Browsing by Subject "BLACK-HOLES"

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  • Hoyos, Carlos; Jokela, Niko; Rodriguez Fernandez, David; Vuorinen, Aleksi (2016)
    It has been conjectured that the speed of sound in holographic models with UV fixed points has an upper bound set by the value of the quantity in conformal field theory. If true, this would set stringent constraints for the presence of strongly coupled quark matter in the cores of physical neutron stars, as the existence of two-solar-mass stars appears to demand a very stiff equation of state. In this article, we present a family of counterexamples to the speed of sound conjecture, consisting of strongly coupled theories at finite density. The theories we consider include N = 4 super Yang-Mills at finite R-charge density and nonzero gaugino masses, while the holographic duals are Einstein-Maxwell theories with a minimally coupled scalar in a charged black hole geometry. We show that for a small breaking of conformal invariance, the speed of sound approaches the conformal value from above at large chemical potentials.
  • Zheng, Yirui; Wild, Vivienne; Lahen, Natalia; Johansson, Peter H.; Law, David; Weaver, John R.; Jimenez, Noelia (2020)
    Recent integral field spectroscopic (IFS) surveys have revealed radial gradients in the optical spectral indices of post-starburst (PSB) galaxies, which can be used to constrain their formation histories. We study the spectral indices of post-processed mock IFS datacubes of binary merger simulations, carefully matched to the properties of the MaNGA IFS survey, with a variety of black hole (BH) feedback models, progenitor galaxies, orbits, and mass ratios. Based on our simulation sample, we find that only major mergers on prograde-prograde or retrograde-prograde orbits in combination with a mechanical BH feedback model can form galaxies with weak enough ongoing star formation, and therefore absent H alpha emission, to be selected by traditional PSB selection methods. We find strong fluctuations in nebular emission line strengths, even within the PSB phase, suggesting that H alpha selected PSBs are only a subsample of the underlying population. The global PSB population can be more robustly identified using stellar continuum-based approaches. The difficulty in reproducing the very young PSBs in simulations potentially indicates that new sub-resolution star formation recipes are required to properly model the process of star formation quenching. In our simulations, we find that the starburst peaks at the same time at all radii, but is stronger and more prolonged in the inner regions. This results in a strong time evolution in the radial gradients of the spectral indices that can be used to estimate the age of the starburst without reliance on detailed star formation histories from spectral synthesis models.
  • Kastikainen, Jani (2020)
    We study codimension-even conical defects that contain a deficit solid angle around each point along the defect. We show that they lead to delta function contributions to Lovelock scalars and we compute the contribution by two methods. We then show that these codimension-even defects appear as Euclidean brane solutions in higher dimensional topological AdS gravity which is Lovelock-Chern-Simons gravity without torsion. The theory possesses a holographic Weyl anomaly that is purely of type-A and proportional to the Lovelock scalar. Using the formula for the defect contribution, we prove a holographic duality between codimension-even defect partition functions and codimension-even brane on-shell actions in Euclidean signature. More specifically, we find that the logarithmic divergences match, because the Lovelock-Chern-Simons action localizes on the brane exactly. We demonstrate the duality explicitly for a spherical defect on the boundary which extends as a codimension-even hyperbolic brane into the bulk. For vanishing brane tension, the geometry is a foliation of Euclidean AdS space that provides a one-parameter generalization of AdS-Rindler space.
  • DiNunno, Brandon S.; Grozdanov, Saso; Pedraza, Juan F.; Young, Steve (2017)
    In large-N-c conformal field theories with classical holographic duals, inverse coupling constant corrections are obtained by considering higher-derivative terms in the corresponding gravity theory. In this work, we use type IIB supergravity and bottom-up Gauss-Bonnet gravity to study the dynamics of boost-invariant Bjorken hydrodynamics at finite coupling. We analyze the time-dependent decay properties of non-local observables (scalar two-point functions and Wilson loops) probing the different models of Bjorken flow and show that they can be expressed generically in terms of a few field theory parameters. In addition, our computations provide an analytically quanti fiable probe of the coupling-dependent validity of hydrodynamics at early times in a simple model of heavyion collisions, which is an observable closely analogous to the hydrodynamization time of a quark-gluon plasma. We find that to third order in the hydrodynamic expansion, the convergence of hydrodynamics is improved and that generically, as expected from field theory considerations and recent holographic results, the applicability of hydrodynamics is delayed as the field theory coupling decreases.
