Browsing by Subject "BIRTH-WEIGHT"

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  • Jääskeläinen, Tiina; Kärkkäinen, Olli; Jokkala, Jenna; Klåvus, Anton; Heinonen, Seppo; Auriola, Seppo; Lehtonen, Marko; FINNPEC Core Invest Grp; Hanhineva, Kati; Laivuori, Hannele (2021)
    IntroductionMaternal metabolism changes substantially during pregnancy. However, few studies have used metabolomics technologies to characterize changes across gestation.Objectives and methodsWe applied liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based non-targeted metabolomics to determine whether the metabolic profile of serum differs throughout the pregnancy between pre-eclamptic and healthy women in the FINNPEC (Finnish Genetics of Preeclampsia Consortium) Study. Serum samples were available from early and late pregnancy.ResultsProgression of pregnancy had large-scale effects to the serum metabolite profile. Altogether 50 identified metabolites increased and 49 metabolites decreased when samples of early pregnancy were compared to samples of late pregnancy. The metabolic signatures of pregnancy were largely shared in pre-eclamptic and healthy women, only urea, monoacylglyceride 18:1 and glycerophosphocholine were identified to be increased in the pre-eclamptic women when compared to healthy controls.ConclusionsOur study highlights the need of large-scale longitudinal metabolomic studies in non-complicated pregnancies before more detailed understanding of metabolism in adverse outcomes could be provided. Our findings are one of the first steps for a broader metabolic understanding of the physiological changes caused by pregnancy per se.
  • FINNPEC (2018)
    Preeclampsia (PE) is a complex pregnancy disorder. It is not extensively known how the metabolic alterations of PE women contribute to the metabolism of newborn. We applied liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based non-targeted meta bolomics to determine whether the metabolic profile of plasma from umbilical cord differs between infants born to PE and non-PE pregnancies in the FINNPEC study. Cord plasma was available from 42 newborns born from PE and 53 from non-PE pregnancies. 133 molecular features differed between PE and non-PE newborns after correction for multiple testing. Decreased levels of 4-pyridoxic acid were observed in the cord plasma samples of PE newborns when compared to non-PE newborns. Compounds representing following areas of metabolism were increased in the cord plasma of PE newborns: urea and creatine metabolism; carnitine biosynthesis and acylcarnitines; putrescine metabolites; tryptophan metabolism and phosphatidylcholines. To our knowledge, this study is the first one to apply LC-MS based meta bolomics in cord plasma of PE newborns. We demonstrate that this strategy provides a global picture of the widespread metabolic alterations associated with PE and particularly the elevated levels of carnitine precursors and trimethylated compounds appear to be associated with PE at birth.
  • TRIGR Investigators; Pacaud, Daniele; Nucci, Anita M.; Cuthbertson, David; Becker, Dorothy J.; Virtanen, Suvi M.; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Ilonen, Jorma; Knip, Mikael (2021)
    Aims/hypothesis The aim of this work was to examine the relationship between family history of type 1 diabetes, birthweight, growth during the first 2 years and development of multiple beta cell autoantibodies in children with a first-degree relative with type 1 diabetes and HLA-conferred disease susceptibility. Methods In a secondary analysis of the Trial to Reduce IDDM in the Genetically at Risk (TRIGR), clinical characteristics and development of beta cell autoantibodies were compared in relation to family history of type 1 diabetes (mother vs father vs sibling) in 2074 children from families with a single affected family member. Results Multiple autoantibodies (>= 2 of 5 measured) developed in 277 (13%) children: 107 (10%), 114 (16%) and 56 (18%) born with a mother, father or sibling with type 1 diabetes, respectively (p <0.001). The HR for time to multiple autoimmunity was 0.54 (95% CI 0.39, 0.75) in offspring of affected mothers (n = 107/1046,p <0.001) and 0.81 (95% CI 0.59, 1.11) (n = 114/722,p = 0.19) in offspring of affected fathers, compared with participants with a sibling with type 1 diabetes (comparator groupn = 56/306). The time to the first autoantibody present (to insulin, GAD, tyrosine phosphatase-related insulinoma-associated 2 molecules, islet cell or zinc transporter 8) was similar in the three groups. Height velocity (zscore/year) in the first 24 months was independently associated with developing multiple antibodies in the total cohort (HR 1.31 [95% CI 1.01, 1.70],p = 0.04). A higher birthweight in children born to an affected mother vs affected father or an affected sibling was not related to the risk of multiple autoimmunity. Conclusions/interpretation The risk of developing multiple autoantibodies was lower in children with maternal type 1 diabetes. For the whole group, this risk of developing multiple autoantibodies was independent of birthweight but was greater in those with increased height velocity during the first 2 years of life. However, the risk associated with paternal type 1 diabetes was not linked to differences in birthweight or early growth.
