Browsing by Subject "BIRTH-WEIGHT"

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  • Jääskeläinen, Tiina; Kärkkäinen, Olli; Jokkala, Jenna; Klåvus, Anton; Heinonen, Seppo; Auriola, Seppo; Lehtonen, Marko; FINNPEC Core Invest Grp; Hanhineva, Kati; Laivuori, Hannele (2021)
    IntroductionMaternal metabolism changes substantially during pregnancy. However, few studies have used metabolomics technologies to characterize changes across gestation.Objectives and methodsWe applied liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based non-targeted metabolomics to determine whether the metabolic profile of serum differs throughout the pregnancy between pre-eclamptic and healthy women in the FINNPEC (Finnish Genetics of Preeclampsia Consortium) Study. Serum samples were available from early and late pregnancy.ResultsProgression of pregnancy had large-scale effects to the serum metabolite profile. Altogether 50 identified metabolites increased and 49 metabolites decreased when samples of early pregnancy were compared to samples of late pregnancy. The metabolic signatures of pregnancy were largely shared in pre-eclamptic and healthy women, only urea, monoacylglyceride 18:1 and glycerophosphocholine were identified to be increased in the pre-eclamptic women when compared to healthy controls.ConclusionsOur study highlights the need of large-scale longitudinal metabolomic studies in non-complicated pregnancies before more detailed understanding of metabolism in adverse outcomes could be provided. Our findings are one of the first steps for a broader metabolic understanding of the physiological changes caused by pregnancy per se.
  • FINNPEC (2018)
    Preeclampsia (PE) is a complex pregnancy disorder. It is not extensively known how the metabolic alterations of PE women contribute to the metabolism of newborn. We applied liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based non-targeted meta bolomics to determine whether the metabolic profile of plasma from umbilical cord differs between infants born to PE and non-PE pregnancies in the FINNPEC study. Cord plasma was available from 42 newborns born from PE and 53 from non-PE pregnancies. 133 molecular features differed between PE and non-PE newborns after correction for multiple testing. Decreased levels of 4-pyridoxic acid were observed in the cord plasma samples of PE newborns when compared to non-PE newborns. Compounds representing following areas of metabolism were increased in the cord plasma of PE newborns: urea and creatine metabolism; carnitine biosynthesis and acylcarnitines; putrescine metabolites; tryptophan metabolism and phosphatidylcholines. To our knowledge, this study is the first one to apply LC-MS based meta bolomics in cord plasma of PE newborns. We demonstrate that this strategy provides a global picture of the widespread metabolic alterations associated with PE and particularly the elevated levels of carnitine precursors and trimethylated compounds appear to be associated with PE at birth.
  • Olander, Rasmus F. W.; Sundholm, Johnny K. M.; Suonsyrjä, Sanna; Sarkola, Taisto (2022)
    Background Abnormal fetal growth is associated with increased cardiovascular risk in adulthood. We investigated the effect of fetal programming on arterial health and morphology during early childhood. Methods We examined 90 children (median age 5.81 years, interquartile range: 5.67; 5.95), born small for gestational age with fetal growth restriction, large or appropriate for gestational age (SGA, N = 23, LGA, N = 19, AGA N = 48). We measured body composition, anthropometrics, blood pressure, pulse wave velocity (PWV), lipids, glucose and inflammatory markers, and assessed carotid, brachial, radial and femoral arterial morphology and stiffness using very-high resolution ultrasound (46-71 MHz). Results LGA showed increased anthropometry, lean body mass and body mass index. SGA displayed decreased anthropometry and lean body mass. Blood pressure, PWV, carotid artery stiffness and blood work did not differ groupwise. Differences in lumen diameters, intima-media thicknesses (IMT) and adventitia thicknesses disappeared when adjusted for lean body mass and sex. In multiple regression models arterial dimensions were mainly predicted by lean body mass, with birth weight remaining associated only with carotid and brachial lumen dimensions, and not with IMTs. Carotid-femoral PWV was predicted by height and blood pressure only. No independent effect of adiposity was observed. Conclusions Arterial dimensions in childhood associate with current anthropometrics, especially lean body mass, and sex, explaining differences in arterial layer thickness. We found no signs of fetal programming of cardiovascular risk or arterial health in early childhood.
