Browsing by Subject "BIOPSY"

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  • Puustinen, Lauri; Hakkarainen, Antti; Kivisaari, Reetta; Boyd, Sonja; Nieminen, Urpo; Färkkilä, Martti; Lundbom, Nina; Arkkila, Perttu (2017)
    Background: Liver biopsy is the gold standard in evaluating inflammation and fibrosis in autoimmune hepatitis.Aims: In search of non-invasive follow-up tools in autoimmune hepatitis, we evaluated (31)phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (P-31 MRS).Methods: Twelve consecutive AIH patients (mean age 42.8 years, 10 women) underwent liver biopsy, routine laboratory liver function tests, which were compared to findings in P-31 MRS and transient elastography (TE).Results: Phosphoenolpuryvate (PEP) correlated with the grade of inflammation (r=0.746, p=.005) and thromboplastin time (r=0.592, p=.043). It also differentiated patients with active inflammation from patients without (t=3.781, p=.009). There was no correlation between PEP and aminotransferase or immunoglobulin G levels.The phosphoethanolamine (PE)/phosphocholine (PC) ratio, PE/glyserophosphoethanolamine (GPE) ratio and PC/[total phosphomonoester (PME)+phosphodiester (PDE)] ratios correlated with immunoglobulin G (r=0.764, p=.006; r=0.618, p=.043; and r=-0.636, p=.035, respectively).PME/PDE and PE/GPE correlated with fibrosis (r=0.668, p=.018 and r=0.604, p=.037). PE/GPE also differentiated F3 from F0-2 patients (t=3.810, p=.003).Phosphorus metabolites did not correlate with TE results and TE did not correlate with liver histology or laboratory parameters.Conclusions: P-31 MRS seems to detect active inflammation and advanced fibrosis in AIH patients. TE was ineffective in fibrosis quantification.
  • Auvinen, Anssi; Rannikko, Antti; Taari, Kimmo; Kujala, Paula; Mirtti, Tuomas; Kenttämies, Anu; Rinta-Kiikka, Irina; Lehtimäki, Terho; Oksala, Niku; Pettersson, Kim; Tammela, Teuvo L. (2017)
    The current evidence of PSA-based prostate cancer screening shows a reduction in cause-specific mortality, but with substantial overdiagnosis. Recently, new developments in detection of clinically relevant prostate cancer include multiple kallikreins as biomarkers besides PSA, and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) for biopsy decision. They offer opportunities for improving the outcomes in screening, particularly reduction in overdiagnosis and higher specificity for potentially lethal cancer. A population-based randomized screening trial will be started, with 67,000 men aged 55-67 years at entry. A quarter of the men will be allocated to the intervention arm, and invited to screening. The control arm will receive no intervention. All men in the screening arm will be offered a serum PSA determination. Those with PSA of 3 ng/ml or higher will have an additional multi-kallikrein panel and those with indications of increased risk of clinically relevant prostate cancer will undergo mpMRI. Men with a malignancy-suspect finding in MRI are referred to targeted biopsies. Screening interval is 6 years for men with baseline PSA <1.5 ng/ml, 4 years with PSA 1.5-3.0 and 2 years if initial PSA > 3. The main outcome of the trial is prostate cancer mortality, with analysis at 10 and 15 years. The statistical power is sufficient for detecting a 28% reduction at 10 years and 22% at 15 years. The proposed study has the potential to provide the evidence to justify screening as a public health policy if mortality benefit can be sustained with substantially reduced overdiagnosis.