  • Premenopausal Breast Canc Collabor (2018)
    IMPORTANCE The association between increasing body mass index (BMI; calculated as wei ght in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) and risk of breast cancer is unique in cancer epidemiology in that a crossover effect exists, with risk reduction before and risk increase after menopause. The inverse association with premenopausal breast cancer risk is poorly characterized but might be important in the understanding of breast cancer causation. OBJECTIVE To investigate the association of BMI with premenopausal breast cancer risk, in particular by age at BMI, attained age, risk factors for breast cancer, and tumor characteristics. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This multicenter analysis used pooled individual-level data from 758 592 premenopausal women from 19 prospective cohorts to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of premenopausal breast cancer in association with BMI from ages 18 through 54 years using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Median follow-up was 9.3 years (interquartile range, 4.9-13.5 years) per participant, with 13 082 incident cases of breast cancer. Participants were recruited from January 1,1963, through December 31, 2013, and data were analyzed from September 1.2013, through December 31, 2017. EXPOSURES Body mass index at ages 18 to 24, 25 to 34,35 to 44, and 45 to 54 years. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Invasive or in situ premenopausal breast cancer. RESULTS Among the 758 592 premenopausal women (median age, 40.6 years; interquartile range, 35.2-45.5 years) included in the analysis, inverse linear associations of BMI with breast cancer risk were found that were stronger for BMI at ages 18 to 24 years (HR per 5 kg/m(2) [5.0-U] difference, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.73-0.80) than for BMI at ages 45 to 54 years (HR per 5.0-U difference, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.86-0.91). The inverse associations were observed even among nonoverweight women. There was a 4.2-fold risk gradient between the highest and lowest BMI categories (BMI >= 35.0 vs CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The results of this study suggest that increased adiposity is associated with a reduced risk of premenopausal breast cancer at a greater magnitude than previously shown and across the entire distribution of BMI. The strongest associations of risk were observed for BMI in early adulthood. Understanding the biological mechanisms underlying these associations could have important preventive potential.
  • Mardones, Francisco; Arnaiz, Pilar; Pacheco, Paz; Dominguez, Angelica; Villarroel, Luis; Eriksson, Johan G.; Barja, Salesa; Farias, Marcelo; Castillo, Oscar (2014)
  • Felix, Janine F.; Joubert, Bonnie R.; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Sharp, Gemma C.; Almqvist, Catarina; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Arshad, Hasan; Baiz, Nour; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Bakulski, Kelly M.; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Bouchard, Luigi; Breton, Carrie V.; Brunekreef, Bert; Brunst, Kelly J.; Burchard, Esteban G.; Bustamante, Mariona; Chatzi, Leda; Munthe-Kaas, Monica Cheng; Corpeleijn, Eva; Czamara, Darina; Dabelea, Dana; Smith, George Davey; De Boever, Patrick; Duijts, Liesbeth; Dwyer, Terence; Eng, Celeste; Eskenazi, Brenda; Everson, Todd M.; Falahi, Fahimeh; Fallin, M. Daniele; Farchi, Sara; Fernandez, Mariana F.; Gao, Lu; Gaunt, Tom R.; Ghantous, Akram; Gillman, Matthew W.; Gonseth, Semira; Grote, Veit; Gruzieva, Olena; Haberg, Siri E.; Herceg, Zdenko; Hivert, Marie-France; Holland, Nina; Holloway, John W.; Hoyo, Cathrine; Hu, Donglei; Huang, Rae-Chi; Huen, Karen; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jima, Dereje D.; Just, Allan C.