Browsing by Subject "BLOCKADE"

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  • Vaughan, Danielle; Mitchell, Robert; Kretz, Oliver; Chambers, David; Lalowski, Maciej; Amthor, Helge; Ritvos, Olli; Pasternack, Arja; Matsakas, Antonios; Vaiyapuri, Sakthivel; Huber, Tobias B.; Denecke, Bernd; Mukherjee, Abir; Widera, Darius; Patel, Ketan (2021)
    Activin/myostatin signalling acts to induce skeletal muscle atrophy in adult mammals by inhibiting protein synthesis as well as promoting protein and organelle turnover. Numerous strategies have been successfully developed to attenuate the signalling properties of these molecules, which result in augmenting muscle growth. However, these molecules, in particular activin, play major roles in tissue homeostasis in numerous organs of the mammalian body. We have recently shown that although the attenuation of activin/myostatin results in robust muscle growth, it also has a detrimental impact on the testis. Here, we aimed to discover the long-term consequences of a brief period of exposure to muscle growth-promoting molecules in the testis. We demonstrate that muscle hypertrophy promoted by a soluble activin type IIB ligand trap (sActRIIB) is a short-lived phenomenon. In stark contrast, short-term treatment with sActRIIB results in immediate impact on the testis, which persists after the sessions of the intervention. Gene array analysis identified an expansion in aberrant gene expression over time in the testis, initiated by a brief exposure to muscle growth-promoting molecules. The impact on the testis results in decreased organ size as well as quantitative and qualitative impact on sperm. Finally, we have used a drug-repurposing strategy to exploit the gene expression data to identify a compound - N-6-methyladenosine - that may protect the testis from the impact of the muscle growth-promoting regime. This work indicates the potential long-term harmful effects of strategies aimed at promoting muscle growth by attenuating activin/myostatin signalling. Furthermore, we have identified a molecule that could, in the future, be used to overcome the detrimental impact of sActRIIB treatment on the testis.
  • Pollari, Marjukka; Pellinen, Teijo; Karjalainen-Lindsberg, Marja-Liisa; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa; Leivonen, Suvi-Katri; Leppä, Sirpa (2020)
    Objectives Testicular diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (T-DLBCL) is a rare and aggressive extranodal lymphoma. We have previously shown that high content of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and PD-1 expressing TILs associate with better survival in T-DLBCL. In this study, we have further characterized distinct TIL subtypes and their proportions in association with patient demographics and survival. Methods We used multiplex immunohistochemistry to characterize TIL phenotypes, including cytotoxic T-cells (CTLs; CD8(+), OX40(+), Granzyme B+, Ki-67(+), LAG-3(+), TIM-3(+), PD-1(+)), CD4(+)T-cells (CD3(+), CD4(+), TIM-3(+), LAG-3(+)), regulatory T-cells (Tregs; CD3(+), CD4(+), FoxP3(+)), and T helper 1 cells (Th1; CD3(+), CD4(+), T-bet(+)) in 79 T-DLBCLs, and correlated the findings with patient demographics and outcome. Results We observed a substantial variation in TIL phenotypes between the patients. The most prominent CD8(+)TILs were Ki-67(+)and TIM-3(+)CTLs, whereas the most prominent CD4(+)TILs were FoxP3(+)Tregs. Despite the overall favorable prognostic impact of high TIL content, we found a subpopulation of T-bet(+)FoxP3(+)Tregs that had a significant adverse impact on survival. Lower content of CTLs with activated or exhausted phenotypes correlated with aggressive clinical features. Conclusions Our results demonstrate significant variation in TIL phenotypes and emphasize the adverse prognostic impact of Tregs in T-DLBCL.