  • Tammela, Teuvo L.; Häggman, Michael; Ladjevardi, Sam; Taari, Kimmo; Isotalo, Taina; Lennernäs, Hans; Weis, Jan; von Below, Catrin; Wassberg, Cecilia; Lennernäs, Bo; Tolf, Anna; Axén, Niklas; Gölander, Carl-Gustaf; Ahlström, Håkan (2017)
    Purpose: We investigated the tolerability, safety and antitumor effects of a novel intraprostatic depot formulation of antiandrogen 2-hydroxyflutamide (in Nano-Zolid (R)) in men with localized prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: Two clinical trials, LPC-002 and LPC-003, were performed in a total of 47 men. The formulation was injected transrectally into the prostate under ultrasound guidance. In LPC-002 the effects on prostate specific antigen and prostate volume were measured for 6 months in 24 patients. In LPC-003 antitumor effects were evaluated by histopathology and magnetic resonance imaging including spectroscopy during 6 or 8 weeks in 23 patients. In each study testosterone and 2-hydroxyflutamide in plasma were measured as well as quality of life parameters. Results: In LPC-002 (mean dose 690 mg) a reduction was observed in prostate specific antigen and prostate volume. Average nadir prostate specific antigen and prostate volume were 24.9% and 14.0% below baseline, respectively. When increasing the dose in LPC-003 to 920 and 1,740 mg, average prostate specific antigen decreased 16% and 23% after 6 and 8 weeks, respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed morphological changes and a global reduction in metabolite concentrations following treatment, indicating an antitumor response. Injections did not result in hormone related side effects. Three serious adverse events were reported and all resolved with oral antibiotic treatment. Conclusions: Intraprostatic injections of 2-hydroxyflutamide depot formulations showed antitumor effects, and proved to be safe and tolerable. However, for better anticancer effects higher doses and better dose distribution are suggested.
  • Manninen, Atte A.; Gardberg, Maria; Juteau, Susanna; Ilmonen, Suvi; Jukonen, Joonas; Andersson, Noora; Carpen, Olli (2019)
    Background Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) is an important step in melanoma staging and prognostication. It is commonly performed for patients with intermediate thickness melanomas, based on clinicopathological features. However, only 20-25% of patients eventually demonstrate nodal involvement. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether tissue biomarkers with links to melanoma biology, together with clinicopathological parameters, could aid in the prediction of sentinel node involvement and improve selection of patients for SNB. In addition, we examined the role of these clinical or biological markers in disease outcome. Methods We collected a case-control cohort of 140 intermediate thickness (Breslow 0,9-4,0mm) melanoma patients with or without SNB involvement matched for age, gender, Breslow thickness and location. From this cohort, we tested the predictive value of common clinicopathological parameters (ulceration, mitotic count and tumor regression) and FMNL-2, ezrin and BRAF V600E immunoreactivity, for sentinel node involvement and survival. We further analyzed the correlations in the superficial spreading melanoma subtype. Results Based on our case control analysis, of the markers, BRAF V600E status (p = 0.010) and mitotic count (p = 0.036) correlated with SNB involvement. SNB status was a strong independent prognosticator for recurrence free survival (RFS p Conclusions These results demonstrate that BRAF immunohistochemistry could serve as a useful addition to a marker panel for selecting intermediate thickness melanoma patients for SNB.
  • PRIAS Study Grp; Drost, Frank-Jan H.; Rannikko, Antti; Valdagni, Riccardo; Pickles, Tom; Kakehi, Yoshiyuki; Remmers, Sebastiaan; van der Poel, Henk G.; Bangma, Chris H.; Roobol, Monique J. (2018)
    Background: Active surveillance (AS) for low-risk prostate cancer (PCa) appears to provide excellent long-term PCa-specific and overall survival. The choice for AS as initial treatment is mainly based on avoiding side effects from invasive treatment; but AS entails regular check-ups and the possibility of still having to switch or deciding to switch to invasive treatment. Here, we assessed the long-term follow-up data from AS in real life clinical practices. Methods: Data from the first 500 men, enrolled in PRIAS before July 2008 by 30 centers across 8 countries, were analyzed to provide long-term follow-up results. Men were advised to be regularly examined with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests, digital rectal examinations, and prostate biopsies. Men were advised to switch to invasive treatment if they had disease reclassification [Gleason score (GS) >= 3+ 4 on biopsy, more than two positive biopsy cores, a stage higher than cT2] or a PSA-doubling time of 0-3 years. We assessed time on AS, outcomes and reasons for discontinuing AS, and rates of potential unnecessary biopsies and treatments. Results: The median follow-up time was 6.5 years. During this period, 325 (65%) men discontinued after a median of 2.3 years and 121 (24%) men had no recent (> 1 year) data-update after a median of 7.3 years. The remaining 54 (11%) men were confirmed to be still on AS. Most men discontinued based on protocol advice; 38% had other reasons. During follow-up, 838 biopsy sessions were performed of which 79% to 90% did not lead to reclassification, depending on the criteria. Of the 325 discontinued men, 112 subsequently underwent radical prostatectomy (RP), 126 underwent radiotherapy, 57 switched to watchful waiting (WW) or died, and 30 had another or unknown treatment. RP results were available of 99 men: 34% to 68%, depending on definition, had favorable outcomes; 50% of unfavorable the outcomes occurred in the first 2 years. Of the 30 (6%) men who died, 1 man died due to PCa. Conclusions: These data, reflecting real life clinical practice, show that more than half of men switched to invasive treatment within 2.3 years, indicating limitations to the extent in which AS is able to reduce the adverse effects of overdiagnosis. Therefore, despite guidelines stating that PCa diagnosis must be uncoupled from treatment, it remains important to avoid overdiagnosing PCa as much as possible.
