Browsing by Subject "BIOSYNTHESIS"

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  • Verma, Arvind; Laakso, Into; Seppanen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Huhtikangas, Aarre; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa (2007)
  • Stepanenko, Olesya V.; Baloban, Mikhail; Bublikov, Grigory S.; Shcherbakova, Daria M.; Stepanenko, Olga V.; Turoverov, Konstantin K.; Kuznetsova, Irina M.; Verkhusha, Vladislav Vitaliyevich (2016)
    Fluorescent proteins (FPs) engineered from bacterial phytochromes attract attention as probes for in vivo imaging due to their near-infrared (NIR) spectra and use of available in mammalian cells biliverdin (BV) as chromophore. We studied spectral properties of the iRFP670, iRFP682 and iRFP713 proteins and their mutants having Cys residues able to bind BV either in both PAS (Cys15) and GAF (Cys256) domains, in one of these domains, or without these Cys residues. We show that the absorption and fluorescence spectra and the chromophore binding depend on the location of the Cys residues. Compared with NIR FPs in which BV covalently binds to Cys15 or those that incorporate BV noncovalently, the proteins with BV covalently bound to Cys256 have blue-shifted spectra and higher quantum yield. In dimeric NIR FPs without Cys15, the covalent binding of BV to Cys256 in one monomer allosterically inhibits the covalent binding of BV to the other monomer, whereas the presence of Cys15 allosterically promotes BV binding to Cys256 in both monomers. The NIR FPs with both Cys residues have the narrowest blue-shifted spectra and the highest quantum yield. Our analysis resulted in the iRFP713/Val256Cys protein with the highest brightness in mammalian cells among available NIR FPs.
  • Akhgari , Amir; Laakso, Into; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Yrjönen, Teijo; Vuorela, Heikki; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja; Rischer, Heiko (2015)
    Rhazya stricta Decne. (Apocynaceae) contains a large number of terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs). This study focused on the composition of alkaloids obtained from transformed hairy root cultures of R. stricta employing ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS). In the UPLC-MS analyses, a total of 20 TIAs were identified from crude extracts. Eburenine and vincanine were the main alkaloids followed by polar glucoalkaloids, strictosidine lactam and strictosidine. Secodine-type alkaloids, tetrahydrosecodinol, tetrahydro- and dihydrosecodine were detected too. The occurrence of tetrahydrosecodinol was confirmed for the first time for R. stricta. Furthermore, two isomers of yohimbine, serpentine and vallesiachotamine were identified. The study shows that a characteristic pattern of biosynthetically related TIAs can be monitored in Rhazya hairy root crude extract by this chromatographic method.
  • Sugano, Junko; Linnakoski, Riikka; Huhtinen, Seppo; Pappinen, Ari; Niemela, Pekka; Asiegbu, Fred O. (2019)
    The initial stage of cellulose degradation has been studied via in vitro assays of fungi isolated from rotten wood in a boreal forest. Among the 37 isolates, Antrodia sinuosa appeared to be an effective cellulose degrader and was selected for studying the initial degradation process. In the liquid cultivation with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), the increase of the mycelial dry weight coincided with the pH decrease of the culture medium from pH 5.7 to 3.9, between the 3rd and 6th cultivation day. At the same time, the cellulolytic activity increased; the CMCase activity increased sharply and the reducing sugars reached their maximum concentration in the culture medium. It seems that the decreasing pH enables the cellulose degradation by A. sinuosa at an early stage of the process. The results of this study may be useful for a more efficient industrial application of biomass by means of brown-rot fungi.