  • Fontana, Flavia; Fusciello, Manlio; Groeneveldt, Christianne; Capasso, Cristian; Chiaro, Jacopo; Feola, Sara; Liu, Zehua; Mäkilä, Ermei; Salonen, Jarno; Hirvonen, Jouni; Cerullo, Vincenzo; Santos, Hélder A. (2019)
    Recent approaches in the treatment of cancer focus on involving the immune system to control the tumor growth. The administration of immunotherapies, like checkpoint inhibitors, has shown impressive results in the long term survival of patients. Cancer vaccines are being investigated as further tools to prime tumor-specific immunity. Biomaterials show potential as adjuvants in the formulation of vaccines, and biomimetic elements derived from the membrane of tumor cells may widen the range of antigens contained in the vaccine. Here, we show how mice presenting an aggressive melanoma tumor model treated twice with the complete nanovaccine formulation showed control on the tumor progression, while in a less aggressive model, the animals showed remission and control on the tumor progression, with a modification in the immunological profile of the tumor microenvironment. We also prove that co-administration of the nanovaccine together with a checkpoint inhibitor increases the efficacy of the treatment (87.5% of the animals responding, with 2 remissions) compared to the checkpoint inhibitor alone in the B16.OVA model. Our platform thereby shows potential applications as a cancer nanovaccine in combination with the standard clinical care treatment for melanoma cancers.
  • Hakomaki, Henriikka; Eskola, Sophia; Kokki, Hannu; Lehtonen, Marko; Räsänen, Juha; Laaksonen, Sakari; Voipio, Hanna-Marja; Ranta, Veli-Pekka; Kokki, Merja (2022)
    Buprenorphine is used during pregnancy for the treatment of opioid use disorder. Limited data exist on the central nervous system (CNS) permeation and distribution, and on the fetal exposure to buprenorphine. The aim of our study was to determine the extent of buprenorphine distribution to CNS in the pregnant sheep, and their fetus at steady-state, and their newborn lambs postdelivery, using three different dosing regimens. Twenty-eight pregnant ewes in late gestation received buprenorphine via 7-day transdermal patch releasing buprenorphine 20 mu g/h (n=9) or 40 mu g/h (n=11), or an extended-release 8 mg/week subcutaneous injection (n=8). Plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, and CNS tissue samples were collected at steady-state from ewes and fetuses, and from lambs 0.33 - 45 hours after delivery. High accumulation of buprenorphine was observed in all CNS tissues. The median CNS/plasma concentration-ratios of buprenorphine in different CNS areas ranged between 13 and 50 in the ewes, and between 26 and 198 in the fetuses. In the ewes the CNS/plasma-ratios were similar after the three dosing regimens, but higher in the fetuses in the 40 mu g/h dosing group, medians 65 - 122, than in the 20 mu g/h group, medians 26 - 54. The subcutaneous injection (theoretical release rate 47.6 mu g/h) produced higher concentrations than observed after 40 mu g/h transdermal patch dosing. The median fetal/maternal concentration-ratios in different dosing groups ranged between 0.21 and 0.54 in plasma, and between 0.38 and 1.3 in CNS tissues, respectively, with the highest ratios observed in the spinal cord. Buprenorphine concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid were 8 - 13 % of the concurrent plasma concentration in the ewes and 28 % in the fetuses. Buprenorphine was quantifiable in the newborn lambs' plasma and CNS tissues two days postdelivery. Norbu-prenorphine was analyzed from all plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, and CNS tissue samples but was nondetectable or below the LLOQ in most. The current study demonstrates that buprenorphine accumulates into CNS tissues at much higher concentrations than in plasma in pregnant sheep, fetuses, and their newborn lambs even 45 hours after delivery.