  • Björnström, Michaela; Niinikoski, Laura; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Leidenius, Marjut H. K.; Hukkinen, Katja (2022)
    Purpose: This study aims to compare the feasibility of VAE and BLES in the treatment of intraductal papillomas. Material and methods: Patients with a suspected intraductal papilloma who underwent a BLES or a VAE procedure were included in this retrospective study. The BLES procedures were performed between November 2011 and June 2016 and the VAE procedures between May 2018 and September 2020 at the Department of Radiology of Helsinki University Hospital (HUH). The procedures were performed with an intent of complete removal of the lesions. Results: In total, 72 patients underwent 78 BLES procedures and 95 patients underwent 99 VAE procedures. Altogether 52 (60%) papillomas with or without atypia were completely removed with VAE, whereas 24 (46%) were completely removed with BLES, p = 0.115. The median radiological size of the high-risk lesions completely removed with BLES was 6 mm (4-12 mm), whereas with VAE it was 8 mm (3-22 mm), p = 0.016. Surgery was omitted in 90 (94.7%) non-malignant breast lesions treated with VAE and in 66 (90.4%) treated with BLES, p = 0.368. Conclusion: Both VAE and BLES were feasible in the treatment of intraductal papillomas. In most non-malignant lesions surgery was avoided, but VAE was feasible in larger lesions than BLES. However, follow-up ultrasound was needed more often after VAE. The histopathologic assessment is more reliable after BLES, as the lesion is removed as a single sample. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Holmström, Oscar; Linder, Nina; Moilanen, Hannu; Suutala, Antti; Nordling, Stig; Ståhls, Anders; Lundin, Mikael; Diwan, Vinod; Lundin, Johan (2019)
    Background Detection of lymph node metastases is essential in breast cancer diagnostics and staging, affecting treatment and prognosis. lntraoperative microscopy analysis of sentinel lymph node frozen sections is standard for detection of axillary metastases but requires access to a pathologist for sample analysis. Remote analysis of digitized samples is an alternative solution but is limited by the requirement for high-end slide scanning equipment. Objective To determine whether the image quality achievable with a low-cost, miniature digital microscope scanner is sufficient for detection of metastases in breast cancer lymph node frozen sections. Methods Lymph node frozen sections from 79 breast cancer patients were digitized using a prototype miniature microscope scanner and a high-end slide scanner. Images were independently reviewed by two pathologists and results compared between devices with conventional light microscopy analysis as ground truth. Results Detection of metastases in the images acquired with the miniature scanner yielded an overall sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 99% and showed strong agreement when compared to light microscopy (k = 0.91). Strong agreement was also observed when results were compared to results from the high-end slide scanner (k = 0.94). A majority of discrepant cases were micrometastases and sections of which no anticytokeratin staining was available. Conclusion Accuracy of detection of metastatic cells in breast cancer sentinel lymph node frozen sections by visual analysis of samples digitized using low-cost, point-of-care microscopy is comparable to analysis of digital samples scanned using a high-end, whole slide scanner. This technique could potentially provide a workflow for digital diagnostics in resource-limited settings, facilitate sample analysis at the point-of-care and reduce the need for trained experts on-site during surgical procedures.