  • Livson, Sivan; Virtanen, Seppo; Lokki, A. Inkeri; Holster, Tiina; Rahkonen, Leena; Kalliala, Ilkka; Nieminen, Pekka; Salonen, Anne; Meri, Seppo (2022)
    BackgroundVaginal microbiome and the local innate immune defense, including the complement system, contribute to anti- and proinflammatory homeostasis during pregnancy and parturition. The relationship between commensal vaginal bacteria and complement activation during pregnancy and delivery is not known. ObjectiveTo study the association of the cervicovaginal microbiota composition to activation and regulation of the complement system during pregnancy and labor. Study designWe recruited women during late pregnancy (weeks 41 + 5 to 42 + 0, n=48) and women in active labor (weeks 38 + 4 to 42 + 2, n=25). Mucosal swabs were taken from the external cervix and lateral fornix of the vagina. From the same sampling site, microbiota was analyzed with 16S RNA gene amplicon sequencing. A Western blot technique was used to detect complement C3, C4 and factor B activation and presence of complement inhibitors. For semiquantitative analysis, the bands of the electrophoresed proteins in gels were digitized on a flatbed photo scanner and staining intensities were analyzed using ImageJ/Fiji win-64 software. Patient data was collected from medical records and questionnaires. ResultsThe vaginal microbiota was Lactobacillus-dominant in most of the samples (n=60), L. iners and L. crispatus being the dominant species. L. gasseri and L. jensenii were found to be more abundant during pregnancy than active labor. L. jensenii abundance correlated with C4 activation during pregnancy but not in labor. Gardnerella vaginalis was associated with C4 activation both during pregnancy and labor. The amount of L. gasseri correlated with factor B activation during pregnancy but not during labor. Atopobium vaginae was more abundant during pregnancy than labor and correlated with C4 activation during labor and with factor B activation during pregnancy. Activation of the alternative pathway factor B was significantly stronger during pregnancy compared to labor. During labor complement activation may be inhibited by the abundant presence of factor H and FHL1. ConclusionsThese results indicate that bacterial composition of the vaginal microbiota could have a role in the local activation and regulation of complement-mediated inflammation during pregnancy. At the time of parturition complement activation appears to be more strictly regulated than during pregnancy.
  • Nivala, Outi; Faccio, Greta; Arvas, Mikko; Permi, Perttu; Buchert, Johanna; Kruus, Kristiina; Mattinen, Maija-Liisa (2017)
    Background: Despite of the presence of sulfhydryl oxidases (SOXs) in the secretomes of industrially relevant organisms and their many potential applications, only few of these enzymes have been biochemically characterized. In addition, basic functions of most of the SOX enzymes reported so far are not fully understood. In particular, the physiological role of secreted fungal SOXs is unclear. Results: The recently identified SOX from Aspergillus tubingensis (AtSOX) was produced, purified and characterized in the present work. AtSOX had a pH optimum of 6.5, and showed a good pH stability retaining more than 80% of the initial activity in a pH range 4-8.5 within 20 h. More than 70% of the initial activity was retained after incubation at 50 degrees C for 20 h. AtSOX contains a non-covalently bound flavin cofactor. The enzyme oxidised a sulfhydryl group of glutathione to form a disulfide bond, as verified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. AtSOX preferred glutathione as a substrate over cysteine and dithiothreitol. The activity of the enzyme was totally inhibited by 10 mM zinc sulphate. Peptide-and protein-bound sulfhydryl groups in bikunin, gliotoxin, holomycin, insulin B chain, and ribonuclease A, were not oxidised by the enzyme. Based on the analysis of 33 fungal genomes, SOX enzyme encoding genes were found close to nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) but not with polyketide synthases (PKS). In the phylogenetic tree, constructed from 25 SOX and thioredoxin reductase sequences from IPR000103 InterPro family, AtSOX was evolutionary closely related to other Aspergillus SOXs. Oxidoreductases involved in the maturation of nonribosomal peptides of fungal and bacterial origin, namely GliT, HlmI and DepH, were also evolutionary closely related to AtSOX whereas fungal thioreductases were more distant. Conclusions: AtSOX (55 kDa) is a fungal secreted flavin-dependent enzyme with good stability to both pH and temperature. A Michaelis-Menten behaviour was observed with reduced glutathione as a substrate. Based on the location of SOX enzyme encoding genes close to NRPSs, SOXs could be involved in the secondary metabolism and act as an accessory enzyme in the production of nonribosomal peptides.