  • Autio, Matias; Leivonen, Suvi-Katri; Brück, Oscar; Karjalainen-Lindsberg, Marja-Liisa; Pellinen, Teijo; Leppä, Sirpa (2022)
    Purpose: Tumor-infiltrating immune cells have prognostic sig-nificance and are attractive therapeutic targets. Yet, the clinical significance of their spatial organization and phenotype in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is unclear. Experimental Design: We characterized T cells, macrophages, and their spatial interactions by multiplex IHC (mIHC) in 178 patients with DLBCL and correlated the data with patient demo-graphics and survival. We validated the findings on gene expression data from two external DLBCL cohorts comprising 633 patients. Results: Macrophage and T-cell contents divided the samples into T cell-inflamed (60%) and noninflamed (40%) subgroups. The T cell-inflamed lymphoma microenvironment (LME) was also rich in other immune cells, defining immune hot phenotype, which did not as such correlate with outcome. However, when we divided the patients according to T-cell and macrophage contents, LME char-acterized by high T-cell/low macrophage content or a correspond-ing gene signature was associated with superior survival [5-year overall survival (OS): 92.3% vs. 74.4%, P = 0.036; 5-year progres-sion-free survival (PFS): 92.6% vs. 69.8%, P = 0.012]. High pro-portion of PD -L1-and TIM3-expressing CD163- macrophages in the T cell-inflamed LME defined a group of patients with poor outcome [OS: HR = 3.22, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.63-6.37, P-adj = 0.011; PFS: HR = 2.76, 95% CI, 1.44-5.28, P-adj = 0.016]. Furthermore, PD-L1 and PD-1 were enriched on macrophages interacting with T cells. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate that the interplay between macrophages and T cells in the DLBCL LME is immune checkpoint dependent and clinically meaningful.
  • Vaughan, Danielle; Kretz, Oliver; Alqallaf, Ali; Mitchell, Robert; von der Heide, Jennie L.; Vaiyapuri, Sakthivel; Matsakas, Antonios; Pasternack, Arja; Collins-Hooper, Henry; Ritvos, Olli; Ballesteros, Randy; Huber, Tobias B.; Amthor, Helge; Mukherjee, Abir; Patel, Ketan (2020)
    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy is a devastating disease caused by the absence of a functional rod-shaped cytoplasmic protein called dystrophin. Several avenues are being developed aimed to restore dystrophin expression in boys affected by this X-linked disease. However, its complete cure is likely to need combinational approaches which may include regimes aimed at restoring muscle mass. Augmenting muscle growth through the manipulation of the Myostatin/Activin signalling axis has received much attention. However, we have recently shown that while manipulation of this axis in wild type mice using the sActRIIB ligand trap indeed results in muscle growth, it also had a detrimental impact on the testis. Here we examined the impact of administering a powerful Myostatin/Activin antagonist in two mouse models of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. We report that whilst the impact on muscle growth was not always positive, both models showed attenuated testis development. Sperm number, motility and ultrastructure were significantly affected by the sActRIIB treatment. Our report suggests that interventions based on Myostatin/Activin should investigate off-target effects on tissues as well as muscle.
  • Birkman, Eva-Maria; Avoranta, Tuulia; Algars, Annika; Korkeila, Eija; Lintunen, Minnamaija; Lahtinen, Laura; Kuopio, Teijo; Ristamäki, Raija; Carpen, Olli; Sundström, Jari (2018)
    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene copy number (GCN) increase is associated with a favorable anti-EGFR antibody treatment response in RAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer. However, there are limited and comparative data regarding the EGFR GCN in primary colorectal cancer tumors and corresponding metastases or the effect of anti-EGFR antibody treatment on EGFR GCN in recurrent disease. In addition, little is known about the potential EGFR GCN changes during anti-EGFR therapy in comparison with other treatment regimens. EGFR GCN was analyzed by EGFR immunohistochemistry-guided silver in situ hybridization in primary and corresponding recurrent local or metastatic tumors from 80 colorectal cancer patients. GCN levels were compared between KRAS wild-type patients having received antiEGFR therapy and patients having received other forms of treatment after primary surgery. The EGFR GCN decrease between primary and