  • Almangush, Alhadi; Youssef, Omar; Pirinen, Matti; Sundström, Jari; Leivo, Ilmo; Mäkitie, Antti A. (2019)
    Tumour budding has emerged as a promising prognostic marker in many cancers. We systematically reviewed all studies that evaluated tumour budding in diagnostic biopsies. We conducted a systematic review of PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane library for all articles that have assessed tumour budding in diagnostic (i.e. pretreatment or pre-operative) biopsies of any tumour type. Two independent researchers screened the retrieved studies, removed duplicates, excluded irrelevant studies and extracted data from the eligible studies. A total of 13 reports comprising 11 cohorts were found to have studied tumour budding in diagnostic biopsies. All these reports showed that evaluation of tumour budding in diagnostic biopsies was easily applicable. A strong association was observed between tumour budding score in diagnostic biopsies and corresponding surgical samples. Evaluation of tumour budding in diagnostic biopsies had a significant prognostic value for lymph node metastasis and patient survival. In all studies, tumour budding was a valuable marker of tumour aggressiveness and can be evaluated in technically satisfactory diagnostic biopsies. Thus, the assessment of tumour budding seems to identify the behaviour of cancer, and therefore to facilitate treatment planning.
  • Taskinen, Seppo; Leskinen, Outi; Lohi, Jouko; Koskenvuo, Minna; Taskinen, Mervi (2019)
    Purpose: To evaluate the association between Wilms tumor histology at diagnosis and the change in Wilms' tumor volume during preoperative chemotherapy. Methods: We included all the 52 patients operated for Wilms tumor at 1988-2015, who had both pathology samples and either CT or MRI-images before and after preoperative chemotherapy, available for reevaluation. Results: The median tumor volume was 586 ml (IQR 323-903) at diagnosis. The median change in tumor volume was -68% (IQR -85 to -40, p <0.001) and the proportion of tumor necrosis 85% (IQR 24-97), after preoperative chemotherapy. There was a correlation between blastemal cell content in prechemotherapy cutting needle biopsy (CNB) sample and the reduction in tumor volume (Rho = -0.452, p = 0.002). High stromal and epithelial cell contents in CNB samples were associated with the lesser change in tumor volume (Rho = 0.279, p = 0.053 and Rho = 0.300, p = 0.038 respectively). Reduction of tumor volume and the proportion of tumor necrosis after chemotherapy were associated (Rho = -0.502, p <0.001). The actual viable tumor volume decreased in median by 97% (IQR 65-100), and the decrease could be seen in all cellular components. In three patients, the tumor volume increased more than 10% during the preoperative chemotherapy. Two of them had anaplastic tumor in the nephrectomy specimen. Conclusion: Wilms tumor total and viable tumor volumes were reduced by 68% and 97% with preoperative chemotherapy, respectively. High proportion of blastemal cells in CNB was associated with greatest decrease in Wilms tumor volume. Increase in tumor volume during preoperative chemotherapy may indicate anaplastic tumor and prolonging of preoperative therapy should be avoided. Type of study: Retrospective review. (C) 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Hietikko, Ronja; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas P.; Kenttämies, Anu; Ronkainen, Johanna; Ijäs, Kirsty; Lind, Kati; Marjasuo, Suvi; Oksala, Juha; Oksanen, Outi; Saarinen, Tuomas; Savolainen, Ritja; Taari, Kimmo; Tammela, Teuvo L. J.; Mirtti, Tuomas; Natunen, Kari; Auvinen, Anssi; Rannikko, Antti (2020)
    Background: The aim of this study is to investigate the potential impact of prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) -related interreader variability on a population-based randomized prostate cancer screening trial (ProScreen). Methods: From January 2014 to January 2018, 100 men aged 50-63 years with clinical suspicion of prostate cancer (PCa) in Helsinki University Hospital underwent MRI. Nine radiologists individually reviewed the pseudonymized MRI scans of all 100 men in two ProScreen trial centers. All 100 men were biopsied according to a histological composite variable comprising radical prostatectomy histology (N = 38) or biopsy result within 1 year from the imaging (N = 62). Fleiss' kappa (kappa) was used to estimate the combined agreement between all individual radiologists. Sample data were subsequently extrapolated to 1000-men subgroups of the ProScreen cohort. Results: Altogether 89% men of the 100-men sample were diagnosed with PCa within a median of 2.4 years of follow-up. Clinically significant PCa (csPCa) was identified in 76% men. For all PCa, mean sensitivity was 79% (SD +/- 10%, range 62-96%), and mean specificity 60% (SD +/- 22%, range 27-82%). For csPCa (Gleason Grade 2-5) MRI was equally sensitive (mean 82%, SD +/- 9%, range 67-97%) but less specific (mean 47%, SD +/- 20%, range 21-75%). Interreader agreement for any lesion was fair (kappa 0.40) and for PI-RADS 4-5 lesions it was moderate (kappa 0.60). Upon extrapolating these data, the average sensitivity and specificity to a screening positive subgroup of 1000 men from ProScreen with a 30% prevalence of csPCa, 639 would be biopsied. Of these, 244 men would be true positive, and 395 false positive. Moreover, 361 men would not be referred to biopsy and among these, 56 csPCas would be missed. The variation among the radiologists was broad as the least sensitive radiologist would have twice as many men biopsied and almost three times more men would undergo unnecessary biopsies. Although the most sensitive radiologist would miss only 2.6% of csPCa (false negatives), the least sensitive radiologist would miss every third. Conclusions: Interreader agreement was fair to moderate. The role of MRI in the ongoing ProScreen trial is crucial and has a substantial impact on the screening process.