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Karlsson, Robert; Karmaus, Wilfried; Kechris, Katerina J.; Kere, Juha; Kogevinas, Manolis; Koletzko, Berthold; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Kupers, Leanne K.; Ladd-Acosta, Christine; Lahti, Jari; Lambrechts, Nathalie; Langie, Sabine A. S.; Lie, Rolv T.; Liu, Andrew H.; Magnus, Maria C.; Magnus, Per; Maguire, Rachel L.; Marsit, Carmen J.; McArdle, Wendy; Melen, Erik; Melton, Phillip; Murphy, Susan K.; Nawrot, Tim S.; Nistico, Lorenza; Nohr, Ellen A.; Nordlund, Bjorn; Nystad, Wenche; Oh, Sam S.; Oken, Emily; Page, Christian M.; Perron, Patrice; Pershagen, Goran; Pizzi, Costanza; Plusquin, Michelle; Räikkönen, Katri; Reese, Sarah E.; Reischl, Eva; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Ring, Susan; Roy, Ritu P.; Rzehak, Peter; Schoeters, Greet; Schwartz, David A.; Sebert, Sylvain; Snieder, Harold; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Starling, Anne P.; Sunyer, Jordi; ATaylor, Jack; Tiemeier, Henning; Ullemar, Vilhelmina; Vafeiadi, Marina; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H.; Vonk, Judith M.; Vriens, Annette; Vrijheid, Martine; Wang, Pei; Wiemels, Joseph L.; Wilcox, Allen J.; Wright, Rosalind J.; Xu, Cheng-Jian; Xu, Zongli; Yang, Ivana V.; Yousefi, Paul; Zhang, Hongmei; Zhang, Weiming; Zhao, Shanshan; Agha, Golareh; Relton, Caroline L.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; London, Stephanie J. (2018)
  • Sebert, Sylvain; Lowry, Estelle; Aumuller, Nicole; Bermudez, Mercedes G.; Bjerregaard, Lise G.; de Rooij, Susanne R.; De Silva, Maneka; El Marroun, Hanan; Hummel, Nadine; Juola, Teija; Mason, Giacomo; Much, Daniela; Oliveros, Elena; Poupakis, Stavros; Rautio, Nina; Schwarzfischer, Phillipp; Tzala, Evangelia; Uhl, Olaf; van de Beek, Cornelieke; Vehmeijer, Florianne; Verdejo-Roman, Juan; Wasenius, Niko; Webster, Claire; Ala-Mursula, Leena; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Miettunen, Jouko; Baker, Jennifer L.; Campoy, Cristina; Conti, Gabriella; Eriksson, Johan G.; Hummel, Sandra; Jaddoe, Vincent; Koletzko, Berthold; Lewin, Alex; Rodriguez-Palermo, Maria; Roseboom, Tessa; Rueda, Ricardo; Evans, Jayne; Felix, Janine F.; Prokopenko, Inga; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta (2019)
  • Lahti-Pulkkinen, Marius; Bhattacharya, Sohinee; Wild, Sarah H.; Lindsay, Robert S.; Räikkönen, Katri; Norman, Jane E.; Bhattacharya, Siladitya; Reynolds, Rebecca M. (2019)
    Aims/hypothesis Maternal obesity in pregnancy is associated with cardiovascular disease and mortality rate in the offspring. We aimed to determine whether maternal obesity is also associated with increased incidence of type 2 and type 1 diabetes in the offspring, independently of maternal diabetes as a candidate mechanistic pathway. Methods Birth records of 118,201 children from 1950 to 2011 in the Aberdeen Maternity and Neonatal Databank were linked to Scottish Care Information-Diabetes, the national register for diagnosed diabetes in Scotland, to identify incident and prevalent type 1 and type 2 diabetes up to 1 January 2012. Maternal BMI was calculated from height and weight measured at the first antenatal visit. The effect of maternal obesity on offspring outcomes was tested using time-to-event analysis with Cox proportional hazards regression to compare outcomes in offspring of mothers in underweight, overweight or obese categories of BMI, compared with offspring of women with normal BMI. Results Offspring of obese (BMI >= 30 kg/m(2)) and overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m(2)) mothers had an increased hazard of type 2 diabetes compared with mothers with normal BMI, after adjustment for gestation when weight was measured, maternal history of diabetes before pregnancy, maternal history of hypertension, age at delivery, parity, socioeconomic status, and sex of the offspring: HR 3.48 (95% CI 2.33, 5.06) and HR 1.39 (1.06, 1.83), respectively. Conclusions/interpretation Maternal obesity is associated with increased incidence of type 2 diabetes in the offspring. Evidence-based strategies that reduce obesity among women of reproductive age and that might reduce the incidence of diabetes in their offspring are urgently required.