recurrent tumors was more pronounced among the anti EGFR-treated patients than among patients not treated with anti-EGFR therapy (P=.047). None of the patients experiencing an EGFR GCN increase of at least 1.0 between the primary and recurrent tumors were treated with antiEGFR antibodies. When including only patients with distant metastases, an EGFR GCN decrease of at least 1.0 was more common among the anti EGFR-treated patients than among patients not treated with anti-EGFR therapy (P=.028). Our results suggest that anti-EGFR antibody treatment is associated with EGFR GCN decrease between the primary and recurrent colorectal adenocarcinomas, whereas no GCN change is observed among patients receiving other forms of treatment after primary surgery. (C) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Autio, Matias; Leivonen, Suvi-Katri; Brück, Oscar; Mustjoki, Satu; Jorgensen, Judit Meszaros; Karjalainen-Lindsberg, Marja-Liisa; Beiske, Klaus; Holte, Harald; Pellinen, Teijo; Leppä, Sirpa (2021)
    The tumor microenvironment (TME) and limited immune surveillance play important roles in lymphoma pathogenesis. Here we aimed to characterize immunological profiles of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and predict the outcome in response to immunochemotherapy. We profiled the expression of 730 immune-related genes in tumor tissues of 81 patients with DLBCL utilizing the Nanostring platform, and used multiplex immunohistochemistry to characterize T-cell phenotypes, including cytotoxic T cells (CD8, Granzyme B, OX40, Ki67), T-cell immune checkpoint (CD3, CD4, CD8, PD1, TIM3, LAG3), as well as regulatory T-cells and T(h)1 effector cells (CD3, CD4, FOXP3, TBET) in 188 patients. We observed a high degree of heterogeneity at the transcriptome level. Correlation matrix analysis identified gene expression signatures with highly correlating genes, the main cluster containing genes for cytolytic factors, immune checkpoint molecules, T cells and macrophages, together named a TME immune cell signature. Immunophenotyping of the distinct cell subsets revealed that a high proportion of immune checkpoint positive T cells translated to unfavorable survival. Together, our results demonstrate that the immunological profile of DLBCL TME is heterogeneous and clinically meaningful. This highlights the potential impact of T-cell immune checkpoint in regulating survival and resistance to immunochemotherapy.
  • Zong, Guanghui; Hu, Zhijian; O'Keefe, Sarah; Tranter, Dale; Iannotti, Michael J.; Baron, Ludivine; Hall, Belinda; Corfield, Katherine; Paatero, Anja O.; Henderson, Mark J.; Roboti, Peristera; Zhou, Jianhong; Sun, Xianwei; Govindarajan, Mugunthan; Rohde, Jason M.; Blanchard, Nicolas; Simmonds, Rachel; Inglese, James; Du, Yuchun; Demangel, Caroline; High, Stephen; Paavilainen, Ville O.; Shi, Wei Q. (2019)
    Ipomoeassin F is a potent natural cytotoxin that inhibits growth of many tumor cell lines with single-digit nanomolar potency. However, its biological and pharmacological properties have remained largely unexplored. Building upon our earlier achievements in total synthesis and medicinal chemistry, we used chemical proteomics to identify Sec61 alpha (protein transport protein Sec61 subunit alpha isoform 1), the pore-forming subunit of the Sec61 protein translocon, as a direct binding partner of ipomoeassin F in living cells. The interaction is specific and strong enough to survive lysis conditions, enabling a biotin analogue of ipomoeassin F to pull down Sec61 alpha from live cells, yet it is also reversible, as judged by several experiments including fluorescent streptavidin staining, delayed competition in affinity pulldown, and inhibition of TNF biogenesis after washout. Sec61 alpha forms the central subunit of the ER protein translocation complex, and the binding of ipomoeassin F results in a substantial, yet selective, inhibition of protein translocation in vitro and a broad ranging inhibition of protein secretion in live cells. Lastly, the unique resistance profile demonstrated by specific amino acid single-point mutations in Sec61 alpha provides compelling evidence that Sec61 alpha is the primary molecular target of ipomoeassin F and strongly suggests that the binding of this natural product to Sec61 alpha is distinctive. Therefore, ipomoeassin F represents the first plant-derived, carbohydrate-based member of a novel structural class that offers new opportunities to explore Sec61 alpha function and to further investigate its potential as a therapeutic target for drug discovery.