  • Hakkarainen, Antti; Puustinen, Lauri; Kivisaari, Reetta; Boyd, Sonja; Nieminen, Urpo; Arkkila, Perttu; Lundbom, Nina (2017)
    Purpose: To study liver P-31 MRS, histology, transient elastography, and liver function tests in patients with virus C hepatitis (HCV) or autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) to test the hypothesis that P-31 MR metabolic profile of these diseases differ. Materials and methods: 25 patients with HCV (n = 12) or AIH (n = 13) underwent proton decoupled P-31 MRS spectroscopy performed on a 3.0 T MR imager. Intensities of phosphomonoesters (PME) of phosphoethanolamine (PE) and phosphocholine (PC), phosphodiesters (PDE) of glycerophosphoethanolamine( GPE) and glycerophosphocholine (GPC), and gamma, alpha and beta resonances of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) were determined. Liver stiffness was measured by transient elastography. Inflammation and fibrosis were staged according to METAVIR from biopsy samples. Activities of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALT) and thromboplastin time (TT) were determined from serum samples. Results: PME had a stronger correlation with AST (z = 1.73, p = 0.04) and ALT (z = 1.77, p = 0.04) in HCV than in AIH patients. PME, PME/PDE, PE/GPE correlated positively and PDE negatively with inflammatory activity. PE, PC and PME correlated positively with liver function tests. Conclusion: P-31-MRS suggests a more serious liver damage in HCV than in AIH with similar histopathological findings. P-31-MRS is more sensitive in detecting inflammation than fibrosis in the liver. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Xu, Haifeng; Lien, Tonje; Bergholtz, Helga; Fleischer, Thomas; Djerroudi, Lounes; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Sorlie, Therese; Aittokallio, Tero (2021)
    Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a preinvasive form of breast cancer with a highly variable potential of becoming invasive and affecting mortality of the patients. Due to the lack of accurate markers of disease progression, many women with detected DCIS are currently overtreated. To distinguish those DCIS cases who are likely to require therapy from those who should be left untreated, there is a need for robust and predictive biomarkers extracted from molecular or genetic profiles. We developed a supervised machine learning approach that implements multi-omics feature selection and model regularization for the identification of biomarker combinations that could be used to distinguish low-risk DCIS lesions from those with a higher likelihood of progression. To investigate the genetic heterogeneity of disease progression, we applied this approach to 40 pure DCIS and 259 invasive breast cancer (IBC) samples profiled with genome-wide transcriptomics, DNA methylation, and DNA copy number variation. Feature selection using the multi-omics Lasso-regularized algorithm identified both known genes involved in breast cancer development, as well as novel markers for early detection. Even though the gene expression-based model features led to the highest classification accuracy alone, methylation data provided a complementary source of features and improved especially the sensitivity of correctly classifying DCIS cases. We also identified a number of repeatedly misclassified DCIS cases when using either the expression or methylation markers. A small panel of 10 gene markers was able to distinguish DCIS and IBC cases with high accuracy in nested cross-validation (AU-ROC = 0.99). The marker panel was not specific to any of the established breast cancer subtypes, suggesting that the 10-gene signature may provide a subtype-agnostic and cost-effective approach for breast cancer detection and patient stratification. We further confirmed high accuracy of the 10-gene signature in an external validation cohort (AU-ROC = 0.95), profiled using distinct transcriptomic assay, hence demonstrating robustness of the risk signature.
