Hirvonen, Ari; Elovainio, Marko; Kivimaki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Puttonen, Sampsa (2016)
    Although the prevalence of work-related stress has increased, knowledge on the contributions of that stress to long-term adverse health effects is still lacking. Stress biomarkers can reveal early signs of negative health effects, but no previous studies have measured both acute stress reactions and long-term exposure to job strain using both salivary cortisol and -amylase (AA). The present study examines the association between job strain and these biomarkers among shift-working female health care professionals in the laboratory and the field. The 95 participants were recruited from hospital wards categorized in either the top (high job strain [HJS] group, n = 42) or the bottom quartile of job strain (low job strain [LJS] group, n = 53), as rated by survey responses. Participants' self-perceived job strain was at least as high or low as the ward's average estimation. Saliva samples were collected during the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), preselected morning and night shifts, and a day off. There was a larger increase in the cortisol concentration of participants in the HJS than in the LJS group (2.27- vs. 1.48-fold, respectively, nonsignificant) during the TSST. Participants in the HJS group also had higher salivary AA levels 30 min after awakening on the morning-shift day than those in the LJS group (p = .02), whereas the salivary cortisol awakening response on the day off was higher in the LJS group (p = .05, education as a covariate). The remaining stress-biomarker results did not differ significantly between groups. These data suggest that HJS in shift-working health care professionals is weakly associated with changes in stress biomarkers.
  • PAROKRANK Steering Comm; Rathnayake, Nilminie; Gustafsson, Anders; Sorsa, Timo; Norhammar, Anna; Bostanci, Nagihan (2022)
    Background: Peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 (PGLYRP1) is an antimicrobial and proinflammatory innate immunity protein activated during infections. We aimed to investigate whether PGYLRP1 and associated molecules of the immune response in saliva is a cumulative outcome result of both MI and periodontal inflammation. Methods and Results: Two hundred patients with MI and another 200 matched non-MI controls were included. A full-mouthexamination was conducted to assess periodontal inflammation and collection of stimulated saliva was performed 6 to 10 weeks after the first MI. PGLYRP1, triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (TREM-1), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) were analyzed by ELISA. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 levels were determined by IFMA. Compared to controls, MI patients showed higher salivary PGLYRP1, but not TRIM-1 levels. The difference in PGLYRP1 levels remained after adjustment for covariates. In MI patients, the PGLYRP1 levels positively correlated with BOP and PPD 4 to 5 mm. Among non-MI subjects, the levels of PGLYRP1 correlated positively and significantly with BOP and total PPD. Salivary PGLYRP1 concentrations also showed strong positive correlations with levels of TRIM-1, IL-1 beta and MM P-8. In multivariate linear regression analysis, in MI patients, BOP and former smokingstatus displayed an association with salivary PGLYRP1 concentration. Conclusion: MI patients showed higher salivary PGLYRP1 levels than healthy controls, also after adjusting for smoking, sex, age and periodontal health status. Salivary levels of PGLYRP1 may reflect the overall inflammatory burden to chronic bacterial exposure, possibly underpinning the observed associations between periodontitis and exposure with MI.