  • TRIGR Investigators; Pacaud, Daniele; Nucci, Anita M.; Cuthbertson, David; Becker, Dorothy J.; Virtanen, Suvi M.; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Ilonen, Jorma; Knip, Mikael (2021)
    Aims/hypothesis The aim of this work was to examine the relationship between family history of type 1 diabetes, birthweight, growth during the first 2 years and development of multiple beta cell autoantibodies in children with a first-degree relative with type 1 diabetes and HLA-conferred disease susceptibility. Methods In a secondary analysis of the Trial to Reduce IDDM in the Genetically at Risk (TRIGR), clinical characteristics and development of beta cell autoantibodies were compared in relation to family history of type 1 diabetes (mother vs father vs sibling) in 2074 children from families with a single affected family member. Results Multiple autoantibodies (>= 2 of 5 measured) developed in 277 (13%) children: 107 (10%), 114 (16%) and 56 (18%) born with a mother, father or sibling with type 1 diabetes, respectively (p <0.001). The HR for time to multiple autoimmunity was 0.54 (95% CI 0.39, 0.75) in offspring of affected mothers (n = 107/1046,p <0.001) and 0.81 (95% CI 0.59, 1.11) (n = 114/722,p = 0.19) in offspring of affected fathers, compared with participants with a sibling with type 1 diabetes (comparator groupn = 56/306). The time to the first autoantibody present (to insulin, GAD, tyrosine phosphatase-related insulinoma-associated 2 molecules, islet cell or zinc transporter 8) was similar in the three groups. Height velocity (zscore/year) in the first 24 months was independently associated with developing multiple antibodies in the total cohort (HR 1.31 [95% CI 1.01, 1.70],p = 0.04). A higher birthweight in children born to an affected mother vs affected father or an affected sibling was not related to the risk of multiple autoimmunity. Conclusions/interpretation The risk of developing multiple autoantibodies was lower in children with maternal type 1 diabetes. For the whole group, this risk of developing multiple autoantibodies was independent of birthweight but was greater in those with increased height velocity during the first 2 years of life. However, the risk associated with paternal type 1 diabetes was not linked to differences in birthweight or early growth.
  • Premenopausal Breast Canc Collabor (2018)
    IMPORTANCE The association between increasing body mass index (BMI; calculated as wei ght in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) and risk of breast cancer is unique in cancer epidemiology in that a crossover effect exists, with risk reduction before and risk increase after menopause. The inverse association with premenopausal breast cancer risk is poorly characterized but might be important in the understanding of breast cancer causation. OBJECTIVE To investigate the association of BMI with premenopausal breast cancer risk, in particular by age at BMI, attained age, risk factors for breast cancer, and tumor characteristics. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This multicenter analysis used pooled individual-level data from 758 592 premenopausal women from 19 prospective cohorts to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of premenopausal breast cancer in association with BMI from ages 18 through 54 years using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Median follow-up was 9.3 years (interquartile range, 4.9-13.5 years) per participant, with 13 082 incident cases of breast cancer. Participants were recruited from January 1,1963, through December 31, 2013, and data were analyzed from September 1.2013, through December 31, 2017. EXPOSURES Body mass index at ages 18 to 24, 25 to 34,35 to 44, and 45 to 54 years. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Invasive or in situ premenopausal breast cancer. RESULTS Among the 758 592 premenopausal women (median age, 40.6 years; interquartile range, 35.2-45.5 years) included in the analysis, inverse linear associations of BMI with breast cancer risk were found that were stronger for BMI at ages 18 to 24 years (HR per 5 kg/m(2) [5.0-U] difference, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.73-0.80) than for BMI at ages 45 to 54 years (HR per 5.0-U difference, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.86-0.91). The inverse associations were observed even among nonoverweight women. There was a 4.2-fold risk gradient between the highest and lowest BMI categories (BMI >= 35.0 vs CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The results of this study suggest that increased adiposity is associated with a reduced risk of premenopausal breast cancer at a greater magnitude than previously shown and across the entire distribution of BMI. The strongest associations of risk were observed for BMI in early adulthood. Understanding the biological mechanisms underlying these associations could have important preventive potential.