  • Arola, Anita; Pikkarainen, Essi; Sipilä, Jussi O. T.; Pykäri, Jouni; Rautava, Päivi; Kytö, Ville (2017)
    Background-Epidemiology of myocarditis in childhood is largely unknown. Men are known to have a higher incidence of myocarditis than women in adults aged Methods and Results-Data of all hospital admissions with myocarditis in Finland occurring in patients aged Conclusions-Myocarditis leading to hospital admission is relatively uncommon in children, but occurrence of myocarditis increases with age. There is no sex difference in the risk of myocarditis during the first 6 years of life, but boys have a significantly higher risk at ages 6 to 15 years.
  • Liikanen, Jenni S.; Leidenius, Marjut H.; Joensuu, Heikki; Vironen, Jaana H.; Meretoja, Tuomo J. (2018)
    BACKGROUND: The prognostic significance of isolated tumour cells (ITCs) in the sentinel nodes (SNs) is controversial in early breast cancer, and some centres have abandoned immunohistochemistry to detect ITCs. METHODS: Patients with unilateral pT1N0 breast cancer, operated between February 2001 and August 2005 at a university hospital were included in this prospective, population-based cohort study. Survival of 936 patients with or without isolated tumour cells (ITC) in their SNs were compared with the log-rank test and Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: Eight hundred sixty one (92.0%) patients were ITC-negative (pN0i-) and 75 (8.0%) ITC-positive (pN0i+). Patients with ITC-positive cancer received more frequently adjuvant systemic therapies than those with ITC-negative cancer. The median follow-up time was 9.5 years. Ten-year distant disease-free survival was 95.3% in the pN0i-group and 88.8% in the pN0i+ group (P = 0.013). ITCs were an independent prognostic factor in a Cox regression model (HR = 2.34, 95% CI 1.09-5.04; P = 0.029), together with tumour Ki-67 proliferation index and diameter. ITCs were associated with unfavourable overall survival (P = 0.005) and breast cancer-specific survival (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that presence of ITCs in the SNs is an adverse prognostic factor in early small node-negative breast cancer, and may be considered in the decision-making for adjuvant therapy.
  • Pakkanen, Antti L.; Marttila, Emilia; Apajalahti, Satu; Snäll, Johanna; Wilkman, Tommy (2022)
    Background: Primary sites for the metastasis of oral cancer are the cervical lymph nodes. Although there has been considerable technical advancement in the radiological imaging, capability to recognize all metastatic lymph nodes pre-operatively has remained as a challenge. Thus elective neck dissection (END) has remained as reli-able practice to treat cervical lymph nodes. This study evaluated the accuracy of pre-operative imaging in pre-operative diagnostics of cervical lymph node status using computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We have also considered the reasons for the difficulties to recognise metastatic nodes in cervical area. Material and Methods: Patient charts of patients who had had elective neck dissection as a treatment for primary OSCC in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Helsinki University Hospital between 2016 and 2017 were assessed retrospectively. The outcome variable was post-operatively histologically confirmed lymph node metastasis in the neck area. The primary predictor variable was radiologically confirmed metastasis in the neck area. The explanatory variables were age, sex, pT-class, imaging modality, delay and location of the tumour. De-scriptive statistics, sensitivity, specificity and Youden-J index were computed. Results: Eighty-three patients were included in the study. The sensitivity to detect pathological lymph nodes was 44.8%, and the specificity for the examination was 87.0%. 19.3% of cN0 patients had metastasis in the cervical nodes, whereas of the cN+ patients 8.4% were actually pN0. Patients having cN0, the largest neck metastasis was over 10 mm in 12.5%, whereas cN1-3 patients the corresponding rate was 45.5%. The computational threshold to diagnose a metastatic node was 7 mm. Conclusions: Especially small metastases are difficult to diagnose. Limitations of radiological diagnostics must be considered when treating OSCC.
