Browsing by Subject "BLOOD-FLOW"

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  • Bellomo, Rinaldo; Kellum, John A.; Ronco, Claudio; Wald, Ron; Martensson, Johan; Maiden, Matthew; Bagshaw, Sean M.; Glassford, Neil J.; Lankadeva, Yugeesh; Vaara, Suvi; Schneider, Antoine (2017)
    Acute kidney injury (AKI) and sepsis carry consensus definitions. The simultaneous presence of both identifies septic AKI. Septic AKI is the most common AKI syndrome in ICU and accounts for approximately half of all such AKI. Its pathophysiology remains poorly understood, but animal models and lack of histological changes suggest that, at least initially, septic AKI may be a functional phenomenon with combined microvascular shunting and tubular cell stress. The diagnosis remains based on clinical assessment and measurement of urinary output and serum creatinine. However, multiple biomarkers and especially cell cycle arrest biomarkers are gaining acceptance. Prevention of septic AKI remains based on the treatment of sepsis and on early resuscitation. Such resuscitation relies on the judicious use of both fluids and vasoactive drugs. In particular, there is strong evidence that starch-containing fluids are nephrotoxic and decrease renal function and suggestive evidence that chloride-rich fluid may also adversely affect renal function. Vasoactive drugs have variable effects on renal function in septic AKI. At this time, norepinephrine is the dominant agent, but vasopressin may also have a role. Despite supportive therapies, renal function may be temporarily or completely lost. In such patients, renal replacement therapy (RRT) becomes necessary. The optimal intensity of this therapy has been established, while the timing of when to commence RRT is now a focus of investigation. If sepsis resolves, the majority of patients recover renal function. Yet, even a single episode of septic AKI is associated with increased subsequent risk of chronic kidney disease.
  • Remzső, Gábor; Németh, János; Varga, Viktória; Kovács, Viktória; Tóth-Szűki, Valéria; Kaila, Kai; Voipio, Juha; Domoki, Ferenc (2020)
    Brain interstitial pH (pHbrain) alterations play an important role in the mechanisms of neuronal injury in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) induced by perinatal asphyxia. The newborn pig is an established large animal model to study HIE, however, only limited information on pHbrain alterations is available in this species and it is restricted to experimental perinatal asphyxia (PA) and the immediate reventilation. Therefore, we sought to determine pHbrain over the first 24h of HIE development in piglets. Anaesthetized, ventilated newborn pigs (n = 16) were instrumented to control major physiological parameters. pHbrain was determined in the parietal cortex using a pH-selective microelectrode. PA was induced by ventilation with a gas mixture containing 6%O2-20%CO2 for 20 min, followed by reventilation with air for 24h, then the brains were processed for histopathology assessment. The core temperature was maintained unchanged during PA (38.4±0.1 vs 38.3±0.1°C, at baseline versus the end of PA, respectively; mean±SEM). In the arterial blood, PA resulted in severe hypoxia (PaO2: 65±4 vs 23±1*mmHg, *p
  • Kallioinen, Minna; Posti, Jussi P.; Rahi, Melissa; Sharma, Deepak; Katila, Ari; Grönlund, Juha; Vahlberg, Tero; Frantzén, Janek; Olkkola, Klaus T.; Saari, Teijo I.; Takala, Riikka (2020)
    Abstract Background Cerebral autoregulation is often impaired after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH). Dexmedetomidine is being increasingly used, but its effects on cerebral autoregulation in patients with aSAH have not been studied before. Dexmedetomidine could be a useful sedative in patients with aSAH as it enables neurological assessment during the infusion. The aim of this preliminary study was to compare the effects of dexmedetomidine on dynamic and static cerebral autoregulation with propofol and/or midazolam in patients with aSAH. Methods Ten patients were recruited. Dynamic and static cerebral autoregulation were assessed using transcranial Doppler ultrasound during propofol and/or midazolam infusion and then during three increasing doses of dexmedetomidine infusion (0.7, 1.0 and 1.4 µg/kg/h). Transient hyperaemic response ratio (THRR) and strength of autoregulation (SA) were calculated to assess dynamic cerebral autoregulation. Static rate of autoregulation (sRoR)% was calculated by using noradrenaline infusion to increase the mean arterial pressure 20 mmHg above the baseline. Results Data from 9 patients were analysed. Compared to baseline, we found no statistically significant changes in THRR or sROR%. THRR was (mean±SD) 1.20 ±0.14, 1.17±0.13(p=0.93), 1.14±0.09 (p=0.72) and 1.19±0.18 (p=1.0) and sROR% was 150.89±84.37, 75.22±27.75 (p=0.08), 128.25±58.35 (p=0.84) and 104.82±36.92 (p=0.42) at baseline and during 0.7, 1.0 and 1.4 µg/kg/h dexmedetomidine infusion, respectively. Dynamic SA was significantly reduced after 1.0 µg/kg/h dexmedetomidine (p=0.02). Conclusions Compared to propofol and/or midazolam, dexmedetomidine did not alter static cerebral autoregulation in aSAH patients, whereas a significant change was observed in dynamic SA. Further and larger studies with dexmedetomidine in aSAH patients are warranted.