  • Mardones, Francisco; Arnaiz, Pilar; Pacheco, Paz; Dominguez, Angelica; Villarroel, Luis; Eriksson, Johan G.; Barja, Salesa; Farias, Marcelo; Castillo, Oscar (2014)
  • Olander, Rasmus F. W.; Litwin, Linda; Sundholm, Johnny K. M.; Sarkola, Taisto (2022)
    Studies examining the link between abnormal fetal growth and cardiac changes in childhood have presented conflicting results. We studied the effect of abnormal fetal growth on cardiac morphology and function during childhood, while controlling for body size, composition and postnatal factors. We report on the follow-up of 90 children (median age 5.81 years, IQR 5.67; 5.95) born appropriate for gestational age (AGA, N = 48), small for gestational age (SGA, N = 23), or large for gestational age (LGA, N = 19); SGA and LGA defined as birth weight Z-score < - 2 and > + 2, respectively. We examined the heart using echocardiography, including Doppler and strain imaging, in relation to anthropometrics, body composition, blood pressure, physical activity, and diet. Although groupwise differences in body size decreased during the first year after birth, LGA remained larger at follow-up, with higher lean body mass and BMI, while SGA were smaller. Slight changes in left ventricular diastolic function were present in SGA and LGA, with SGA showing increased mitral diastolic E- and A-wave peak flow velocities, and increased septal E/E ' ratio, and LGA showing larger left atrial volume adjusted for sex and lean body mass. In univariate analyses, lean body mass at follow-up was the strongest predictor of cardiac morphology. We found no groupwise differences at follow-up for ventricular sphericity, cardiac morphology adjusted for lean body mass and sex, or blood pressure, diet, or physical activity. Cardiac morphology is predicted by lean body mass during childhood, even in the setting of abnormal fetal growth. Our results are consistent with a limited effect of fetal programming on cardiac dimensions during childhood. Minor changes in diastolic function are present in both SGA and LGA children, however, the clinical significance of these changes at this stage is likely small.
  • Felix, Janine F.; Joubert, Bonnie R.; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Sharp, Gemma C.; Almqvist, Catarina; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Arshad, Hasan; Baiz, Nour; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Bakulski, Kelly M.; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Bouchard, Luigi; Breton, Carrie V.; Brunekreef, Bert; Brunst, Kelly J.; Burchard, Esteban G.; Bustamante, Mariona; Chatzi, Leda; Munthe-Kaas, Monica Cheng; Corpeleijn, Eva; Czamara, Darina; Dabelea, Dana; Smith, George Davey; De Boever, Patrick; Duijts, Liesbeth; Dwyer, Terence; Eng, Celeste; Eskenazi, Brenda; Everson, Todd M.; Falahi, Fahimeh; Fallin, M. Daniele; Farchi, Sara; Fernandez, Mariana F.; Gao, Lu; Gaunt, Tom R.; Ghantous, Akram; Gillman, Matthew W.; Gonseth, Semira; Grote, Veit; Gruzieva, Olena; Haberg, Siri E.; Herceg, Zdenko; Hivert, Marie-France; Holland, Nina; Holloway, John W.; Hoyo, Cathrine; Hu, Donglei; Huang, Rae-Chi; Huen, Karen; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jima, Dereje D.; Just, Allan C.