  • Jones, Martin R.; Pinto, Ernani; Torres, Mariana A.; Dörr, Fabiane; Mazur-Marzec, Hanna; Szubert, Karolina; Tartaglione, Luciana; Dell'Aversano, Carmela; Miles, Christopher O.; Beach, Daniel G.; McCarron, Pearse; Sivonen, Kaarina; Fewer, David P.; Jokela, Jouni; Janssen, Elisabeth M.-L. (2021)
    Harmful cyanobacterial blooms, which frequently contain toxic secondary metabolites, are reported in aquatic environments around the world. More than two thousand cyanobacterial secondary metabolites have been reported from diverse sources over the past fifty years. A comprehensive, publically-accessible database detailing these secondary metabolites would facilitate research into their occurrence, functions and toxicological risks. To address this need we created CyanoMetDB, a highly curated, flat-file, openly-accessible database of cyanobacterial secondary metabolites collated from 850 peer-reviewed articles published between 1967 and 2020. CyanoMetDB contains 2010 cyanobacterial metabolites and 99 structurally related compounds. This has nearly doubled the number of entries with complete literature metadata and structural composition information compared to previously available open access databases. The dataset includes microcytsins, cyanopeptolins, other depsipeptides, anabaenopeptins, microginins, aeruginosins, cyclamides, cryptophycins, saxitoxins, spumigins, microviridins, and anatoxins among other metabolite classes. A comprehensive database dedicated to cyanobacterial secondary metabolites facilitates: (1) the detection and dereplication of known cyanobacterial toxins and secondary metabolites; (2) the identification of novel natural products from cyanobacteria; (3) research on biosynthesis of cyanobacterial secondary metabolites, including substructure searches; and (4) the investigation of their abundance, persistence, and toxicity in natural environments.
  • Tykesson, Emil; Hassinen, Antti; Zielinska, Katarzyna; Thelin, Martin A.; Frati, Giacomo; Ellervik, Ulf; Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla; Malmström, Anders; Kellokumpu, Sakari; Maccarana, Marco (2018)
    During the biosynthesis of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS), a variable fraction of glucuronic acid is converted to iduronic acid through the activities of two epimerases, dermatan sulfate epimerases 1 (DS-epi1) and 2 (DS-epi2). Previous in vitro studies indicated that without association with other enzymes, DS-epi1 activity produces structures that have only a few adjacent iduronic acid units. In vivo, concomitant with epimerization, dermatan 4-O-sulfotransferase 1 (D4ST1) sulfates the GalNAc adjacent to iduronic acid. This sulfation facilitates DS-epi1 activity and enables the formation of long blocks of sulfated iduronic acid-containing domains, which can be major components of CS/DS. In this report, we used recombinant enzymes to confirm the concerted action of DS-epi1 and D4ST1. Confocal microscopy revealed that these two enzymes colocalize to the Golgi, and FRET experiments indicated that they physically interact. Furthermore, FRET, immunoprecipitation, and cross-linking experiments also revealed that DS-epi1, DS-epi2, and D4ST1 form homomers and are all part of a hetero-oligomeric complex where D4ST1 directly interacts with DS-epi1, but not with DS-epi2. The cooperation of DS-epi1 with D4ST1 may therefore explain the processive mode of the formation of iduronic acid blocks. In conclusion, the iduronic acid-forming enzymes operate in complexes, similar to other enzymes active in glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis. This knowledge shed light on regulatory mechanisms controlling the biosynthesis of the structurally diverse CS/DS molecule.