  • Fedirko, Veronika; Jenab, Mazda; Meplan, Catherine; Jones, Jeb S.; Zhu, Wanzhe; Schomburg, Lutz; Siddiq, Afshan; Hybsier, Sandra; Overvad, Kim; Tjonneland, Anne; Omichessan, Hanane; Perduca, Vittorio; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Kuehn, Tilman; Katzke, Verena; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Karakatsani, Anna; Kotanidou, Anastasia; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Masala, Giovanna; Agnoli, Claudia; Naccarati, Alessio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Vermeulen, Roel C. H.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Nost, Therese Haugdahl; Lujan-Barroso, Leila; Ramon Quiros, J.; Maria Huerta, Jose; Rodriguez-Barranco, Miguel; Barricarte, Aurelio; Gylling, Bjoern; Harlid, Sophia; Bradbury, Kathryn E.; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Gunter, Marc; Murphy, Neil; Freisling, Heinz; Tsilidis, Kostas; Aune, Dagfinn; Riboli, Elio; Hesketh, John E.; Hughes, David J. (2019)
    Selenoprotein genetic variations and suboptimal selenium (Se) levels may contribute to the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) development. We examined the association between CRC risk and genotype for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in selenoprotein and Se metabolic pathway genes. Illumina Goldengate assays were designed and resulted in the genotyping of 1040 variants in 154 genes from 1420 cases and 1421 controls within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Multivariable logistic regression revealed an association of 144 individual SNPs from 63 Se pathway genes with CRC risk. However, regarding the selenoprotein genes, only TXNRD1 rs11111979 retained borderline statistical significance after adjustment for correlated tests (P-ACT = 0.10; P-ACT significance threshold was P <0.1). SNPs in Wingless/Integrated (Wnt) and Transforming growth factor (TGF) beta-signaling genes (FRZB, SMAD3, SMAD7) from pathways affected by Se intake were also associated with CRC risk after multiple testing adjustments. Interactions with Se status (using existing serum Se and Selenoprotein P data) were tested at the SNP, gene, and pathway levels. Pathway analyses using the modified Adaptive Rank Truncated Product method suggested that genes and gene x Se status interactions in antioxidant, apoptosis, and TGF-beta signaling pathways may be associated with CRC risk. This study suggests that SNPs in the Se pathway alone or in combination with suboptimal Se status may contribute to CRC development.
  • Palviainen, Mari; Laukkanen, Kirsi; Tavukcuoglu, Zeynep; Velagapudi, Vidya; Kärkkäinen, Olli; Hanhineva, Kati; Auriola, Seppo; Ranki, Annamari; Siljander, Pia (2020)
    Cancer alters cell metabolism. How these changes are manifested in the metabolite cargo of cancer-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) remains poorly understood. To explore these changes, EVs from prostate, cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), colon cancer cell lines, and control EVs from their noncancerous counterparts were isolated by differential ultracentrifugation and analyzed by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), electron microscopy (EM), Western blotting, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Although minor differences between the cancerous and non-cancerous cell-derived EVs were observed by NTA and Western blotting, the largest differences were detected in their metabolite cargo. Compared to EVs from noncancerous cells, cancer EVs contained elevated levels of soluble metabolites, e.g., amino acids and B vitamins. Two metabolites, proline and succinate, were elevated in the EV samples of all three cancer types. In addition, folate and creatinine were elevated in the EVs from prostate and CTCL cancer cell lines. In conclusion, we present the first evidence in vitro that the altered metabolism of different cancer cells is reflected in common metabolite changes in their EVs. These results warrant further studies on the significance and usability of this metabolic fingerprint in cancer.
  • Castelblanco, Esmeralda; Sarrias, Maria R.; Betriu, Angels; Soldevila, Berta; Barranco-Altirriba, Maria; Franch-Nadal, Josep; Valdivielso, Jose M.; Bermudez-Lopez, Marcelino; Groop, Per-Henrik; Fernandez, Elvira; Alonso, Nuria; Mauricio, Didac (2021)
    This study assessed the association of CD5L and soluble CD36 (sCD36) with the risk of a cardiovascular event (CVE), including CV death and all-cause mortality in CKD. We evaluated the association of CD5L and sCD36 with a predefined composite CV endpoint (unstable angina, myocardial infarction, transient ischemic attack, cerebrovascular accident, congestive heart failure, arrhythmia, peripheral arterial disease [PAD] or amputation by PAD, aortic aneurysm, or death from CV causes) and all-cause mortality using Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusted for CV risk factors. The analysis included 1,516 participants free from pre-existing CV disease followed up for 4 years. The median age was 62 years, 38.8% were female, and 26.8% had diabetes. There were 98 (6.5%) CVEs and 72 (4.8%) deaths, of which 26 (36.1%) were of CV origin. Higher baseline CD5L concentration was associated with increased risk of CVE (HR, 95% CI, 1.17, 1.0-1.36), and all-cause mortality (1.22, 1.01-1.48) after adjusting for age, sex, diabetes, systolic blood pressure, dyslipidemia, waist circumference, smoking, and CKD stage. sCD36 showed no association with adverse CV outcomes or mortality. Our study showed for the first time that higher concentrations of CD5L are associated with future CVE and all -cause mortality in individuals with CKD.