  • Hamdan, Firas; Ylösmäki, Erkko; Chiaro, Jacopo; Giannoula, Yvonne; Long, Maeve; Fusciello, Manlio; Feola, Sara; Martins, Beatriz; Feodoroff, Michaela; Antignani, Gabriella; Russo, Salvatore; Kari, Otto; Lee, Moon; Järvinen, Petrus; Nisen, Harry; Kreutzman, Anna; Leusen, Jeanette; Mustjoki, Satu; McWilliams, Thomas G.; Grönholm, Mikaela; Cerullo, Vincenzo (2021)
    Background Despite the success of immune checkpoint inhibitors against PD-L1 in the clinic, only a fraction of patients benefit from such therapy. A theoretical strategy to increase efficacy would be to arm such antibodies with Fc-mediated effector mechanisms. However, these effector mechanisms are inhibited or reduced due to toxicity issues since PD-L1 is not confined to the tumor and also expressed on healthy cells. To increase efficacy while minimizing toxicity, we designed an oncolytic adenovirus that secretes a cross-hybrid Fc-fusion peptide against PD-L1 able to elicit effector mechanisms of an IgG1 and also IgA1 consequently activating neutrophils, a population neglected by IgG1, in order to combine multiple effector mechanisms. Methods The cross-hybrid Fc-fusion peptide comprises of an Fc with the constant domains of an IgA1 and IgG1 which is connected to a PD-1 ectodomain via a GGGS linker and was cloned into an oncolytic adenovirus. We demonstrated that the oncolytic adenovirus was able to secrete the cross-hybrid Fc-fusion peptide able to bind to PD-L1 and activate multiple immune components enhancing tumor cytotoxicity in various cancer cell lines, in vivo and ex vivo renal-cell carcinoma patient-derived organoids. Results Using various techniques to measure cytotoxicity, the cross-hybrid Fc-fusion peptide expressed by the oncolytic adenovirus was shown to activate Fc-effector mechanisms of an IgA1 (neutrophil activation) as well as of an IgG1 (natural killer and complement activation). The activation of multiple effector mechanism simultaneously led to significantly increased tumor killing compared with FDA-approved PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitor (Atezolizumab), IgG1-PDL1 and IgA-PDL1 in various in vitro cell lines, in vivo models and ex vivo renal cell carcinoma organoids. Moreover, in vivo data demonstrated that Ad-Cab did not require CD8+ T cells, unlike conventional checkpoint inhibitors, since it was able to activate other effector populations. Conclusion Arming PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors with Fc-effector mechanisms of both an IgA1 and an IgG1 can increase efficacy while maintaining safety by limiting expression to the tumor using oncolytic adenovirus. The increase in tumor killing is mostly attributed to the activation of multiple effector populations rather than activating a single effector population leading to significantly higher tumor killing.
  • Bruun, Jarle; Kryeziu, Kushtrim; Eide, Peter W.; Moosavi, Seyed; Eilertsen, Ina A.; Langerud, Jonas; Rosok, Bård; Totland, Max; Brunsell, Tuva; Pellinen, Teijo; Saarela, Jani; Bergsland, Christian H.; Palmer, Hector G.; Brudvik, Kristoffer; Guren, Tormod; Dienstmann, Rodrigo; Guren, Marianne G.; Nesbakken, Arild; Bjornbeth, Bjorn Atle; Sveen, Anita; Lothe, Ragnhild A. (2020)
  • Pasanen, Annukka; Ahvenainen, Terhi; Pellinen, Teijo; Vahteristo, Pia; Loukovaara, Mikko; Bützow, Ralf (2020)
    Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a biomarker that may predict the response to anti-programmed death 1/PD-L1 immunotherapy. We evaluated the expression of PD-L1 in carcinoma cells (Ca) and immune cells (ICs) across histopathologic and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) molecular subgroups of endometrial carcinoma (EC). Our study included 842 patients with EC. Direct sequencing of polymerase epsilon (POLE) exonuclease domain hot spots and conventional immunohistochemistry (MLH1, PMS2, MSH2, MSH6, p53) were conducted to identify TCGA classification-based molecular subgroups of EC: POLE-mutated, mismatch repair deficient, no specific molecular profile, and p53 aberrant. Multiplex immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate PD-L1 expression in Ca and tumor-infiltrating ICs. PD-L1 expression in Ca and in ICs was detected in 8.6% and 27.7% of the cases, respectively. A combined positive score (CPS) was >= 1% in 19.4% of the samples. PD-L1 positivity in Ca and ICs, and CPS correlated with tumor T-cell density (P= 1% (P=0.037) positivity compared with early disease. In conclusion, PD-L1 expression profiles differ between molecular subclasses, histologic subtypes, and disease stage of EC. Prospective studies are needed to explore the predictive value of various PD-L1 scoring systems within the subgroups of EC. CPS presents methodological advantages over cell type-specific scoring systems.