  • Patton, David R.; Wilson, Kieran D.; Metrow, Colin J.; Ellison, Sara L.; Torrey, Paul; Brown, Westley; Hani, Maan H.; McAlpine, Stuart; Moreno, Jorge; Woo, Joanna (2020)
    We use the IllustrisTNG cosmological hydrodynamical simulations to investigate how the specific star formation rates (sSFRs) of massive galaxies (M-* > 10(10) M-circle dot) depend on the distance to their closest companions. We estimate sSFR enhancements by comparing with control samples that are matched in redshift, stellar mass, local density, and isolation, and we restrict our analysis to pairs with stellar mass ratios of 0.1 to 10. At small separations (similar to 15 kpc), the mean sSFR is enhanced by a factor of 2.0 +/- 0.1 in the flagship (110.7Mpc)(3) simulation (TNG100-1). Statistically significant enhancements extend out to 3D separations of 280 kpc in the (302.6Mpc)(3) simulation (TNG300-1). We find similar trends in the EAGLE and Illustris simulations, although their sSFR enhancements are lower than those in TNG100-1 by about a factor of two. Enhancements in IllustrisTNG galaxies are seen throughout the redshift range explored (0
  • Henriksson, Oscar; Hoyos, Carlos; Jokela, Niko (2019)
    We revisit the large-N-c phase diagram of N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory at finite R-charge density and strong coupling, by means of the AdS/CFT correspondence. We conjecture new phases that result from a black hole shedding some of its charge through the nucleation of probe color D3-branes that remain at a finite distance from the black hole when the dual field theory lives on a sphere. In the corresponding ground states the color group is partially Higgsed, so these phases can be identified as having a type of color superconductivity. The new phases would appear at intermediate values of the R-charge chemical potential and we expect them to be metastable but long-lived in the large-N-c limit.
  • Zhoolideh Haghighi, Mohammad H.; Raouf, Mojtaba; Khosroshahi, Habib. G.; Farhang, Amin; Gozaliasl, Ghassem (2020)
    We characterize the relaxation state of galaxy systems by providing an assessment of the reliability of the photometric and spectroscopic probe via the semianalytic galaxy evolution model. We quantify the correlations between the dynamical age of simuglated galaxy groups and popular proxies of halo relaxation in observation, which are mainly either spectroscopic or photometric. We find the photometric indicators demonstrate a stronger correlation with the dynamical relaxation of galaxy groups compared to the spectroscopic probes. We take advantage of the Anderson Darling statistic (A(2)) and the velocity segregation (Delta V) as our spectroscopic indicators, and use the luminosity gap (Delta m(12)) and the luminosity decentering (D-offset) as photometric ones. First, we find that a combination of Delta m(12) and D-offset evaluated by a bivariant relation (B = 0.04 x Delta m(12) - 0.11 x Log(Doff-set) + 0.28) shows a good correlation with the dynamical age compared to all other indicators. Second, by using the observational X-ray surface brightness map, we show that the bivariant relation brings about some acceptable correlations with X-ray proxies. These correlations are as well as the correlations between A(2) and X-ray proxies, offering a reliable yet fast and economical method of quantifying the relaxation of galaxy systems. This study demonstrates that using photometric data to determine the relaxation status of a group will lead to some promising results that are comparable with the more expensive spectroscopic counterpart.