  • Ruiz-Jimenez, Jose; Okuljar, Magdalena; Sietiö, Outi-Maaria; Demaria, Giorgia; Liangsupree, Thanaporn; Zagatti, Elisa; Aalto, Juho; Hartonen, Kari; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Bäck, Jaana; Petäjä, Tuukka; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa (2021)
    Primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs) play an important role in the interaction between biosphere, atmosphere, and climate, affecting cloud and precipitation formation processes. The presence of pollen, plant fragments, spores, bacteria, algae, and viruses in PBAPs is well known. In order to explore the complex interrelationships between airborne and particulate chemical tracers (amino acids, saccharides), gene copy numbers (16S and 18S for bacteria and fungi, respectively), gas phase chemistry, and the particle size distribution, 84 size-segregated aerosol samples from four particle size fractions (< 1.0, 1.0-2.5, 2.5-10, and > 10 mu m) were collected at the SMEAR II station, Finland, in autumn 2017. The gene copy numbers and size distributions of bacteria, Pseudomonas, and fungi in biogenic aerosols were determined by DNA extraction and amplification. In addition, free amino acids (19) and saccharides (8) were analysed in aerosol samples by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS). Different machine learning (ML) approaches, such as cluster analysis, discriminant analysis, neural network analysis, and multiple linear regression (MLR), were used for the clarification of several aspects related to the composition of biogenic aerosols. Clear variations in composition as a function of the particle size were observed. In most cases, the highest concentration values and gene copy numbers (in the case of microbes) were observed for 2.5-10 mu m particles, followed by > 10, 1-2.5, and < 1.0 mu m particles. In addition, different variables related to the air and soil temperature, the UV radiation, and the amount of water in the soil affected the composition of biogenic aerosols. In terms of interpreting the results, MLR provided the greatest improvement over classical statistical approaches such as Pearson correlation among the ML approaches considered. In all cases, the explained variance was over 91 %. The great variability of the samples hindered the clarification of common patterns when evaluating the relation between the presence of microbes and the chemical composition of biogenic aerosols. Finally, positive correlations were observed between gas-phase VOCs (such as acetone, toluene, methanol, and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol) and the gene copy numbers of microbes in biogenic aerosols.
  • Salgado, Ana L.; Suchan, Tomasz; Pellissier, Loic; Rasmann, Sergio; Ducrest, Anne-Lyse; Alvarez, Nadir (2016)
    Elevation gradients impose large differences in abiotic and biotic conditions over short distances, in turn, likely driving differences in gene expression more than would genetic variation per se, as natural selection and drift are less likely to fix alleles at such a narrow spatial scale. As elevation increases, the pressure exerted on plants by herbivores and on arthropod herbivores by predators decreases, and organisms spanning the elevation gradient are thus expected to show lower levels of defence at high elevation. The alternative hypothesis, based on the optimal defence theory, is that defence allocation should be higher in low-resource habitats such as those at high elevation, due to higher costs associated with tissue replacement. In this study, we analyse variation with elevation in (i) defence compound content in the plant Lotus corniculatus and (ii) gene expression associated with defence against predators in the specific phytophagous moth, Zygaena filipendulae. Both species produce cyanogenic glycosides (CNglcs) such as lotaustralin and linamarin as defence mechanisms, with the moth, in addition, being able to sequester CNglcs from its host plant. Specifically, we tested the assumption that the defence-associated phenotype in plants and the gene expression in the insect herbivore should covary between low-and high-elevation environments. We found that L. corniculatus accumulated more CNglcs at high elevation, a result in agreement with the optimal defence theory. By contrast, we found that the levels of expression in the defence genes of Z. filipendulae larvae were not related to the CNglc content of their host plant. Overall, expression levels were not correlated with elevation either, with the exception of the UGT33A1 gene, which showed a marginally significant trend towards higher expression at high elevation when using a simple statistical framework. These results suggest that the defence phenotype of plants against herbivores, and subsequent herbivore sequestration machineries and de novo production, are based on a complex network of interactions.