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Karlsson, Robert; Karmaus, Wilfried; Kechris, Katerina J.; Kere, Juha; Kogevinas, Manolis; Koletzko, Berthold; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Kupers, Leanne K.; Ladd-Acosta, Christine; Lahti, Jari; Lambrechts, Nathalie; Langie, Sabine A. S.; Lie, Rolv T.; Liu, Andrew H.; Magnus, Maria C.; Magnus, Per; Maguire, Rachel L.; Marsit, Carmen J.; McArdle, Wendy; Melen, Erik; Melton, Phillip; Murphy, Susan K.; Nawrot, Tim S.; Nistico, Lorenza; Nohr, Ellen A.; Nordlund, Bjorn; Nystad, Wenche; Oh, Sam S.; Oken, Emily; Page, Christian M.; Perron, Patrice; Pershagen, Goran; Pizzi, Costanza; Plusquin, Michelle; Räikkönen, Katri; Reese, Sarah E.; Reischl, Eva; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Ring, Susan; Roy, Ritu P.; Rzehak, Peter; Schoeters, Greet; Schwartz, David A.; Sebert, Sylvain; Snieder, Harold; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Starling, Anne P.; Sunyer, Jordi; ATaylor, Jack; Tiemeier, Henning; Ullemar, Vilhelmina; Vafeiadi, Marina; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H.; Vonk, Judith M.; Vriens, Annette; Vrijheid, Martine; Wang, Pei; Wiemels, Joseph L.; Wilcox, Allen J.; Wright, Rosalind J.; Xu, Cheng-Jian; Xu, Zongli; Yang, Ivana V.; Yousefi, Paul; Zhang, Hongmei; Zhang, Weiming; Zhao, Shanshan; Agha, Golareh; Relton, Caroline L.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; London, Stephanie J. (2018)
  • Sebert, Sylvain; Lowry, Estelle; Aumuller, Nicole; Bermudez, Mercedes G.; Bjerregaard, Lise G.; de Rooij, Susanne R.; De Silva, Maneka; El Marroun, Hanan; Hummel, Nadine; Juola, Teija; Mason, Giacomo; Much, Daniela; Oliveros, Elena; Poupakis, Stavros; Rautio, Nina; Schwarzfischer, Phillipp; Tzala, Evangelia; Uhl, Olaf; van de Beek, Cornelieke; Vehmeijer, Florianne; Verdejo-Roman, Juan; Wasenius, Niko; Webster, Claire; Ala-Mursula, Leena; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Miettunen, Jouko; Baker, Jennifer L.; Campoy, Cristina; Conti, Gabriella; Eriksson, Johan G.; Hummel, Sandra; Jaddoe, Vincent; Koletzko, Berthold; Lewin, Alex; Rodriguez-Palermo, Maria; Roseboom, Tessa; Rueda, Ricardo; Evans, Jayne; Felix, Janine F.; Prokopenko, Inga; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta (2019)
  • Lahti-Pulkkinen, Marius; Bhattacharya, Sohinee; Wild, Sarah H.; Lindsay, Robert S.; Räikkönen, Katri; Norman, Jane E.; Bhattacharya, Siladitya; Reynolds, Rebecca M. (2019)
    Aims/hypothesis Maternal obesity in pregnancy is associated with cardiovascular disease and mortality rate in the offspring. We aimed to determine whether maternal obesity is also associated with increased incidence of type 2 and type 1 diabetes in the offspring, independently of maternal diabetes as a candidate mechanistic pathway. Methods Birth records of 118,201 children from 1950 to 2011 in the Aberdeen Maternity and Neonatal Databank were linked to Scottish Care Information-Diabetes, the national register for diagnosed diabetes in Scotland, to identify incident and prevalent type 1 and type 2 diabetes up to 1 January 2012. Maternal BMI was calculated from height and weight measured at the first antenatal visit. The effect of maternal obesity on offspring outcomes was tested using time-to-event analysis with Cox proportional hazards regression to compare outcomes in offspring of mothers in underweight, overweight or obese categories of BMI, compared with offspring of women with normal BMI. Results Offspring of obese (BMI >= 30 kg/m(2)) and overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m(2)) mothers had an increased hazard of type 2 diabetes compared with mothers with normal BMI, after adjustment for gestation when weight was measured, maternal history of diabetes before pregnancy, maternal history of hypertension, age at delivery, parity, socioeconomic status, and sex of the offspring: HR 3.48 (95% CI 2.33, 5.06) and HR 1.39 (1.06, 1.83), respectively. Conclusions/interpretation Maternal obesity is associated with increased incidence of type 2 diabetes in the offspring. Evidence-based strategies that reduce obesity among women of reproductive age and that might reduce the incidence of diabetes in their offspring are urgently required.