  • Ade, P. A. R.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Poutanen, T.; Suur-Uski, A. -S.; Planck Collaboration (2013)
  • Savastano, Stefano; Amendola, Luca; Rubio, Javier; Wetterich, Christof (2019)
    We argue that primordial dark matter halos could be generated during radiation domination by long-range attractive forces stronger than gravity. In this paper, we derive the conditions under which these structures could dominate the dark matter content of the Universe while passing microlensing constraints and cosmic microwave background energy injection bounds. The dark matter particles would be clumped in objects in the solar mass range with typical sizes of the order of the solar system. Consequences for direct dark matter searches are important.
  • Cappelluti, N.; Arendt, R.; Kashlinsky, A.; Li, Y.; Hasinger, G.; Helgason, K.; Urry, M.; Natarajan, P.; Finoguenov, A. (2017)
    We present new measurements of the large-scale clustering component of the cross-power spectra of the source-subtracted Spitzer-IRAC cosmic infrared background and Chandra-ACIS cosmic X-ray background surface brightness fluctuations Our investigation uses data from the Chandra Deep Field South, Hubble Deep Field North, Extended Groth Strip/AEGIS field, and UDS/SXDF surveys, comprising 1160 Spitzer hours and similar to 12 Ms of Chandra data collected over a total area of 0.3 deg(2). We report the first (> 5 sigma) detection of a cross-power signal on large angular scales > 20" between [0.5-2] keV and the 3.6 and 4.5 mu m bands, at similar to 5 sigma and 6.3 sigma significance, respectively. The correlation with harder X-ray bands is marginally significant. Comparing the new observations with existing models for the contribution of the known unmasked source population at z <7, we find an excess of about an order of magnitude at 5 sigma confidence. We discuss possible interpretations for the origin of this excess in terms of the contribution from accreting early black holes (BHs), including both direct collapse BHs and primordial BHs, as well as from scattering in the interstellar medium and intra-halo light.
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J. K.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T. (2018)
    search is presented for physics beyond the standard model, based on measurements of dijet angular distributions in proton-proton collisions at root s = 13 TeV. The data collected with the CMS detector at the LHC correspond to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb(-1). The observed distributions, corrected to particle level, are found to be in agreement with predictions from perturbative quantum chromodynamics that include electroweak corrections. Constraints are placed on models containing quark contact interactions, extra spatial dimensions, quantum black holes, or dark matter, using the detector-level distributions. In a benchmark model where only left-handed quarks participate, contact interactions are excluded at the 95% confidence level up to a scale of 12.8 or 17.5 TeV, for destructive or constructive interference, respectively. The most stringent lower limits to date are set on the ultraviolet cutoff in the Arkani-Hamed-Dimopoulos-Dvali model of extra dimensions. In the Giudice-Rattazzi-Wells convention, the cutoff scale is excluded up to 10.1 TeV. The production of quantum black holes is excluded for masses below 5.9 and 8.2 TeV, depending on the model. For the first time, lower limits between 2.0 and 4.6 TeV are set on the mass of a dark matter mediator for (axial-)vector mediators, for the universal quark coupling g(q) = 1.0.
  • Koivisto, Tomi S.; Nyrhinen, Hannu J. (2017)
    The no-hair theorem postulates that the only externally observable properties of a black hole are its mass, its electric charge, and its angular momentum. In scalar-tensor theories of gravity, a matter distribution around a black hole can lead to the so called 'spontaneous scalarisation' instability that triggers the development of scalar hair. In the Brans-Dicke type theories, this effect can be understood as a result of tachyonic effective mass of the scalar field. Here we consider the instability in the generalised class of scalar-theories that feature non-conformal, i.e. 'disformal', couplings to matter. Such theories have gained considerable interest in the recent years and have been studied in a wide variety of systems, both cosmological and astrophysical. In view of the prospects of gravitational wave astronomy, it is relevant to explore the implications of the theories in the strong-gravity regime. In this article, we concentrate on the spontaneous scalarisation of matter configurations around Schwarzschild and Kerr black holes. We find that in the more generic scalar-tensor theories, the instability of the Brans-Dicke theory can be enhanced, suggesting violations of the no-hair theorem. On the other hand, we find that, especially if the coupling is very strong, or if the gradients in the matter distribution are negligible, the disformal coupling tends to stabilise the system.