  • Nurmi, Jouni; Laukkanen-Nevala, Päivi; Kirves, Hetti; Raatiniemi, Lasse; Toivonen, Tuukka; Tommila, Miretta; Piiroinen, Heini; Setälä, Piritta; Karhivuori, Pamela; Tukia, Simo; Olkinuora, Anna (2022)
    Background: During prehospital anaesthesia, oxygen delivery to the brain might be inadequate to match the oxygen consumption, with unknown long-term functional outcomes. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of monitoring cerebral oxygenation during prehospital anaesthesia and determining the long-term outcomes. Methods: We performed a prospective observational feasibility study in two helicopter emergency medical services units. Frontal lobe regional oxygen saturation (rSO(2)) of adult patients undergoing prehospital anaesthesia was monitored with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) by a Nonin H500 oximeter. The outcome was evaluated with a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 30 days and 1 year. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was measured with a 15D instrument at 1 year. Results: Of 101 patients enrolled, 83 were included. The mean baseline rSO(2) was 79% (73-84). Desaturation for at least 5 min to rSO(2) below 50% or a decrease of 10% from baseline occurred in four (5%, 95% CI 2%-12%) and 19 (23%, 95% CI 15-93) patients. At 1 year, 32 patients (53%, 95% CI 41-65) achieved favourable neurological outcomes. The median 15D score was 0.889 (Q1-Q3, 0.796-0.970). Conclusion: Monitoring cerebral oxygenation with a hand-held oximeter during prehospital anaesthesia and collecting data on functional outcomes and HRQoL are feasible. Only half of the patients achieved a favourable functional outcome. The effects of cerebral oxygenation on outcomes during prehospital critical care need to be assessed in future studies.
  • Alitalo, Okko; Rantamäki, Tomi; Huhtala, Tuulia (2020)
    Autoradiography (ARG) is a high-resolution imaging method for localization of radiolabeled biomarkers in ex vivo specimen. ARG using 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) method is used in to study drug actions on brain functional activity, as it provides results comparable to clinically used functional positron-emission tomography (PET). The requirement of slow analog detection methods and emerging advances in small animal PET imaging have, however, reduced the interest in ARG. In contrast to ARG, experimental animals need to be restrained or sedated/anesthetized for PET imaging, which strongly influence functional activity and thus complicate the interpretation of the results. Digital direct particle-counting ARG systems have gained attraction during the last decade to overcome the caveats of conventional ARG methods. Here we demonstrate that the well-established 2-DG imaging method can be adapted into use with contemporary digital detectors. This method readily and rapidly captures the characteristic effects of phencyclidine (5 mg/kg, i.p.), a dissociative agent targeting the NMDAR (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor), on regional glucose utilization in the adult mouse brain. Pretreatment with antipsychotic drug clozapine (6 mg/kg, i.p.) essentially abolishes these effects of phencyclidine on brain functional activity. Digital ARG produces viable data for the regional analysis of functional activity in a fraction of time required for film development. These results support the use of digital ARG in preclinical drug research, where high throughput and response linearity are preferred and use of sedation/anesthesia has to be avoided.