  • PRACTICAL Consortium; Bouras, Emmanouil; Karhunen, Ville; Gill, Dipender; Ahola-Olli, Ari; Mannikko, Minna; Auvinen, Juha; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Lehtimäki, Terho; Salomaa, Veikko; Raitakari, Olli; Salmi, Marko; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K. (2022)
    Background Epidemiological and experimental evidence has linked chronic inflammation to cancer aetiology. It is unclear whether associations for specific inflammatory biomarkers are causal or due to bias. In order to examine whether altered genetically predicted concentration of circulating cytokines are associated with cancer development, we performed a two-sample Mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis. Methods Up to 31,112 individuals of European descent were included in genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses of 47 circulating cytokines. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) robustly associated with the cytokines, located in or close to their coding gene (cis), were used as instrumental variables. Inverse-variance weighted MR was used as the primary analysis, and the MR assumptions were evaluated in sensitivity and colocalization analyses and a false discovery rate (FDR) correction for multiple comparisons was applied. Corresponding germline GWAS summary data for five cancer outcomes (breast, endometrial, lung, ovarian, and prostate), and their subtypes were selected from the largest cancer-specific GWASs available (cases ranging from 12,906 for endometrial to 133,384 for breast cancer). Results There was evidence of inverse associations of macrophage migration inhibitory factor with breast cancer (OR per SD = 0.88, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.94), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist with endometrial cancer (0.86, 0.80 to 0.93), interleukin-18 with lung cancer (0.87, 0.81 to 0.93), and beta-chemokine-RANTES with ovarian cancer (0.70, 0.57 to 0.85) and positive associations of monokine induced by gamma interferon with endometrial cancer (3.73, 1.86 to 7.47) and cutaneous T-cell attracting chemokine with lung cancer (1.51, 1.22 to 1.87). These associations were similar in sensitivity analyses and supported in colocalization analyses. Conclusions Our study adds to current knowledge on the role of specific inflammatory biomarker pathways in cancer aetiology. Further validation is needed to assess the potential of these cytokines as pharmacological or lifestyle targets for cancer prevention.
  • Ahola-Olli, Ari V.; Mustelin, Linda; Kalimeri, Maria; Kettunen, Johannes; Jokelainen, Jari; Auvinen, Juha; Puukka, Katri; Havulinna, Aki S.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Kähönen, Mika; Juonala, Markus; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Salomaa, Veikko; Perola, Markus; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Raitakari, Olli; Wurtz, Peter (2019)
    Aims/hypothesis Metabolomics technologies have identified numerous blood biomarkers for type 2 diabetes risk in case-control studies of middle-aged and older individuals. We aimed to validate existing and identify novel metabolic biomarkers predictive of future diabetes in large cohorts of young adults. Methods NMR metabolomics was used to quantify 229 circulating metabolic measures in 11,896 individuals from four Finnish observational cohorts (baseline age 24-45 years). Associations between baseline metabolites and risk of developing diabetes during 8-15 years of follow-up (392 incident cases) were adjusted for sex, age, BMI and fasting glucose. Prospective metabolite associations were also tested with fasting glucose, 2 h glucose and HOMA-IR at follow-up. Results Out of 229 metabolic measures, 113 were associated with incident type 2 diabetes in meta-analysis of the four cohorts (ORs per 1 SD: 0.59-1.50; p Conclusions/interpretation Metabolic biomarkers across multiple molecular pathways are already predictive of the long-term risk of diabetes in young adults. Comprehensive metabolic profiling may help to target preventive interventions for young asymptomatic individuals at increased risk.