  • Chen, Jia-Jia; Wang, Ling-Yan; Immanen, Juha; Nieminen, Kaisa; Spicer, Rachel; Helariutta, Ykä; Zhang, Jing; He, Xin-Qiang (2019)
    Tissue regeneration upon wounding in plants highlights the developmental plasticity of plants. Previous studies have described the morphological and molecular changes of secondary vascular tissue (SVT) regeneration after large-scale bark girdling in trees. However, how phytohormones regulate SVT regeneration is still unknown. Here, we established a novel in vitro SVT regeneration system in the hybrid aspen (Populus tremula x Populus tremuloides) clone T89 to bypass the limitation of using field-grown trees. The effects of phytohormones on SVT regeneration were investigated by applying exogenous hormones and utilizing various transgenic trees. Vascular tissue-specific markers and hormonal response factors were also examined during SVT regeneration. Using this in vitro regeneration system, we demonstrated that auxin and cytokinin differentially regulate phloem and cambium regeneration. Whereas auxin is sufficient to induce regeneration of phloem prior to continuous cambium restoration, cytokinin only promotes the formation of new phloem, not cambium. The positive role of cytokinin on phloem regeneration was further confirmed in cytokinin overexpression trees. Analysis of a DR5 reporter transgenic line further suggested that cytokinin blocks the re-establishment of auxin gradients, which is required for the cambium formation. Investigation on the auxin and cytokinin signalling genes indicated these two hormones interact to regulate SVT regeneration. Taken together, the in vitro SVT regeneration system allows us to make use of various molecular and genetic tools to investigate SVT regeneration. Our results confirmed that complementary auxin and cytokinin domains are required for phloem and cambium reconstruction.
  • Kust, Andreja; Mares, Jan; Jokela, Jouni; Urajova, Petra; Hajek, Jan; Saurav, Kumar; Voracova, Katerina; Fewer, David P.; Haapaniemi, Esa; Permi, Perttu; Rehakova, Klara; Sivonen, Kaarina; Hrouzek, Pavel (2018)
    The pederin family includes a number of bioactive compounds isolated from symbiotic organisms of diverse evolutionary origin. Pederin is linked to beetle-induced dermatitis in humans, and pederin family members possess potent antitumor activity caused by selective inhibition of the eukaryotic ribosome. Their biosynthesis is accomplished by a polyketide/nonribosomal peptide synthetase machinery employing an unusual trans-acyltransferase mechanism. Here, we report a novel pederin type compound, cusperin, from the free-living cyanobacterium Cuspidothrix issatschenkoi (earlier Aphanizomenon). The chemical structure of cusperin is similar to that of nosperin recently isolated from the lichen cyanobiont Nostoc sharing the tehrahydropyran moiety and major part of the linear backbone. However, the cusperin molecule is extended by a glycine residue and lacks one hydroxyl substituent. Pederins were previously thought to be exclusive to symbiotic relationships. However, C. issatschenkoi is a nonsymbiotic planktonic organism and a frequent component of toxic water blooms. Cusperin is devoid of the cytotoxic activity reported for other pederin family members. Hence, our findings raise questions about the role of pederin analogues in cyanobacteria and broaden the knowledge of ecological distribution of this group of polyketides.
  • Kaurola, Petri; Sharma, Vivek; Vonk, Amanda; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Rog, Tomasz (2016)
    Quinone and its analogues (Q) constitute an important class of compounds that perform key electron transfer reactions in oxidative- and photo-phosphorylation. In the inner membrane of mitochondria, ubiquinone molecules undergo continuous redox transitions enabling electron transfer between the respiratory complexes. In such a dynamic system undergoing continuous turnover for ATP synthesis, an uninterrupted supply of substrate molecules is absolutely necessary. In the current work, we have performed atomistic molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations to assess the structure, dynamics, and localization of quinone and its analogues in a lipid bilayer, whose composition mimics the one in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The results show that there is a strong tendency of both quinone and quinol molecules to localize in the vicinity of the lipids' acyl groups, right under the lipid head group region. Additionally, we observe a second location in the middle of the bilayer where quinone molecules tend to stabilize. Translocation of quinone through a lipid bilayer is very fast and occurs in 10-100 ns time scale, whereas the translocation of quinol is at least an order of magnitude slower. We suggest that this has important mechanistic implications given that the localization of Q ensures maximal occupancy of the Q-binding sites or Q-entry points in electron transport chain complexes, thereby maintaining an optimal turnover rate for ATP synthesis. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Miettinen, Helena E.; Rönö, Kristiina; Koivusalo, Saila; Stach-Lempinen, Beata; Pöyhönen-Alho, Maritta; Eriksson, Johan G.; Hiltunen, Timo P.; Gylling, Helena (2014)
  • Bashandy, Hany; Teeri, Teemu Heikki (2017)
    Main conclusion Unauthorized genetically engineered orange petunias were found on the market. Genetic engineering of petunia was shown to lead to novel flower color some 20 years ago. Here we show that petunia lines with orange flowers, generated for scientific purposes, apparently found their way to petunia breeding programmes, intentionally or unintentionally. Today they are widely available, but have not been registered for commerce.