  • Bhide, Amarnath; Räsänen, Juha; Huhta, Heikki; Junno, Juulia; Erkinaro, Tiina; Ohtonen, Pasi; Haapsamo, Mervi; Acharya, Ganesh (2017)
    We hypothesized that in near-term sheep fetuses, hypoxemia changes myocardial function as reflected in altered ventricular deformation on speckle-tracking echocardiography. Fetuses in 21 pregnant sheep were instrumented. After 4 d of recovery, fetal cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography at baseline, after 30 and 120 min of induced fetal hypoxemia and after its reversal. Left (LV) and right (RV) ventricular cardiac output and myocardial strain were measured. Baseline mean (standard deviation [ SD]) LV and RV global longitudinal strains were -18.7% (3.8) and -14.3% (5.3). Baseline RV global longitudinal and circumferential deformations were less compared with those of the left ventricle (p = 0.016 and p <0.005). LV, but not RV, global longitudinal strain was decreased (p = 0.003) compared with baseline with hypoxemia. Circumferential and radial strains did not exhibit significant changes. In the near-term sheep fetus, LV global longitudinal and circumferential strains are more negative than RV strains. Acute hypoxemia leads to LV rather than RV dysfunction as reflected by decreased deformation. (C) 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology.
  • Bhide, Amarnath; Alanne, Leena; Rasanen, Juha; Huhta, Heikki; Junno, Juulia; Kokki, Merja; Erkinaro, Tiina; Ohtonen, Pasi; Haapsamo, Mervi; Acharya, Ganesh (2019)
    Sildenafil is a potential new treatment for placental insufficiency in human pregnancies as it reduces the breakdown of vasodilator nitric oxide. Pulmonary vasodilatation is observed in normoxemic fetuses following sildenafil administration. Placental insufficiency often leads to fetal hypoxemia that can cause pulmonary vasoconstriction and fetal cardiac dysfunction as evidenced by reduced isovolumic myocardial velocities. We tested the hypotheses that sildenafil, when given directly to the hypoxemic fetus, reverses reactive pulmonary vasoconstriction, increases left ventricular cardiac output by increasing pulmonary venous return, and ameliorates hypoxemic myocardial dysfunction. We used an instrumented sheep model. Fetuses were made hypoxemic over a mean (standard deviation) duration of 41.3 (9.5) minutes and then given intravenous sildenafil or saline infusion. Volume blood flow through ductus arteriosus was measured with an ultrasonic transit-time flow probe. Fetal left and right ventricular outputs and lung volume blood flow were calculated, and ventricular function was examined using echocardiography. Lung volume blood flow decreased and the ductus arteriosus volume blood flow increased with hypoxemia. There was a significant reduction in left ventricular and combined cardiac outputs during hypoxemia in both groups. Hypoxemia led to a reduction in myocardial isovolumic velocities, increased ductus venosus pulsatility, and reduced left ventricular myocardial deformation. Direct administration of sildenafil to hypoxemic fetus did not reverse the redistribution of cardiac output. Furthermore, fetal cardiac systolic and diastolic dysfunction was observed during hypoxemia, which was not improved by fetal sildenafil treatment. In conclusion, sildenafil did not improve pulmonary blood flow or cardiac function in hypoxemic sheep fetuses.
  • Nummela, Aleksi J.; Laaksonen, Lauri T.; Laitio, Timo T.; Kallionpaa, Roosa E.; Langsjo, Jaakko W.; Scheinin, Joonas M.; Vahlberg, Tero J.; Koskela, Harri T.; Aittomaki, Viljami; Valli, Katja J.; Revonsuo, Antti; Niemi, Mikko; Perola, Markus; Scheinin, Harry (2022)
    BACKGROUND Pharmacometabolomics uses large-scale data capturing methods to uncover drug-induced shifts in the metabolic profile. The specific effects of anaesthetics on the human metabolome are largely unknown. OBJECTIVE We aimed to discover whether exposure to routinely used anaesthetics have an acute effect on the human metabolic profile. DESIGN Randomised, open-label, controlled, parallel group, phase IV clinical drug trial. SETTING The study was conducted at Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Finland, 2016 to 2017. PARTICIPANTS One hundred and sixty healthy male volunteers were recruited. The metabolomic data of 159 were evaluable. INTERVENTIONS Volunteers were randomised to receive a 1-h exposure to equipotent doses (EC50 for verbal command) of dexmedetomidine (1.5 ng ml(-1); n = 40), propofol (1.7 mu g ml(-1); n = 40), sevoflurane (0.9% end-tidal; n = 39), S-ketamine (0.75 mu g ml(-1); n = 20) or placebo (n = 20). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Metabolite subgroups of apolipoproteins and lipoproteins, cholesterol, glycerides and phospholipids, fatty acids, glycolysis, amino acids, ketone bodies, creatinine and albumin and the inflammatory marker GlycA, were analysed with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy from arterial blood samples collected at baseline, after anaesthetic administration and 70 min post-anaesthesia. RESULTS All metabolite subgroups were affected. Statistically significant changes vs. placebo were observed in 11.0, 41.3, 0.65 and 3.9% of the 155 analytes in the dexmedetomidine, propofol, sevoflurane and S-ketamine groups, respectively. Dexmedetomidine increased glucose, decreased ketone bodies and affected lipoproteins and apolipoproteins. Propofol altered lipoproteins, fatty acids, glycerides and phospholipids and slightly increased inflammatory marker glycoprotein acetylation. Sevoflurane was relatively inert. S-ketamine increased glucose and lactate, whereasbranched chain amino acids and tyrosine decreased. CONCLUSION A 1-h exposure to moderate doses of routinely used anaesthetics led to significant and characteristic alterations in the metabolic profile. Dexmedetomidine-induced alterations mirror a2-adrenoceptor agonism. Propofol emulsion altered the lipid profile. The inertness of sevoflurane might prove useful in vulnerable patients. S-ketamine induced amino acid alterations might be linked to its suggested antidepressive properties.