  • Pollari, Marjukka; Brück, Oscar; Pellinen, Teijo; Vähämurto, Pauli; Karjalainen-Lindsberg, Marja-Liisa; Mannisto, Susanna; Kallioniemi, Olli; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa; Mustjoki, Satu; Leivonen, Suvi-Katri; Leppä, Sirpa (2018)
    Primary testicular lymphoma is a rare and aggressive lymphoid malignancy, most often representing diffuse large B-cell lymphoma histologically. Tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes have been associated with survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, but their prognostic impact in primary testicular lymphoma is unknown. Here, we aimed to identify macrophages, their immunophenotypes and association with lymphocytes, and translate the findings into survival of patients with primary testicular lymphoma. We collected clinical data and tumor tissue from 74 primary testicular lymphoma patients, and used multiplex immunohistochemistry and digital image analysis to examine macrophage markers (CD68, CD163, and c-Maf), T-cell markers (CD3, CD4, and CD8), B-cell marker (CD20), and three checkpoint molecules (PD-L1, PD-L2, and PD-1). We demonstrate that a large proportion of macrophages (median 41%, range 0.08-99%) and lymphoma cells (median 34%, range 0.1-100%) express PD-L1. The quantity of PD-L1+CD68+ macrophages correlates positively with the amount of PD-1+ lymphocytes, and a high proportion of either PD-L1+CD68+ macrophages or PD-1+CD4+ and PD-1+CD8+ T-cells translates into favorable survival. In contrast, the number of PD-L1+ lymphoma cells or PD-L1- macrophages do not associate with outcome. In multivariate analyses with IPI, PD-L1+CD68+ macrophage and PD-1+ lymphocyte contents remain as independent prognostic factors for survival. In conclusion, high PD-L1+CD68+ macrophage and PD-1+ lymphocyte contents predict favorable survival in patients with primary testicular lymphoma. The findings implicate that the tumor microenvironment and PD-1. PD-L1 pathway have a significant role in regulating treatment outcome. They also bring new insights to the targeted therapy of primary testicular lymphoma.
  • Feola, Sara; Russo, Salvatore; Martins, Beatriz; Lopes, Alessandra; Vandermeulen, Gaëlle; Fluhler, Vinciane; De Giorgi, Camilla; Fusciello, Manlio; Pesonen, Sari; Ylösmäki, Erkko; Antignani, Gabriella; Chiaro, Jacopo; Hamdan, Firas; Feodoroff, Michaela; Grönholm, Mikaela; Cerullo, Vincenzo (2022)
    Oncolytic Viruses (OVs) work through two main mechanisms of action: the direct lysis of the virus-infected cancer cells and the release of tumor antigens as a result of the viral burst. In this sc.enario, the OVs act as in situ cancer vaccines, since the immunogenicity of the virus is combined with tumor antigens, that direct the specificity of the anti-tumor adaptive immune response. However, this mechanism in some cases fails in eliciting a strong specific T cell response. One way to overcome this problem and enhance the priming efficiency is the production of genetically modified oncolytic viruses encoding one or more tumor antigens. To avoid the long and expensive process related to the engineering of the OVs, we have exploited an approach based on coating OVs (adenovirus and vaccinia virus) with tumor antigens. In this work, oncolytic viruses encoding tumor antigens and tumor antigen decorated adenoviral platform (PeptiCRAd) have been used as cancer vaccines and evaluated both for their prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy. We have first tested the oncolytic vaccines by exploiting the OVA model, moving then to TRP2, a more clinically relevant tumor antigen. Finally, both approaches have been investigated in tumor neo-antigens settings. Interestingly, both genetically modified oncolytic adenovirus and PeptiCRAd elicited T cells-specific anti-tumor responses. However, in vitro cross-representation experiments, showed an advantage of PeptiCRAd as regards the fast presentation of the model epitope SIINFEKL from OVA in an immunogenic rather than tolerogenic fashion. Here two approaches used as cancer oncolytic vaccines have been explored and characterized for their efficacy. Although the generation of specific anti-tumor T cells was elicited in both approaches, PeptiCRAd retains the advantage of being rapidly adaptable by coating the adenovirus with a different set of tumor antigens, which is crucial in personalized cancer vaccines clinical setting.