  • Paajanen, Juuso; Laaksonen, Sanna; Ilonen, Ilkka; Vehmas, Tapio; Mäyränpää, Mikko I.; Sutinen, Eva; Kettunen, Eeva; Salo, Jarmo A.; Räsänen, Jari; Wolff, Henrik; Myllärniemi, Marjukka (2020)
    Within a larger national malignant pleural mesothelioma cohort, we identified 43 patients with unusually long survival times. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy in this subgroup, and the diagnosis was confirmed to be correct in most cases. In addition, we searched for clinical factors related to the prolonged survival time. Introduction: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a fatal malignancy strongly associated with previous asbestos exposure. Overall survival remains dismal, partly owing to poor response to available treatment. The aims of this study were to evaluate diagnostic accuracy in a group of patients with MPM with an unusually long survival time and to assess the factors related to this prolonged survival. Materials and Methods: Forty-three patients with overall survival exceeding 5 years were accepted to the long-term survivor (LTS) group, and these patients were compared with 84 patients with epithelial MPM. Data were collected from various national registries and electronic medical records. In addition, all available histopathologic diagnostic samples and computed tomography studies were re-evaluated by experienced specialists. Results: Our study showed a good diagnostic accuracy, with only 1 (0.5%) patient having an incorrect MPM diagnosis. Two (0.9%) localized malignant mesotheliomas and 2 (0.9%) well-differentiated papillary mesotheliomas were also found. LTS patients were younger, more frequently female, had a better performance status at time of diagnosis, and had less evidence of prior asbestos exposure. In multivariate analysis, we showed tumor size, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, and first-line treatment (both surgery and chemotherapy) to be associated with survival time. Conclusion: We confirmed the diagnosis of MPM in an overwhelming majority of patients in the LTS group. An epithelial subtype of MPM behaving clinically more indolently seems to exist, but further tumor and genetic characterization is needed. The prolonged survival time is most likely explained by a combination of tumor-, patient-, and treatment-related factors. (C) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Louca, Panayiotis; Nogal, Ana; Moskal, Aurelie; Goulding, Neil J.; Shipley, Martin J.; Alkis, Taryn; Lindbohm, Joni; Hu, Jie; Kifer, Domagoj; Wang, Ni; Chawes, Bo; Rexrode, Kathryn M.; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Kivimaki, Mika; Murphy, Rachel A.; Yu, Bing; Gunter, Marc J.; Suhre, Karsten; Lawlor, Deborah A.; Mangino, Massimo; Menni, Cristina (2022)
    Hypertension is the main modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality but discovering molecular mechanisms for targeted treatment has been challenging. Here we investigate associations of blood metabolite markers with hypertension by integrating data from nine intercontinental cohorts from the COnsortium of METabolomics Studies. We included 44,306 individuals with circulating metabolites (up to 813). Metabolites were aligned and inverse normalised to allow intra-platform comparison. Logistic models adjusting for covariates were performed in each cohort and results were combined using random-effect inverse-variance meta-analyses adjusting for multiple testing. We further conducted canonical pathway analysis to investigate the pathways underlying the hypertension-associated metabolites. In 12,479 hypertensive cases and 31,827 controls without renal impairment, we identified 38 metabolites, associated with hypertension after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, ethnicity, and multiple testing. Of these, 32 metabolite associations, predominantly lipid (steroids and fatty acyls) and organic acids (amino-, hydroxy-, and keto-acids) remained after further adjusting for comorbidities and dietary intake. Among the identified metabolites, 5 were novel, including 2 bile acids, 2 glycerophospholipids, and ketoleucine. Pathway analysis further implicates the role of the amino-acids, serine/glycine, and bile acids in hypertension regulation. In the largest cross-sectional hypertension-metabolomics study to date, we identify 32 circulating metabolites (of which 5 novel and 27 confirmed) that are potentially actionable targets for intervention. Further in-vivo studies are needed to identify their specific role in the aetiology or progression of hypertension.