  • Korkalainen, Noora; Partanen, Lea; Räsänen, Juha; Yliherva, Anneli; Mäkikallio, Kaarin (2019)
    Aim: Long-term follow-up studies on children born with fetal growth restriction (FGR) have revealed a specific profile of neurocognitive difficulties, including problems with speech, language and literacy skills. We hypothesized that problems with communication skills, including language use and literacy skills of FGR children at primary school age are associated with prenatal circulatory changes. Methods: Ultrasonographic assessment of fetoplacental hemodynamics was performed prenatally in 77 fetuses. After a follow-up period of 8-10 years, assessment of reading and spelling skills using standardized tests and the Children's Communication Questionnaire (CCC-2) was performed to measure different language skills in 37 FGR children and 31 appropriately grown (AGA) controls, matched for gestational age. Results: Increased blood flow resistance in the umbilical artery (UA PI > 2 SD) during fetal life showed odds ratios of 3.5-19.1 for poor literacy and communication skills and need for speech and language therapy. Furthermore, FGR children with prenatal cerebral vasodilatation (cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) <-2 SD) had significantly poorer literacy and communication skills, at primary school age compared to the AGA controls. Abnormal CPR demonstrated odds ratios of 4.2-28.1 for poor literacy and communication skills and need for speech and language therapy. Conclusion: Increased blood flow resistance in the umbilical artery and cerebral vasodilatation are associated with poor communication, language, and literacy skills at early school age in children born with FGR. These findings indicate the need for continuous follow-up of this group and timely targeted support to ensure optimal academic outcomes.
  • Perner, Anders; Prowle, John; Joannidis, Michael; Young, Paul; Hjortrup, Peter B.; Pettilä, Ville (2017)
    Acute kidney injury (AKI) and fluids are closely linked through oliguria, which is a marker of the former and a trigger for administration of the latter. Recent progress in this field has challenged the physiological and clinical rational of using oliguria as a trigger for the administration of fluid and brought attention to the delicate balance between benefits and harms of different aspects of fluid management in critically ill patients, in particular those with AKI. This narrative review addresses various aspects of fluid management in AKI outlining physiological aspects, the effects of crystalloids and colloids on kidney function and the effect of various resuscitation and de-resuscitation strategies on the course and outcome of AKI.
  • Bouchez, S.; Fedele, F.; Giannakoulas, G.; Gustafsson, F.; Harjola, V. -P.; Karason, K.; Kivikko, M.; von Lewinski, D.; Oliva, F.; Papp, Z.; Parissis, J.; Pollesello, Piero; Pölzl, G.; Tschöpe, C. (2018)
    Levosimendan, a calcium sensitizer and potassium channel-opener, is widely appreciated by many specialist heart failure practitioners for its effects on systemic and pulmonary hemodynamics and for the relief of symptoms of acute heart failure. The drug's impact on mortality in large randomized controlled trials has been inconsistent or inconclusive but, in contrast to conventional inotropes, there have been no indications of worsened survival and some signals of improved heart failure-related quality of life. For this reason, levosimendan has been proposed as a safer inodilator option than traditional agents in settings, such as advanced heart failure. Positive effects of levosimendan on renal function have also been described. At the HEART FAILURE 2018 congress of the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology, safe and effective use levosimendan in acute and advanced heart failure was examined in a series of expert tutorials. The proceedings of those tutorials are summarized in this review, with special reference to advanced heart failure and heart failure with concomitant renal dysfunction. Meta-analysis of clinical trials data is supportive of a renal-protective effect of levosimendan, while physiological observations suggest that this effect is exerted at least in part via organ-specific effects that may include selective vasodilation of glomerular afferent arterioles and increased renal blood flow, with no compromise of renal oxygenation. These lines of evidence require further investigation and their clinical significance needs to be evaluated in specifically designed prospective trials.