  • Wang, Zhao; Pawar, Prashant Mohan-Anupama; Derba-Maceluch, Marta; Hedenström, Mattias; Chong, Sun-Li; Tenkanen, Maija; Jönsson, Leif J.; Mellerowicz, Ewa (2020)
    Fast-growing broad-leaf tree species can serve as feedstocks for production of bio-based chemicals and fuels through biochemical conversion of wood to monosaccharides. This conversion is hampered by the xylan acetylation pattern. To reduce xylan acetylation in the wood, the Hypocrea jecorina acetyl xylan esterase (HjAXE) from carbohydrate esterase (CE) family 5 was expressed in hybrid aspen under the control of the wood-specific PtGT43B promoter and targeted to the secretory pathway. The enzyme was predicted to deacetylate polymeric xylan in the vicinity of cellulose due to the presence of a cellulose-binding module. Cell-wall-bound protein fractions from developing wood of transgenic plants were capable of releasing acetyl from finely ground wood powder, indicative of active AXE present in cell walls of these plants, whereas no such activity was detected in wild-type plants. The transgenic lines grew in height and diameter as well as wild-type trees, whereas their internodes were slightly shorter, indicating higher leaf production. The average acetyl content in the wood of these lines was reduced by 13%, mainly due to reductions in di-acetylated xylose units, and in C-2 and C-3 mono-acetylated xylose units. Analysis of soluble cell wall polysaccharides revealed a 4% reduction in the fraction of xylose units and an 18% increase in the fraction of glucose units, whereas the contents of cellulose and lignin were not affected. Enzymatic saccharification of wood from transgenic plants resulted in 27% higher glucose yield than for wild-type plants. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis and Simons' staining pointed toward larger surface area and improved cellulose accessibility for wood from transgenic plants compared to wood from wild-type plants, which could be achieved by HjAXE deacetylating xylan bound to cellulose. The results show that CE5 family can serve as a source of enzymes for in planta reduction of recalcitrance to saccharification.
  • Kuukasjärvi, Anna; Landoni, Juan C.; Kaukonen, Jyrki; Juhakoski, Mika; Auranen, Mari; Torkkeli, Tommi; Velagapudi, Vidya; Suomalainen, Anu (2021)
    The aetiology of dystonia disorders is complex, and next-generation sequencing has become a useful tool in elucidating the variable genetic background of these diseases. Here we report a deleterious heterozygous truncating variant in the inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase gene (IMPDH2) by whole-exome sequencing, co-segregating with a dominantly inherited dystonia-tremor disease in a large Finnish family. We show that the defect results in degradation of the gene product, causing IMPDH2 deficiency in patient cells. IMPDH2 is the first and rate-limiting enzyme in the de novo biosynthesis of guanine nucleotides, a dopamine synthetic pathway previously linked to childhood or adolescence-onset dystonia disorders. We report IMPDH2 as a new gene to the dystonia disease entity. The evidence underlines the important link between guanine metabolism, dopamine biosynthesis and dystonia.