  • Jain, Shruti; Nadeem, Nimrah; Ulfenborg, Benjamin; Mäkelä, Maria; Ruma, Shamima Afrin; Terävä, Joonas; Huhtinen, Kaisa; Leivo, Janne; Kristjansdottir, Björg; Pettersson, Kim; Sundfeldt, Karin; Gidwani, Kamlesh (2022)
    Our study reports the discovery and evaluation of nanoparticle aided sensitive assays for glycovariants of MUC16 and MUC1 in a unique collection of paired ovarian cyst fluids and serum samples obtained at or prior to surgery for ovarian carcinoma suspicion. Selected glycovariants and the immunoassays for CA125, CA15-3 and HE4 were compared and validated in 347 cyst fluid and serum samples. Whereas CA125 and CA15-3 performed poorly in cyst fluid to separate carcinoma and controls, four glycovariants including MUC16(MGL), MUC16(STn), MUC1(STn) and MUC1(Tn) provided highly improved separations. In serum, the two STn glycovariants outperformed conventional CA125, CA15-3 and HE4 assays in all subcategories analyzed with main benefits obtained at high specificities and at postmenopausal and early-stage disease. Serum MUC16(STn) performed best at high specificity (90%-99%), but sensitivity was also improved by the other glycovariants and CA15-3. The highly improved specificity, excellent analytical sensitivity and robustness of the nanoparticle assisted glycovariant assays carry great promise for improved identification and early detection of ovarian carcinoma in routine differential diagnostics.
  • Zamora-Ros, Raul; Cayssials, Valerie; Jenab, Mazda; Rothwell, Joseph A.; Fedirko, Veronika; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Tjonneland, Anne; Kyro, Cecilie; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Carbonnel, Franck; Mahamat-Saleh, Yahya; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kuehn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elissavet; Vasilopoulou, Effie; Masala, Giovanna; Pala, Valeria; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Lukic, Marko; Sandanger, Torkjel M.; Lasheras, Cristina; Agudo, Antonio; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Amiano, Pilar; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Sonestedt, Emily; Ohlsson, Bodil; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Rutegard, Martin; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Peeters, Petra H.; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Bradbury, Kathryn; Freisling, Heinz; Romieu, Isabelle; Cross, Amanda J.; Vineis, Paolo; Scalbert, Augustin (2018)
    Polyphenols may play a chemopreventive role in colorectal cancer (CRC); however, epidemiological evidence supporting a role for intake of individual polyphenol classes, other than flavonoids is insufficient. We evaluated the association between dietary intakes of total and individual classes and subclasses of polyphenols and CRC risk and its main subsites, colon and rectum, within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. The cohort included 476,160 men and women from 10 European countries. During a mean follow-up of 14years, there were 5991 incident CRC cases, of which 3897 were in the colon and 2094 were in the rectum. Polyphenol intake was estimated using validated centre/country specific dietary questionnaires and the Phenol-Explorer database. In multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models, a doubling in total dietary polyphenol intake was not associated with CRC risk in women (HRlog2=1.06, 95% CI 0.99-1.14) or in men (HRlog2=0.97, 95% CI 0.90-1.05), respectively. Phenolic acid intake, highly correlated with coffee consumption, was inversely associated with colon cancer in men (HRlog2=0.91, 95% CI 0.85-0.97) and positively associated with rectal cancer in women (HRlog2=1.10, 95% CI 1.02-1.19); although associations did not exceed the Bonferroni threshold for significance. Intake of other polyphenol classes was not related to colorectal, colon or rectal cancer risks. Our study suggests a possible inverse association between phenolic acid intake and colon cancer risk in men and positive with rectal cancer risk in women.