  • Pryazhnikov, Evgeny; Kislin, Mikhail; Tibeykina, Marina; Toptunov, Dmytro; Ptukha, Anna; Shatillo, Artem; Gröhn, Olli; Giniatullin, Rashid; Khiroug, Leonard (2014)
  • Haen, Silke M.; Heinonen, Mari; Bjorkman, Stefan; Soede, Nicoline M.; Peltoniemi, Olli A.T. (2020)
    Abstract We studied luteinizing hormone (LH) pulsatility and episodic progesterone release of the corpus luteum (CL) on Day 11 and Day 21 in inseminated gilts and aimed to establish a relationship between these two hormones. Blood was collected at 15-minute intervals for 12 hours on Days 11, 16, and 21 from a vena cava caudalis catheter. At euthanasia eight gilts were pregnant and six gilts were not pregnant. Progesterone parameters (basal, mean, pulse frequency, and pulse amplitude) did not differ between pregnant and non-pregnant gilts on Day 11, LH pulse frequency and amplitude tended to differ (p = 0.07 and p = 0.079). In pregnant gilts basal and mean progesterone, progesterone pulse amplitude and frequency declined significantly from Day 11 to Day 21 (p <0.05). A significant decline was also seen in the LH pulse amplitude from Day 11 to Day 21 (p <0.05). None of the LH pulses was followed by a progesterone pulse within 1 hour on Day 21. On Day 11 and Day 21 appeared a synchronicity in the LH pulse pattern, as there were two or three LH pulses in 12 hours and these LH pulses appeared in the same time window. We conclude that on Day 11 and Day 21 of pregnancy in gilts progesterone pulses do not follow an LH pulse within one hour. Further we demonstrated that the successful or not successful formation of a CL of pregnancy is independent of progesterone release on Day 11 after insemination. We confirmed the decline of progesterone from Day 11 to Day 21 in the vena cava caudalis and could demonstrate that this decline is partly due to lower progesterone pulse amplitude and frequency and that the decline occurs simultaneously with a decline in LH pulse amplitude.
  • del Amo, Eva M.; Urtti, Arto (2015)
    Intravitreal administration is the method of choice in drug delivery to the retina and/or choroid. Rabbit is the most commonly used animal species in intravitreal pharmacokinetics, but it has been criticized as being a poor model of human eye. The critique is based on some anatomical differences, properties of the vitreous humor, and observed differences in drug concentrations in the anterior chamber after intravitreal injections. We have systematically analyzed all published information on intravitreal pharmacokinetics in the rabbit and human eye. The analysis revealed major problems in the design of the pharmacokinetic studies. In this review we provide advice for study design. Overall, the pharmacokinetic parameters (clearance, volume of distribution, half-life) in the human and rabbit eye have good correlation and comparable absolute values. Therefore, reliable rabbit-to-man translation of intravitreal pharmacokinetics should be feasible. The relevant anatomical and physiological parameters in rabbit and man show only small differences. Furthermore, the claimed discrepancy between drug concentrations in the human and rabbit aqueous humor is not supported by the data analysis. Based on the available and properly conducted pharmacokinetic studies, the differences in the vitreous structure in rabbits and human patients do not lead to significant pharmacokinetic differences. This review is the first step towards inter-species translation of intravitreal pharmacokinetics. More information is still needed to dissect the roles of drug delivery systems, disease states, age and ocular manipulation on the intravitreal pharmacokinetics in rabbit and man. Anyway, the published data and the derived pharmacokinetic parameters indicate that the rabbit is a useful animal model in intravitreal pharmacokinetics. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Päivärinta, Johanna; Oikonen, Vesa; Räisänen-Sokolowski, Anne; Tolvanen, Tuula; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Hidehiro, Iida; Nuutila, Pirjo; Metsärinne, Kaj; Koivuviita, Niina (2019)