  • Karihtala, Kristiina; Leivonen, Suvi-Katri; Brück, Oscar; Karjalainen-Lindsberg, Marja-Liisa; Mustjoki, Satu; Pellinen, Teijo; Leppä, Sirpa (2020)
    Tumor microenvironment and immune escape affect pathogenesis and survival in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). While tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) content has been associated with poor outcomes, macrophage-derived determinants with clinical impact have remained undefined. Here, we have used multiplex immunohistochemistry and digital image analysis to characterize TAM immunophenotypes with regard to expression of checkpoint molecules programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO-1) from the diagnostic tumor tissue samples of 130 cHL patients, and correlated the findings with clinical characteristics and survival. We show that a large proportion of TAMs express PD-L1 (CD68(+), median 32%; M2 type CD163(+), median 22%), whereas the proportion of TAMs expressing IDO-1 is lower (CD68(+), median 5.5%; CD163(+), median 1.4%). A high proportion of PD-L1 and IDO-1 expressing TAMs from all TAMs (CD68(+)), or from CD163(+) TAMs, is associated with inferior outcome. In multivariate analysis with age and stage, high proportions of PD-L1(+) and IDO-1(+) TAMs remain independent prognostic factors for freedom from treatment failure (PD-L1(+)CD68(+)/CD68(+), HR = 2.63, 95% CI 1.17-5.88, p = 0.019; IDO-1(+)CD68(+)/CD68(+), HR = 2.48, 95% CI 1.03-5.95, p = 0.042). In contrast, proportions of PD-L1(+) tumor cells, all TAMs or PD-L1(-) and IDO-1(-) TAMs are not associated with outcome. The findings implicate that adverse prognostic impact of TAMs is checkpoint-dependent in cHL.
  • Yeola, Asmita Pradeep; Akbar, Irshad; Baillargeon, Joanie; Doss, Prenitha Mercy Ignatius Arokia; Paavilainen, Ville O.; Rangachari, Manu (2020)
    Effector CD4(+) T cells can be classified by the cytokines they secrete, with T helper 1 (Th1) cells generating interferon (IFN)gamma and Th17 cells secreting interleukin (IL)-17. Both Th1 and Th17 cells are strongly implicated in the initiation and chronicity of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has been implicated as a potentially crucial site in regulating CD4(+) T cell function. Secretory and transmembrane proteins are shuttled into the ER via the Sec61 translocon, where they undergo appropriate folding; misfolded proteins are retro-translocated from the ER in a p97-dependent manner. Here, we provide evidence that both processes are crucial to the secretion of inflammatory cytokines from effector CD4(+) T cells. The pan-ER inhibitor eeeyarestatin-1 (ESI), which interferes with both Sec61 translocation and p97 retro-translocation, inhibited secretion of interferon (IFN)gamma, interleukin (IL)-2 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha from Th1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Selective inhibition of Sec61 by Apratoxin A (ApraA) revealed that ER translocation is crucial for Th1 cytokine secretion, while inhibition of p97 by NMS-873 also inhibited Th1 function, albeit to a lesser degree. By contrast, none of ESI, ApraA or NMS-873 could significantly reduce IL-17 secretion from Th17 cells. ApraA, but not NMS-873, reduced phosphorylation ApraA had modest effects on activation of the Th17 transcription factor Stat3, while NMS-873 had no effect. Interestingly, NMS-873 was able to reduce disease severity in CD4(+) T cell-driven experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Together, our data indicate that CD4(+) T cell function, and Th1 cell function in particular, is dependent on protein translocation and dislocation across the ER.