  • Peltoniemi, Olli; Yun, Jinhyeon; Björkman, Stefan; Han, Taehee (2021)
    As a result of intensive breeding, litter size has considerably increased in pig production over the last three decades. This has resulted in an increase in farrowing complications. Prolonged farrowing will shorten the window for suckling colostrum and reduce the chances for high-quality colostrum intake. Studies also agree that increasing litter sizes concomitantly resulted in decreased piglet birth weight and increased within-litter birth weight variations. Birth weight, however, is one of the critical factors affecting the prognosis of colostrum intake, and piglet growth, welfare, and survival. Litters of uneven birth weight distribution will suffer and lead to increased piglet mortality before weaning. The proper management is key to handle the situation. Feeding strategies before farrowing, management routines during parturition (e.g., drying and moving piglets to the udder and cross-fostering) and feeding an energy source to piglets after birth may be beneficial management tools with large litters. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)-driven recovery from energy losses during lactation appears critical for supporting follicle development, the viability of oocytes and embryos, and, eventually, litter uniformity. This paper explores certain management routines for neonatal piglets that can lead to the optimization of their colostrum intake and thereby their survival in large litters. In addition, this paper reviews the evidence concerning nutritional factors, particularly lactation feeding that may reduce the loss of sow body reserves, affecting the growth of the next oocyte generation. In conclusion, decreasing birth weight and compromised immunity are subjects warranting investigation in the search for novel management tools. Furthermore, to increase litter uniformity, more focus should be placed on nutritional factors that affect IGF-1-driven follicle development before ovulation.
  • Peltoniemi, Olli; Björkman, Stefan; Oropeza-Moe, Marianne; Oliviero, Claudio (2019)
    This review aims to describe changes in production environment, management tools and technology to alleviate problems seen with the present hyperprolific sow model. Successful parturition in the pig includes the possibility to express adequate maternal behaviour, rapid expulsion of piglets, complete expulsion of placenta, elimination of uterine contamination and debris, neonatal activity and colostrum intake. We focus on management of large litters, including maternal behaviour, ease of parturition, colostrum production, piglet quality parameters and intermittent suckling. There are also some interesting developments in technology to assess colostrum and immune state of the piglet. These developments may be utilized to improve the success rate of reproductive management around farrowing, lactation and after weaning. We also discuss new insights in how to examine the health of the mammary gland, uterus and ovaries of hyperprolific sows. Finally, we assess the latest developments on breeding and technology of hyperprolific sows, including artificial insemination (AI), real-time ultrasound of the genital tract and embryo transfer (ET). We conclude that 1) for the sow to produce sufficient colostrum, both the behavioural and physiological needs of the sow need to be met before and after parturition. Furthermore, 2) new ultrasound and biopsy technology can be effectively applied for accurate diagnosis of inflammatory processes of the udder and uterus and timing of AI regarding ovulation to improve insemination efficiency. Finally, 3) developments in cryopreservation of germ cells and embryos appear promising but lack of valid oocyte collection techniques and nonsurgical ET techniques are a bottleneck to commercial ET. These latest developments in management of parturition and reproductive technology are necessary to cope with the increasing challenges associated with very large litter sizes.