  • Balkhed, Wile; Åberg, Fredrik O.; Nasr, Patrik; Ekstedt, Mattias; Kechagias, Stergios (2022)
    Background and Aims The presence of advanced hepatic fibrosis is the prime marker for the prediction of liver-related complications in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Blood-based non-invasive tests (NITs) have been developed to evaluate fibrosis and identify patients at risk. Current guidelines propose monitoring the progression of NAFLD using repeated NITs at 2-3-year intervals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of changes in NITs measured at two time points with the progression of NAFLD. Methods We retrospectively included NAFLD patients with NIT measurements in whom the baseline hepatic fibrosis stage had been assessed by biopsy or transient elastography (TE). Subjects underwent follow-up visits at least 1 year from baseline to evaluate the progression of NAFLD. NAFLD progression was defined as the development of end-stage liver disease or fibrosis progression according to repeat biopsy or TE. The following NITs were calculated at baseline and follow-up: Fibrosis-4 (FIB-4), NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS), aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI) and dynamic aspartate-to-alanine aminotransferase ratio (dAAR). Results One hundred and thirty-five patients were included with a mean follow-up of 12.6 +/- 8.5 years. During follow-up, 41 patients (30%) were diagnosed with progressive NAFLD. Change in NIT scores during follow-up was significantly associated with disease progression for all NITs tested except for NFS. However, the diagnostic precision was suboptimal with area under the receiver operating characteristics 0.56-0.64 and positive predictive values of 0.28-0.36 at sensitivity fixed at 90%. Conclusions Change of FIB-4, NFS, APRI, and dAAR scores is only weakly associated with disease progression in NAFLD. Our findings do not support repeated measurements of these NITs for monitoring the course of NAFLD.
  • Ibaid, Ibtihag; Hussien, Mohammed; Kaukinen, Katri; Sabir, Omayma; Elmekki, Miskelyemen; Musa, Azza; Abdelhadi, Nasreldein; El Hussein, Abdel Rahim; Saavalainen, Paivi (2022)
    Objective The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of coeliac disease (CD) and to recognise Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-associated hereditary susceptibility to Sudanese CD patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1). Design Antitissue transglutaminase IgA (anti-TG IgA) was measured in the serum of 373 children affected with DM1 aged 1-19-year old and in 100 serum samples from non-diabetic control children. Histological examination was performed in 19 children seropositive for anti-TG IgA (17 DMI and 2 controls). Additionally, PCR-based analysis of Major histocompatibility complex, class II, DO beta 1 (HLA-DQB1) genotyping was implemented in three study population groups as follows: group 1 (n=25) (+ve DM1 and +ve CD), group 2 (n=63) (-ye DM1 and +ve CD) and control group 3 (n=2) (+ve CD). Results Twenty-six Sudanese children with DM1 out of 373 (6.97%) were seropositive for anti-TG IgA. Duodenal biopsy revealed Marsh 2 and 3 in 13 out of 17 (76.47%) seropositive anti-TG IgA patients with DM1. Significant association (p Conclusions Anti-TG IgA titre of greater than 10 times upper limit of normal (>= 10x ULN) can be useful for detecting CD in children with type 1 diabetes without duodenal biopsy. HLA testing in children with DM1 appears to provide little added benefit given the high prevalence (96%) of HLA DQ2/DQ8 in children with DM1.
  • Palve, Johanna; Ylitalo, Leea; Luukkaala, Tiina; Jernman, Juha; Korhonen, Niina (2020)
    Recent data have demonstrated no survival benefit to immediate completion lymph node dissection (CLND) for positive sentinel node (SN) disease in melanoma. It is important to identify parameters in positive SNs, which predict prognosis in melanoma patients. These might provide prognostic value in staging systems and risk models by guiding high-risk patients' adjuvant therapy in clinical practice. In this retrospective study of university hospital melanoma database we analyzed tumor burden and prognosis in patients with positive SNs. Patients were stratified by the diameter of tumor deposit, distribution of metastatic focus in SN, ulceration and number of metastatic SNs. These were incorporated in Cox proportional hazard regression models. Predictive ability was assessed using Akaike information criterion and Harrell's concordance index. A total of 110 patients had positive SN and 104 underwent CLND. Twenty-two (21%) patients had non-SN metastatic disease on CLND. The 5-year melanoma specific survival for CLND-negative patients was 5.00 years (IQR 3.23-5.00, range 0.72-5.00) compared to 3.69 (IQR 2.28-4.72, range 1.01-5.00) years in CLND-positive patients (HR 2.82 (95% CI 1.17-6.76, p = 0.020).The models incorporating distribution of metastatic focus and the largest tumor deposit in SN had highest predictive ability. According to Cox proportional hazard regression models, information criterions and c-index, the diameter of tumor deposit > 4 mm with multifocal location in SN despite of number of metastatic SN were the most important parameters. According to the diameter of tumor deposit and distribution of metastatic focus in SN, adequate stratification of positive SN patients was possible and risk classes for patients were identified.