  • Pawar, Prashant Mohan-Anupama; Derba-Maceluch, Marta; Chong, Sun-Li; Gandla, Madhavi Latha; Bashar, Shamrat Shafiul; Sparrman, Tobias; Ahvenainen, Patrik; Hedenström, Mattias; Ozparpucu, Merve; Ruggeberg, Markus; Serimaa, Ritva; Lawoko, Martin; Tenkanen, Maija; Jönsson, Leif J.; Mellerowicz, Ewa J. (2017)
    Background: Lignocellulose from fast growing hardwood species is a preferred source of polysaccharides for advanced biofuels and "green" chemicals. However, the extensive acetylation of hardwood xylan hinders lignocellulose saccharification by obstructing enzymatic xylan hydrolysis and causing inhibitory acetic acid concentrations during microbial sugar fermentation. To optimize lignocellulose for cost-effective saccharification and biofuel production, an acetyl xylan esterase AnAXE1 from Aspergillus niger was introduced into aspen and targeted to cell walls. Results: AnAXE1-expressing plants exhibited reduced xylan acetylation and grew normally. Without pretreatment, their lignocellulose yielded over 25% more glucose per unit mass of wood (dry weight) than wild-type plants. Glucose yields were less improved (+7%) after acid pretreatment, which hydrolyses xylan. The results indicate that AnAXE1 expression also reduced the molecular weight of xylan, and xylan-lignin complexes and/or lignin co-extracted with xylan, increased cellulose crystallinity, altered the lignin composition, reducing its syringyl to guaiacyl ratio, and increased lignin solubility in dioxane and hot water. Lignin-associated carbohydrates became enriched in xylose residues, indicating a higher content of xylo-oligosaccharides. Conclusions: This work revealed several changes in plant cell walls caused by deacetylation of xylan. We propose that deacetylated xylan is partially hydrolyzed in the cell walls, liberating xylo-oligosaccharides and their associated lignin oligomers from the cell wall network. Deacetylating xylan thus not only increases its susceptibility to hydrolytic enzymes during saccharification but also changes the cell wall architecture, increasing the extractability of lignin and xylan and facilitating saccharification.
  • Chamlagain, Bhawani; Sugito, Tessa Ayuningtyas; Deptula, Paulina; Edelmann, Minnamari; Kariluoto, Susanna; Varmanen, Pekka; Piironen, Vieno (2018)
    The in situ production of active vitamin B12 was investigated in aqueous cereal-based matrices with three strains of food-grade Propionibacterium freudenreichii. Matrices prepared from malted barley flour (33% w/v; BM), barley flour (6%; BF), and wheat aleurone (15%; AM) were fermented. The effect of cobalt and the lower ligand 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMBI) or its natural precursors (riboflavin and nicotinamide) on active B12 production was evaluated. Active B12 production was confirmed by UHPLC-UV-MS analysis. A B12 content of 12-37 mu g.kg(-1) was produced in BM; this content increased 10-fold with cobalt and reached 940-1,480 mu g.kg(-1) with both cobalt and DMBI. With riboflavin and nicotinamide, B12 production in cobalt-supplemented BM increased to 712 mu g.kg(-1). Approximately, 10 mu g.kg(-1) was achieved in BF and AM and was increased to 80 mu g.kg(-1) in BF and 260 mu g.kg(-1) in AM with cobalt and DMBI. The UHPLC and microbiological assay (MBA) results agreed when both cobalt and DMBI or riboflavin and nicotinamide were supplemented. However, MBA gave ca. 20%-40% higher results in BM and AM supplemented with cobalt, indicating the presence of human inactive analogues, such as pseudovitamin B12. This study demonstrates that cereal products can be naturally fortified with active B12 to a nutritionally relevant level by fermenting with P. freudenreichii.
  • Bromann, K.; Viljanen, K.; Moreira, V. M.; Yli-Kauhaluoma, J.; Ruohonen, L.; Nakari-Setälä, T. (2014)