  • Mishra, Gita D.; Chung, Hsin-Fang; Cano, Antonio; Chedraui, Peter; Goulis, Dimitrios G.; Lopes, Patrice; Mueck, Alfred; Rees, Margaret; Senturk, Levent M.; Simoncini, Tommaso; Stevenson, John C.; Stute, Petra; Tuomikoski, Pauliina; Lambrinoudaki, Irene (2019)
    Introduction: While the associations of genetic, reproductive and environmental factors with the timing of natural menopause have been extensively investigated, few epidemiological studies have specifically examined their association with premature (<40 years) or early natural menopause (40-45 years). Aim: The aim of this position statement is to provide evidence on the predictors of premature and early natural menopause, as well as recommendations for the management of premature and early menopause and future research. Materials and methods: Literature review and consensus of expert opinion. Results and conclusions: Strong genetic predictors of premature and early menopause include a family history of premature or early menopause, being a child of a multiple pregnancy and some specific genetic variants. Women with early menarche and nulliparity or low parity are also at a higher risk of experiencing premature or early menopause. Cigarette smoking (with a strong dose-response effect) and being underweight have been consistently associated with premature and early menopause. Current guidelines for the management of premature and early menopause mainly focus on early initiation of hormone therapy (HT) and continued treatment until the woman reaches the average age at menopause (50-52 years). We suggest that clinicians and health professionals consider the age at menopause of the relevant region or ethnic group as part of the assessment for the timing of HT cessation. In addition, there should be early monitoring of women with a family history of early menopause, who are a child of a multiple pregnancy, or who have had early menarche (especially those who have had no children). As part of preventive health strategies, women should be encouraged to quit smoking (preferably before the age of 30 years) and maintain optimal weight in order to reduce their risk of premature or early menopause.
  • Nieminen, Pentti; Panychev, Dmitry; Lyalyushkin, Sergei; Komarov, German; Nikanov, Alexander; Borisenko, Mark; Kinnula, Vuokko L.; Toljamo, Tuula (2013)
  • Mikkonen, Janne; Remes, Hanna; Moustgaard, Heta; Martikainen, Pekka (2020)
    This article reconsiders the role of social origin in health selection by examining whether parental education moderates the association between early health and educational attainment and whether health problems mediate the intergenerational transmission of education. We used longitudinal register data on Finns born in 1986–1991 (n = 352,899). We measured the completion of secondary and tertiary education until age 27 and used data on hospital care and medication reimbursements to assess chronic somatic conditions, frequent infections, and mental disorders at ages 10–16. We employed linear probability models to estimate the associations between different types of health problems and educational outcomes and to examine moderation by parental education, both overall in the population and comparing siblings with and without health problems. Finally, we performed a mediation analysis with g-computation to simulate whether a hypothetical eradication of health problems would weaken the association between parental and offspring education. All types of health problems reduced the likelihood of secondary education, but mental disorders were associated with the largest reductions. Among those with secondary education, there was further evidence of selection to tertiary education. High parental education buffered against the negative impact of mental disorders on completing secondary education but exacerbated it in the case of tertiary education. The simulated eradication of health problems slightly reduced disparities by parental education in secondary education (up to 10%) but increased disparities in tertiary education (up to 2%). Adolescent health problems and parental education are strong but chiefly independent predictors of educational attainment.
  • Qingdao Diabet Prevention Program; Ning, Feng; Ren, Jie; Qiao, Qing (2019)
    This study examined the association between famine exposure in early life and the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adulthood during the 1959-1961 Chinese Famine. Two cross-sectional surveys involving randomly selected Chinese adults aged 35-74 years in the Qingdao area were conducted. A total of 9,588 individuals were grouped into four birth cohorts of unexposed (born between January 1, 1962, and December 31, 1975), fetal-exposed (born between January 1, 1959, and December 31, 1961), childhood-exposed (born between January 1, 1949, and December 31, 1958), and adolescence/adult-exposed cohorts (born between January 1, 1931, and December 31, 1948). We assessed the prevalence rate of MetS in relation to famine exposure according to three definitions of MetS by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III), International Diabetes Federation (IDF), and China Diabetes Society (CDS). According to the CDS criterion, the prevalence rates of MetS were 17.8%, 25.7%, 31.1%, and 45.3% in the unexposed, fetal-, childhood-, and adolescence/adult-exposed cohorts, respectively (P
  • Hakkarainen, Heidi; Huopio, Hanna; Cederberg, Henna; Voutilainen, Raimo; Heinonen, Seppo (2018)
    Background: Whether the delivery of a large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infant predicts future maternal metabolic syndrome (MetS) is not known. To this aim, we investigated the incidence of MetS and its components in women with or without a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) with a view to the birth weight of the offspring. Methods: Eight hundred seventy six women treated for their pregnancies in Kuopio University Hospital in 19892009 underwent a follow-up study (mean follow-up time 7.3 (SD 5.1) years), of whom 489 women with GDM and 385 normoglycemic controls. The women were stratified into two groups according to the newborn's birth weight: 10-90th percentile (appropriate-for-gestational-age; AGA) (n = 662) and > 90th percentile (LGA) (n = 116). MetS and its components were evaluated in the follow-up study according to the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Results: LGA vs. AGA delivery was associated with a higher incidence of MetS at follow-up in women with a background of GDM (54.4% vs. 43.6%), but not in women without GDM. Conclusion: An LGA delivery in women with GDM is associated with a higher risk of future MetS and this group is optimal to study preventive measures for MetS. In contrast, an LGA delivery after a normoglycemic pregnancy was not associated with an increased future maternal MetS risk.