  • Peltoniemi, Olli; Yun, Jinhyeon; Björkman, Stefan; Han, Taehee (2021)
    As a result of intensive breeding, litter size has considerably increased in pig production over the last three decades. This has resulted in an increase in farrowing complications. Prolonged farrowing will shorten the window for suckling colostrum and reduce the chances for high-quality colostrum intake. Studies also agree that increasing litter sizes concomitantly resulted in decreased piglet birth weight and increased within-litter birth weight variations. Birth weight, however, is one of the critical factors affecting the prognosis of colostrum intake, and piglet growth, welfare, and survival. Litters of uneven birth weight distribution will suffer and lead to increased piglet mortality before weaning. The proper management is key to handle the situation. Feeding strategies before farrowing, management routines during parturition (e.g., drying and moving piglets to the udder and cross-fostering) and feeding an energy source to piglets after birth may be beneficial management tools with large litters. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)-driven recovery from energy losses during lactation appears critical for supporting follicle development, the viability of oocytes and embryos, and, eventually, litter uniformity. This paper explores certain management routines for neonatal piglets that can lead to the optimization of their colostrum intake and thereby their survival in large litters. In addition, this paper reviews the evidence concerning nutritional factors, particularly lactation feeding that may reduce the loss of sow body reserves, affecting the growth of the next oocyte generation. In conclusion, decreasing birth weight and compromised immunity are subjects warranting investigation in the search for novel management tools. Furthermore, to increase litter uniformity, more focus should be placed on nutritional factors that affect IGF-1-driven follicle development before ovulation.
  • Peltoniemi, Olli; Björkman, Stefan; Oropeza-Moe, Marianne; Oliviero, Claudio (2019)
    This review aims to describe changes in production environment, management tools and technology to alleviate problems seen with the present hyperprolific sow model. Successful parturition in the pig includes the possibility to express adequate maternal behaviour, rapid expulsion of piglets, complete expulsion of placenta, elimination of uterine contamination and debris, neonatal activity and colostrum intake. We focus on management of large litters, including maternal behaviour, ease of parturition, colostrum production, piglet quality parameters and intermittent suckling. There are also some interesting developments in technology to assess colostrum and immune state of the piglet. These developments may be utilized to improve the success rate of reproductive management around farrowing, lactation and after weaning. We also discuss new insights in how to examine the health of the mammary gland, uterus and ovaries of hyperprolific sows. Finally, we assess the latest developments on breeding and technology of hyperprolific sows, including artificial insemination (AI), real-time ultrasound of the genital tract and embryo transfer (ET). We conclude that 1) for the sow to produce sufficient colostrum, both the behavioural and physiological needs of the sow need to be met before and after parturition. Furthermore, 2) new ultrasound and biopsy technology can be effectively applied for accurate diagnosis of inflammatory processes of the udder and uterus and timing of AI regarding ovulation to improve insemination efficiency. Finally, 3) developments in cryopreservation of germ cells and embryos appear promising but lack of valid oocyte collection techniques and nonsurgical ET techniques are a bottleneck to commercial ET. These latest developments in management of parturition and reproductive technology are necessary to cope with the increasing challenges associated with very large litter sizes.
  • Han, T.; Björkman, S.; Soede, N. M.; Oliviero, C.; Peltoniemi, O. A. T. (2021)
    Piglet birth weight is an important factor for their survival and growth. As the pre-mating diet influences the sow's metabolic state, this may have an impact on follicle development after weaning and subsequent piglet birth weight. We investigated the pre-mating effect of dietary fibre (DF; sugar beet pulp (SBP) and microfibrillated cellulose (MFC)) on metabolic hormones and metabolites (IGF-1, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), creatinine, urea and leptin), follicle development, and litter characteristics at subsequent farrowing in 58 hyper-prolific primiparous sows farrowing 16.5 +/- 0.4 piglets used in three consecutive batches. We supplemented commercial diets (CON) with SBP and MFC during the last week of lactation and the weaning-to-oestrus interval (WEI). We measured follicle diameters with ultrasound and collected preprandial blood samples at weaning, 3 days after weaning, and at oestrus. A tendency for higher average daily feed intake (ADFI; 5.69 v. 6.61 kg/day, P < 0.07) and significant lower backfat (BF; 1.1 v. 0.2 mm, P < 0.05) loss were observed in SBP sows than in MFC sows during one week before weaning. Total dietary fibre (TDF) intake during the last week of lactation was higher in SBP sows than in CON sows, whereas TDF intake in SBP sows was similar to MFC sows (775.0 vs. 900.6 vs. 840.9 g/day, respectively, for CON, SBP and MFC, P < 0.05). Creatinine concentration at weaning was higher in SBP sows than in MFC sows (162.9 v. 136.6 mmol/L, P 0.001). Other hormones and reproductive parameters were not affected by pre-mating diets. At subsequent farrowing, there was no difference in litter characteristics (P 0.05). In our study, the different types of DF fed pre-mating affected feed intake and body protein mobilization during lactation. However, the supplementation of DF before mating did neither improve follicle development nor litter characteristics in the hyper-prolific sows.