  • Seoane, Pau Amaro; Sedda, Manuel Arca; Babak, Stanislav; Berry, Christopher P. L.; Berti, Emanuele; Bertone, Gianfranco; Blas, Diego; Bogdanovic, Tamara; Bonetti, Matteo; Breivik, Katelyn; Brito, Richard; Caldwell, Robert; Capelo, Pedro R.; Caprini, Chiara; Cardoso, Vitor; Carson, Zack; Chen, Hsin-Yu; Chua, Alvin J. K.; Dvorkin, Irina; Haiman, Zoltan; Heisenberg, Lavinia; Isi, Maximiliano; Karnesis, Nikolaos; Kavanagh, Bradley J.; Littenberg, Tyson B.; Mangiagli, Alberto; Marcoccia, Paolo; Maselli, Andrea; Nardini, Germano; Pani, Paolo; Peloso, Marco; Pieroni, Mauro; Ricciardone, Angelo; Sesana, Alberto; Tamanini, Nicola; Toubiana, Alexandre; Valiante, Rosa; Vretinaris, Stamatis; Weir, David J.; Yagi, Kent; Zimmerman, Aaron (2022)
    The science objectives of the LISA mission have been defined under the implicit assumption of a 4-years continuous data stream. Based on the performance of LISA Pathfinder, it is now expected that LISA will have a duty cycle of approximate to 0.75, which would reduce the effective span of usable data to 3 years. This paper reports the results of a study by the LISA Science Group, which was charged with assessing the additional science return of increasing the mission lifetime. We explore various observational scenarios to assess the impact of mission duration on the main science objectives of the mission. We find that the science investigations most affected by mission duration concern the search for seed black holes at cosmic dawn, as well as the study of stellar-origin black holes and of their formation channels via multi-band and multi-messenger observations. We conclude that an extension to 6 years of mission operations is recommended.
  • McAlpine, Stuart; Smail, Ian; Bower, Richard G.; Swinbank, A. M.; Trayford, James W.; Theuns, Tom; Baes, Maarten; Camps, Peter; Crain, Robert A.; Schaye, Joop (2019)
    We exploit EAGLE, a cosmological hydrodynamical simulation, to reproduce the selection of the observed submillimetre (submm) galaxy population by selecting the model galaxies at z >= 1 with mock submm fluxes S-850 mu m >= 1mJy. We find a reasonable agreement between the model galaxies within this sample and the properties of the observed submm population, such as their star formation rates (SFRs) at z <3, redshift distribution, and many integrated galaxy properties. We find that the median redshift of the S-850 (mu m) >= 1mJy model population is z approximate to 2.5, and that they are massive galaxies (M-* similar to 10(11)M(circle dot)) with high dust masses (M-dust similar to 10(8)M(circle dot)), gas fractions (f(gas) approximate to 50 per cent), and SFRs ((*) approximate to 100 M-circle dot yr(-1)). In addition, we find that they have major and minor merger fractions similar to the general population, suggesting that mergers are not the sole driver of the high SFRs in the model submm galaxies. Instead, the S-850 (mu m) >= 1mJy model galaxies yield high SFRs primarily because they maintain a significant gas reservoir as a result of hosting an undermassive black hole relative to comparably massive galaxies. Not all 'highly star-forming' ((*) >= 80M(circle dot) yr(-1)) EAGLE galaxies have submm fluxes S-850 (mu m) >= 1 mJy. We investigate the nature of these highly star-forming 'Submm-Faint' galaxies (i.e. (*) = 80 M-circle dot yr(-1) but S-850 (mu m) <1mJy) and find that they are similar to the model submm galaxies, being gas rich and hosting undermassive black holes. However, they are also typically at higher redshifts (z > 4) and are lower mass (M-* similar to 10(10) M-circle dot). These typically higher redshift galaxies show stronger evidence for having been triggered by major mergers, and critically, they are likely missed by most current submm surveys due to their higher dust temperatures and lower dust masses.