  • Silventoinen, Karri; Baker, Jennifer L.; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A. (2012)
  • Peltoniemi, Olli; Oliviero, Claudio; Yun, Jinhyeon; Grahofer, Alexander; Björkman, Stefan (2020)
    This review outlined current management and nutritional strategies arising from the large increase in sow litter size. Breeding goals should be reconsidered, addressing the ever-increasing duration of parturition in this species, which is not sustainable. In addition, attention should be paid to improving the international trade of germ cells and embryos in order to better cope with the challenges of the large litter. Other challenges await, including free farrowing housing and better resilience of sows as they approach farrowing to allow them to cope with the potential heat stress brought about by climate change. Behavioral traits can be useful for diagnosis of abnormal parturition. Sows should be allowed to express nest-building behavior and deviations from normal behavior just before and during the expulsion phase of parturition may indicate problematic cases. In addition, ultrasound technology is very useful, especially during the last third of pregnancy and postpartum, so that the most appropriate actions can be taken with regard to uterine health. Proper feeding management during the last third of pregnancy is crucial for mammary development and appropriate colostrum production. Prevention of constipation through adequate fiber provision and frequent meals prior to the onset of farrowing are important in the hyperprolific sow. Feeding management can be used to promote the immunity of the sow and the newborn. Feeding components, such short-chain fatty acids and yeast derivate, also appears to promote a favorable microbiota of the sow. Neonatal care and management become critical with large litters. The focus should be on situations where the number of piglets is greater than the number of teats. Applications of new technology, e.g. infrared cameras, may be useful in detecting piglets in need of assistance. In addition, such practices as cross fostering and split suckling are necessary when trying to handle the increasing litter size. The on-farm use of a Brix refractometer permits estimation of the quality of colostrum at the individual sow level, thereby allowing the farmer to target actions at specific sows that produce low-quality colostrum.
  • Tuovinen, Soile; Lahti-Pulkkinen, Marius; Girchenko, Polina; Heinonen, Kati; Lahti, Jari; Reynolds, Rebecca M.; Hamalainen, Esa; Villa, Pia M.; Kajantie, Eero; Laivuori, Hannele; Raikkonen, Katri (2021)
    Background: Maternal antenatal stress, including symptoms of depression, anxiety and perceived stress, is associated with mental and behavioral problems in children. Whether it is associated with child mental and behavioral disorders remains uncertain. We examined if maternal antenatal symptoms of depression, anxiety and perceived stress were associated with mental and behavioral disorders in their children, if the associations varied according to gestational week, stress type, fluctuating or consistently high symptoms, and if they were driven by maternal or paternal lifetime mood or anxiety disorders. Methods: 3365 mothers participating in the Prediction and Prevention of Preeclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction (PREDO) study completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the State Anxiety Inventory and the Perceived Stress Scale up to 14 times throughout pregnancy. The Care Register for Health Care provided data on mental and behavioral (including neurodevelopmental) disorders for their children from birth (11/07/2006-07/24/2010) until 12/31/2016 and for parental lifetime mood and anxiety disorders until 12/31/ 2016. Results: The hazard of any childhood mental and behavioral disorder (HR=1.91, 95% CI: 1.39-2.51) was significantly higher for children whose mothers reported consistently high in comparison to consistently low levels of all types of stress throughout pregnancy. The associations remained significant when adjusted for maternal and paternal lifetime mood and anxiety disorders (and their comorbidity and timing and mood disorder type). Conclusion: Maternal antenatal stress is associated with higher risk of childhood mental and behavioral disorders. Efforts to reduce maternal antenatal stress should be given a high priority to improve child mental health.