  • Mishra, Gita D.; Chung, Hsin-Fang; Cano, Antonio; Chedraui, Peter; Goulis, Dimitrios G.; Lopes, Patrice; Mueck, Alfred; Rees, Margaret; Senturk, Levent M.; Simoncini, Tommaso; Stevenson, John C.; Stute, Petra; Tuomikoski, Pauliina; Lambrinoudaki, Irene (2019)
    Introduction: While the associations of genetic, reproductive and environmental factors with the timing of natural menopause have been extensively investigated, few epidemiological studies have specifically examined their association with premature (<40 years) or early natural menopause (40-45 years). Aim: The aim of this position statement is to provide evidence on the predictors of premature and early natural menopause, as well as recommendations for the management of premature and early menopause and future research. Materials and methods: Literature review and consensus of expert opinion. Results and conclusions: Strong genetic predictors of premature and early menopause include a family history of premature or early menopause, being a child of a multiple pregnancy and some specific genetic variants. Women with early menarche and nulliparity or low parity are also at a higher risk of experiencing premature or early menopause. Cigarette smoking (with a strong dose-response effect) and being underweight have been consistently associated with premature and early menopause. Current guidelines for the management of premature and early menopause mainly focus on early initiation of hormone therapy (HT) and continued treatment until the woman reaches the average age at menopause (50-52 years). We suggest that clinicians and health professionals consider the age at menopause of the relevant region or ethnic group as part of the assessment for the timing of HT cessation. In addition, there should be early monitoring of women with a family history of early menopause, who are a child of a multiple pregnancy, or who have had early menarche (especially those who have had no children). As part of preventive health strategies, women should be encouraged to quit smoking (preferably before the age of 30 years) and maintain optimal weight in order to reduce their risk of premature or early menopause.
  • Nieminen, Pentti; Panychev, Dmitry; Lyalyushkin, Sergei; Komarov, German; Nikanov, Alexander; Borisenko, Mark; Kinnula, Vuokko L.; Toljamo, Tuula (2013)
  • Mikkonen, Janne; Remes, Hanna; Moustgaard, Heta; Martikainen, Pekka (2020)
    This article reconsiders the role of social origin in health selection by examining whether parental education moderates the association between early health and educational attainment and whether health problems mediate the intergenerational transmission of education. We used longitudinal register data on Finns born in 1986–1991 (n = 352,899). We measured the completion of secondary and tertiary education until age 27 and used data on hospital care and medication reimbursements to assess chronic somatic conditions, frequent infections, and mental disorders at ages 10–16. We employed linear probability models to estimate the associations between different types of health problems and educational outcomes and to examine moderation by parental education, both overall in the population and comparing siblings with and without health problems. Finally, we performed a mediation analysis with g-computation to simulate whether a hypothetical eradication of health problems would weaken the association between parental and offspring education. All types of health problems reduced the likelihood of secondary education, but mental disorders were associated with the largest reductions. Among those with secondary education, there was further evidence of selection to tertiary education. High parental education buffered against the negative impact of mental disorders on completing secondary education but exacerbated it in the case of tertiary education. The simulated eradication of health problems slightly reduced disparities by parental education in secondary education (up to 10%) but increased disparities in tertiary education (up to 2%). Adolescent health problems and parental education are strong but chiefly independent predictors of educational attainment.