  • Fuchs, Valma; Kurppa, Kalle; Huhtala, Heini; Laurila, Kaija; Maki, Markku; Collin, Pekka; Salmi, Teea; Luostarinen, Liisa; Saavalainen, Paivi; Kaukinen, Katri (2019)
    Background The revised paediatric criteria for coeliac disease allow omission of duodenal biopsies in symptomatic children who have specific serology and coeliac disease-associated genetics. It remains unclear whether this approach is also applicable for adults with various clinical presentations. Aim To evaluate the accuracy of serology-based criteria in adults with variable pre-test probabilities for coeliac disease. Methods Three study cohorts comprised adults with high-risk clinical coeliac disease suspicion (n = 421), moderate-risk family members of coeliac disease patients (n = 2357), and low-risk subjects from the general population (n = 2722). Serological and clinical data were collected, and "triple criteria" for coeliac disease comprised transglutaminase 2 antibodies >10x the upper limit of normal, positive endomysium antibodies, and appropriate genetics without requirement of symptoms. The diagnosis was based on intestinal biopsy. Results The diagnosis of coeliac disease was established in 274 subjects. Of these, 59 high-risk subjects, 17 moderate-risk subjects, and 14 low-risk subjects fulfilled the "triple criteria". All had histologically proven coeliac disease, giving the criteria a positive predictive value of 100%. Altogether, 90 (33%) of all 274 newly diagnosed patients could have avoided biopsy, including 37% among high-risk, 20% among moderate-risk, and 48% among low-risk patients. No histological findings other than coeliac disease were found in the biopsies of "triple positive" subjects. Conclusions Coeliac disease can reliably and safely be diagnosed without biopsy in adults fulfilling the "triple criteria" regardless of the pre-test probability. Revised criteria would enable the number of endoscopies to be reduced by one-third.
  • de Boniface, Jana; Ahlgren, Johan; Andersson, Yvette; Bergkvist, Leif; Frisell, Jan; Lundstedt, Dan; Olofsson Bagge, Roger; Ryden, Lisa; Sund, Malin; Christiansen, Peer; Christiansen, Peer; Filtenborg Tvedskov, Tove; Offersen, Birgitte Vrou; Reimer, Toralf; Kuehn, Thorsten; Kontos, Michalis; Gentilini, Oreste; Reitsamer, Roland (2020)
    Purpose None of the key randomised trials on the omission of axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in sentinel lymph-positive breast cancer have reported external validity, even though results indicate selection bias. Our aim was to assess the external validity of the ongoing randomised SENOMAC trial by comparing characteristics of Swedish SENOMAC trial participants with non-included eligible patients registered in the Swedish National Breast Cancer Register (NKBC). Methods In the ongoing non-inferiority European SENOMAC trial, clinically node-negative cT1-T3 breast cancer patients with up to two sentinel lymph node macrometastases are randomised to undergo completion ALND or not. Both breast-conserving surgery and mastectomy are eligible interventions. Data from NKBC were extracted for the years 2016 and 2017, and patient and tumour characteristics compared with Swedish trial participants from the same years. Results Overall, 306 NKBC cases from non-participating and 847 NKBC cases from participating sites (excluding SENOMAC participants) were compared with 463 SENOMAC trial participants. Patients belonging to the middle age groups (p = 0.015), with smaller tumours (p = 0.013) treated by breast-conserving therapy (50.3 versus 47.1 versus 65.2%, p < 0.001) and less nodal tumour burden (only 1 macrometastasis in 78.8 versus 79.9 versus 87.3%, p = 0.001) were over-represented in the trial population. Time trends indicated, however, that differences may be mitigated over time. Conclusions This interim external validity analysis specifically addresses selection mechanisms during an ongoing trial, potentially increasing generalisability by the time full accrual is reached. Similar validity checks should be an integral part of prospective clinical trials. Trial registration: NCT 02240472, retrospective registration date September 14, 2015 after trial initiation on January 31, 2015