  • Auvray, Marie; Auclin, Edouard; Barthelemy, Philippe; Bono, Petri; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko; Gross-Goupil, Marine; De Velasco, Guillettno; Powles, Thomas; Mouillet, Guillaume; Vano, Yann-Alexandre; Gravis, Gwenaelle; Mourey, Loic; Priou, Franck; Rolland, Frederic; Escudier, Bernard; Albiges, Laurence (2019)
    Background: Nivolumab-ipilimumab demonstrated a survival benefit over sunitinib in first-line setting for metastatic renal cell carcinomas (mRCCs) and is becoming a new standard of care for naive patients with intermediate or poor risk prognosis (International mRCC Database Consortium). The efficacy of subsequent vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) after nivolumab-ipilimumab failure remains unclear. Methods: Medical records of mRCC patients treated with nivolumab-ipilimumab, who received subsequent TKI, as part of Checkmate 214 study were reviewed in 13 institutions. Baseline characteristics, outcome data including progression-free survival (PFS), response, overall survival (OS) and toxicities were retrospectively collected. Results: Overall 33 patients received subsequent TKI after nivolumab-ipilimumab failure. Median follow-up from start of subsequent TKI is 22 months (19-NR). Best response was assessed in 30 patients: 12 partial responses (36%), 13 stable diseases (39%) and five progressive diseases (15%). Median PFS from start of TKI was 8 months [5-13]. Median PFS with first-generation (sunitinib/pazopanib) and second-generation TKI (axitinib/cabozantinib) was 8 months [5-16] and 7 months (5-NA), respectively. PFS in second line was significantly longer in patients with a long first-line duration of response to the double immune checkpoint blockade (>= 6 months) with 8 versus 5 months for short responder (= 3. Conclusion: This is the first report of outcomes with TKI, after first-line nivolumab-ipilimumab failure. Median PFS suggests a sustained benefit of TKI and supports trials investigating the optimal sequence. (C) 2018 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Bruck, Oscar; Lee, Moon Hee; Turkki, Riku; Uski, Ilona; Penttilä, Patrick; Paavolainen, Lassi; Kovanen, Panu; Järvinen, Petrus; Bono, Petri; Pellinen, Teijo; Mustjoki, Satu; Kreutzman, Anna (2021)
    While the abundance and phenotype of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes are linked with clinical survival, their spatial coordination and its clinical significance remain unclear. Here, we investigated the immune profile of intratumoral and peritumoral tissue of clear cell renal cell carcinoma patients (n = 64). We trained a cell classifier to detect lymphocytes from hematoxylin and eosin stained tissue slides. Using unsupervised classification, patients were further classified into immune cold, hot and excluded topographies reflecting lymphocyte abundance and localization. The immune topography distribution was further validated with The Cancer Genome Atlas digital image dataset. We showed association between PBRM1 mutation and immune cold topography, STAG1 mutation and immune hot topography and BAP1 mutation and immune excluded topography. With quantitative multiplex immunohistochemistry we analyzed the expression of 23 lymphocyte markers in intratumoral and peritumoral tissue regions. To study spatial interactions, we developed an algorithm quantifying the proportion of adjacent immune cell pairs and their immunophenotypes. Immune excluded tumors were associated with superior overall survival (HR 0.19, p = 0.02) and less extensive metastasis. Intratumoral T cells were characterized with pronounced expression of immunological activation and exhaustion markers such as granzyme B, PD1, and LAG3. Immune cell interaction occurred most frequently in the intratumoral region and correlated with CD45RO expression. Moreover, high proportion of peritumoral CD45RO+ T cells predicted poor overall survival. In summary, intratumoral and peritumoral tissue regions represent distinct immunospatial profiles and are associated with clinicopathologic characteristics.