  • Qingdao Diabet Prevention Program; Ning, Feng; Ren, Jie; Qiao, Qing (2019)
    This study examined the association between famine exposure in early life and the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adulthood during the 1959-1961 Chinese Famine. Two cross-sectional surveys involving randomly selected Chinese adults aged 35-74 years in the Qingdao area were conducted. A total of 9,588 individuals were grouped into four birth cohorts of unexposed (born between January 1, 1962, and December 31, 1975), fetal-exposed (born between January 1, 1959, and December 31, 1961), childhood-exposed (born between January 1, 1949, and December 31, 1958), and adolescence/adult-exposed cohorts (born between January 1, 1931, and December 31, 1948). We assessed the prevalence rate of MetS in relation to famine exposure according to three definitions of MetS by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III), International Diabetes Federation (IDF), and China Diabetes Society (CDS). According to the CDS criterion, the prevalence rates of MetS were 17.8%, 25.7%, 31.1%, and 45.3% in the unexposed, fetal-, childhood-, and adolescence/adult-exposed cohorts, respectively (P
  • Hakkarainen, Heidi; Huopio, Hanna; Cederberg, Henna; Voutilainen, Raimo; Heinonen, Seppo (2018)
    Background: Whether the delivery of a large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infant predicts future maternal metabolic syndrome (MetS) is not known. To this aim, we investigated the incidence of MetS and its components in women with or without a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) with a view to the birth weight of the offspring. Methods: Eight hundred seventy six women treated for their pregnancies in Kuopio University Hospital in 19892009 underwent a follow-up study (mean follow-up time 7.3 (SD 5.1) years), of whom 489 women with GDM and 385 normoglycemic controls. The women were stratified into two groups according to the newborn's birth weight: 10-90th percentile (appropriate-for-gestational-age; AGA) (n = 662) and > 90th percentile (LGA) (n = 116). MetS and its components were evaluated in the follow-up study according to the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Results: LGA vs. AGA delivery was associated with a higher incidence of MetS at follow-up in women with a background of GDM (54.4% vs. 43.6%), but not in women without GDM. Conclusion: An LGA delivery in women with GDM is associated with a higher risk of future MetS and this group is optimal to study preventive measures for MetS. In contrast, an LGA delivery after a normoglycemic pregnancy was not associated with an increased future maternal MetS risk.
  • Silventoinen, Karri; Baker, Jennifer L.; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A. (2012)
  • Mehl, Cathrin Vano; Hollund, Ingrid Marie Husby; Iversen, Johanne Marie; Lydersen, Stian; Mork, Paul Jarle; Kajantie, Eero; Evensen, Kari Anne (2022)
    Background Individuals born small for gestational age (SGA) have an increased risk of several adverse health outcomes, but their health-related quality of life (HRQoL) across young adulthood has yet to be studied. The main aim of this study was to investigate if being born SGA at term is associated with poor HRQoL at 32 years of age. A second aim was to explore longitudinal changes in HRQoL from age 20 to 32 years. Methods In the prospective NTNU Low Birth Weight in a Lifetime Perspective study, 56 participants born SGA and 68 non-SGA control participants completed the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) at age 32 years to assess HRQoL. The SF-36 was also administrated at age 20 and 28 years. Longitudinal changes in the eight SF-36 domains and the two component summaries from 20 to 32 years were analyzed by linear mixed models. In total, 82 adults born SGA and 98 controls participated at least once and were included in the longitudinal analyses. Results At age 32 years the participants born SGA scored 14.8 (95% CI 4.7 to 25.3) points lower in the SF-36 role-physical domain compared with the control group, i.e. more problems with work or other daily activities due to physical health problems. The longitudinal analyses showed significant group differences from 20 to 32 years in the role-emotional domain, and in the physical and mental component summaries. Among participants born SGA, the physical component summary decreased from age 20 to 28 years (-3.2, 95% CI -5.0 to -1.8), while the mental component summary (6.0, 95% CI 2.9 to 8.6) and role-emotional domain score (19.3, 95% CI 9.9 to 30.3) increased, but there were no further changes from 28 to 32 years. There were no longitudinal changes in the control group from 20 to 32 years. Conclusion Overall, individuals born SGA at term reported similar HRQoL at age 32 years compared with non-SGA controls. Self-perceived mental health improved during young adulthood among individuals born SGA, while self-perceived physical health deteriorated. The latter findings warrant further investigation.