  • Seppälä, Laura K.; Vettenranta, Kim; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Hirvonen, Elli; Leinonen, Maarit K.; Madanat-Harjuoja, Laura-Maria (2020)
    An association between maternal diabetes, its medication and childhood cancer has not been previously explored in a registry-based setting. With a case-control design, we aimed to explore whether maternal diabetes is associated with an increased risk of childhood cancer in the offspring. Combining data from population-based registries, we analyzed a total of 2,029 cases, i.e. persons with childhood cancer diagnosed under the age of 20?years between years 1996-2014 and a total of 10,103 matched population controls. The mothers of the cases/controls and their diagnoses of diabetes (DM) before/during pregnancy as well as their insulin/metformin prescriptions during pregnancy were identified. Conditional logistic regression modelling was used to analyze the risk of childhood cancer. The OR for childhood cancer among those exposed to any maternal diabetes was 1.32 (95% CI 1.14-1.54) compared to the offspring of the non-diabetic mothers. The effect of maternal diabetes on the risk of childhood cancer remained elevated even after adjusting for maternal age, parity and smoking. Our data suggest that maternal diabetes medication may reduce the risk for childhood cancer (adjusted OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.36-1.94), especially in gestational diabetes (adjusted OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.05-1.25), compared to the diabetic mothers without medication. The risk of childhood leukemia was significantly higher among children exposed to any maternal diabetes (OR 1.36, CI 1.04-1.77) compared to the unexposed. Maternal diabetes appears to be associated with an increased risk of childhood cancer in the offspring. The possible risk-reducing effect of an exposure to diabetes medication on offspring cancer risk warrants further investigation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
  • Kumpulainen, Satu M.; Heinonen, Kati; Kaseva, Nina; Andersson, Sture; Lano, Aulikki; Reynolds, Rebecca M.; Wolke, Dieter; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G.; Räikkönen, Katri (2019)
    Background Maternal early pregnancy overweight (body mass index [BMI] 25.0-29.9 kg/m(2)) and obesity (BMI >= 30 kg/m(2)) are associated with mental and physical health adversities in the offspring. Prenatal programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been put forward as one of the mechanisms that may play pathophysiological role. However, evidence linking maternal overweight and obesity with offspring HPA-axis activity is scarce. We studied if maternal early pregnancy BMI is associated with diurnal salivary cortisol, a marker of HPA-axis activity, in young adult offspring. Methods At a mean age of 25.3 (standard deviation [SD) = 0.6) years, 653 Arvo Ylppo Longitudinal Study participants collected saliva samples for cortisol analyses, at awakening, 15 and 30 min thereafter, 10:30AM, 12:00PM, 5:30PM and at bedtime. Maternal BMI was calculated from weight and height verified by a measurement in the first antenatal clinic visit before 12 weeks of gestation derived from healthcare records. Results Per each one kg/m(2) higher maternal early pregnancy BMI offspring diurnal average salivary cortisol was -1.4% (95% CI:-2.6, -0.2, p(FDR) = 0.033) lower, at awakening it was -2.4% (95% CI:-4.0, -0.7, p(FDR) = 0.025) lower and the morning average salivary cortisol was -2.0% (95% CI:-3.4,-0.5, p(FDR) = 0.017) lower. These associations were independent of the offspring's own young adulthood BMI, and other important covariates. Conclusion Our findings show that young adult offspring born to mothers with higher early pregnancy BMI show lower average levels of diurnal cortisol, especially in the morning. Whether these findings reflect prenatal programming of the offspring HPA-axis activity warrants further investigation.