Browsing by Subject "BIRTH-ORDER"

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  • Pihlman, Jukka; Magnussen, Costan G.; Rovio, Suvi P.; Pahkala, Katja; Jokinen, Eero; Laitinen, Tomi P.; Hutri-Kahonen, Nina; Tossavainen, Paivi; Taittonen, Leena; Kahonen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma S. A.; Raitakari, Olli T.; Juonala, Markus; Nuotio, Joel (2021)
    Objective To determine the association of number of siblings on cardiovascular risk factors in childhood and in adulthood. Study design In total, 3554 participants (51% female) from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study with cardiovascular disease risk factor data at baseline 1980 (age 3-18 years) and 2491 participants with longitudinal risk factor data at the 2011 follow-up. Participants were categorized by number of siblings at baseline (0, 1, or more than 1). Risk factors (body mass index, physical activity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and overweight, and metabolic syndrome) in childhood and in adulthood were used as outcomes. Analyses were adjusted for age and sex. Results In childhood, participants without siblings had higher body mass index (18.2 kg/m(2), 95% CI 18.0-18.3) than those with 1 sibling (17.9 kg/m(2), 95% CI 17.8-18.0) or more than 1 sibling (17.8 kg/m(2), 95% CI 17.7-17.9). Childhood physical activity index was lower among participants without siblings (SD -0.08, 95% CI -0.16-0.00) compared with participants with 1 sibling (SD 0.06, 95%CI 0.01-0.11) or more than 1 sibling (SD -0.02, 95% CI -0.07-0.03). OR for adulthood hypertension was lower among participants with 1 sibling (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.54-0.98) and more than 1 sibling (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.52-0.97) compared with participants with no siblings. OR for obesity was lower among participants with 1 sibling (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.54-0.95) and more than 1 sibling (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.56-1.01) compared with those with no siblings. Conclusions Children without siblings had poorer cardiovascular risk factor levels in childhood and in adulthood. The number of siblings could help identify individuals at increased risk that might benefit from early intervention.
  • Vehkavuori, Suvi-Maria; Kamarainen, Maiju; Stolt, Suvi (2021)
    Background: The long-term associations between early receptive/expressive lexical skills and later language/preliteracy skills require clarification. Aims: To study the association between and predictive values of early receptive/expressive lexical skills and language/pre-literacy skills at 5;0 years, and to examine the language profiles at 5;0 years of children with weak receptive language/expressive lexical skills at 2;0 years. Participants and methods: The participants were 66 monolingual children. Their lexical skills were measured using the Finnish short-form version of the MacArthur?Bates Communicative Development Inventories at 1;6 and 2;0 years. Receptive language skills were measured at 2;0 years using the Reynell Developmental Language Scales III. A broader assessment at 5;0 years measured lexical, phonological, morphological and pre-literacy skills. Results: Significant associations between receptive/expressive lexical skills at 1;6 years and language and preliteracy skills at 5;0 years were found. Both receptive language and expressive lexical development measured at 2;0 years were greatly and relatively evenly associated with language and pre-literacy skills at 5;0 years. Lexicon/language variables at 1;6 years and 2;0 years had statistically significant predictive values for general language and pre-literacy scores at 5;0 years. The best models that included early lexical predictors explained 20?34% of later language/literacy outcome. Weak skills at 2;0 years proposed vulnerability in language and preliteracy skills at 5;0 years. Conclusions: Language and pre-literacy skills at 5;0 years can to some extent be explained by early receptive language and/or expressive lexical development. Further assessment and/or follow-up is important for children who have had weak language/lexical skills at 2;0 years.
  • Barclay, Kieron; Myrskyla, Mikko (2018)
    As parental ages at birth continue to rise, concerns about the effects of fertility postponement on offspring are increasing. Due to reproductive ageing, advanced parental ages have been associated with negative health outcomes for offspring, including decreased longevity. The literature, however, has neglected to examine the potential benefits of being born at a later date. Secular declines in mortality mean that later birth cohorts are living longer. We analyse mortality over ages 30-74 among 1.9 million Swedish men and women born 1938-60, and use a sibling comparison design that accounts for all time-invariant factors shared by the siblings. When incorporating cohort improvements in mortality, we find that those born to older mothers do not suffer any significant mortality disadvantage, and that those born to older fathers have lower mortality. These findings are likely to be explained by secular declines in mortality counterbalancing the negative effects of reproductive ageing.
  • Tanskanen, Antti O.; Danielsbacka, Mirkka; Jokela, Markus; Rotkirch, Anna (2017)
    Sibling relations are by nature ambivalent with high levels of both altruistic helping and competition. Higher relatedness is often assumed to reduce the occurrence of conflicts between siblings, but evidence of this has been scarce and mixed. Siblings typically compete over resources and parental attention, and parental constellations vary with sibship types. Since full-siblings compete over the same two biological parents, while half-siblings have only one shared biological parent and often a higher number of parents overall, it is hypothesized that conflicts are more common between full- than half-siblings. This study tested this assumption using the British Millennium Cohort Study (n=7527 children at age 11). Conflicts were measured as children's reports of how much siblings picked on and hurt each other. Households with full-siblings only, maternal half-siblings only, and both full- and maternal half-siblings were compared. The results show that children who were living with only their full-siblings were more likely to experience sibling conflicts compared with children living with their maternal half-siblings only. This was the case also after controlling for several potentially confounding variables. The results suggest that differential access to parental resources of available biological and step-parents may explain the higher amount of sibling conflict between full- compared with maternal half-siblings.
  • Gratz, Michael; Barclay, Kieron J.; Wiborg, Øyvind N.; Lyngstad, Torkild H.; Karhula, Aleksi; Erola, Jani; Prag, Patrick; Laidley, Thomas; Conley, Dalton (2021)
    The extent to which siblings resemble each other measures the omnibus impact of family background on life chances. We study sibling similarity in cognitive skills, school grades, and educational attainment in Finland, Germany, Norway, Sweden. the United Kingdom, and the United States. We also compare sibling similarity by parental education and occupation within these societies. The comparison of sibling correlations across and within societies allows us to characterize the omnibus impact of family background on education across social landscapes. Across countries, we find larger population-level differences in sibling similarity in educational attainment than in cognitive skills and school grades. In general, sibling similarity in education varies less across countries than sibling similarity in earnings. Compared with Scandinavian countries, the United States shows more sibling similarity in cognitive skills and educational attainment but less sibling similarity in school grades. We find that socioeconomic differences in sibling similarity vary across parental resources, countries, and measures of educational success. Sweden and the United States show greater sibling similarity in educational attainment in families with a highly educated father. and Finland and Norway show greater sibling similarity in educational attainment in families with a low-educated father. We discuss the implications of our results for theories about the impact of institutions and income inequality on educational inequality and the mechanisms that underlie such inequality.