    Background Despite improvement in short-term outcome of kidney transplants, the long-term survival of kidney transplants has not changed over past decades. Kidney biopsy is the gold standard of transplant pathology but it's invasive. Quantification of transplant blood flow could provide a novel non-invasive method to evaluate transplant pathology. The aim of this retrospective cross-sectional pilot study was to evaluate positron emission tomography (PET) as a method to measure kidney transplant perfusion and find out if there is correlation between transplant perfusion and histopathology. Methods Renal cortical perfusion of 19 kidney transplantation patients [average time from transplantation 33 (17-54) months; eGFR 55 (47-69) ml/min] and 10 healthy controls were studied by [(15) O]H2O PET. Perfusion and Doppler resistance index (RI) of transplants were compared with histology of one-year protocol transplant biopsy. Results Renal cortical perfusion of healthy control subjects and transplant patients were 2.7 (2.4-4.0) ml min(- 1) g(- 1) and 2.2 (2.0-3.0) ml min(- 1) g(- 1), respectively (p = 0.1). Renal vascular resistance (RVR) of the patients was 47.0 (36.7-51.4) mmHg mL(- 1)min(- 1)g(- 1) and that of the healthy 32.4 (24.6-39.6) mmHg mL(- 1)min(-1)g(-1) (p = 0.01). There was a statistically significant correlation between Doppler RI and perfusion of transplants (r = - 0.51, p = 0.026). Transplant Doppler RI of the group of mild fibrotic changes [0.73 (0.70-0.76)] and the group of no fibrotic changes [0.66 (0.61-0.72)] differed statistically significantly (p = 0.03). No statistically significant correlation was found between cortical perfusion and fibrosis of transplants (p = 0.56). Conclusions [(15) O]H2O PET showed its capability as a method in measuring perfusion of kidney transplants. RVR of transplant patients with stage 2-3 chronic kidney disease was higher than that of the healthy, although kidney perfusion values didn't differ between the groups. Doppler based RI correlated with perfusion and fibrosis of transplants.
  • Reichhardt, M. P.; Holmskov, U.; Meri, S. (2017)
    It is becoming increasingly clear that the connections between our immune system and the microbiota colonizing us have a tremendous impact on human health. A number of innate molecular defence mechanisms cooperate to selectively target unwanted microorganisms at the mucosal surfaces. Amongst others these include the complement system, IgA and the SALSA molecule. The salivary scavenger and agglutinin (SALSA), also known as deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 (DMBT1), salivary agglutinin (SAG) or gp340 is a multifunctional molecule with important functions in innate immunity, inflammation and epithelial homeostasis. The SALSA protein is expressed at most mucosal surfaces, where it is one of the most abundant proteins. In the fetal meconium and infant intestine it may constitute even up to 10% of the total protein amount. SALSA is found either directly associated with the epithelial surface or secreted into the lining fluids. In the fluid-phase SALSA interacts with a number of bacterial and viral organisms, as well as with endogenous ligands, including IgA, lactoferrin, surfactant proteins and complement components. While complement has been shown to impact the mucosal environment, this remains an area of limited research. The multiple interactions of the SALSA molecule provide a scaffold, where this potent defence system may engage in cooperative microbial clearance together with corresponding mucosal host ligands. With its high abundance, and multiple effects on both host and microbes, the SALSA molecule is a key player in maintaining the immunological balance at the mucosal surfaces. This is further supported by observations linking the expression of different SALSA isoforms to the development of chronic inflammatory conditions, such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. This review describes the latest advances in understanding functions of SALSA and its different isoforms. Recently recognized functions are related to complement activation and regulation, endothelial development and epithelial homeostasis. In addition, we suggest mechanisms how SALSA regulates inflammation at the mucosal surfaces.
  • EFSA Panel Anim Hlth Welf AHAW; Nielsen, Soren Saxmose; Winckler, Christoph (2020)
    The killing of cattle for human consumption (slaughtering) can take place in a slaughterhouse or on farm. The processes of slaughtering that were assessed for welfare, from the arrival of cattle until their death (including slaughtering without stunning), were grouped into three main phases: pre-stunning (including arrival, unloading from the truck, lairage, handling and moving of cattle); stunning (including restraint); and bleeding. Stunning methods were grouped into two categories: mechanical and electrical. Twelve welfare consequences that cattle may be exposed to during slaughter were identified: heat stress, cold stress, fatigue, prolonged thirst, prolonged hunger, impeded movement, restriction of movements, resting problems (inability to rest or discomfort during resting), social stress, pain, fear and distress. Welfare consequences and their relevant animal-based measures are described. In total, 40 welfare hazards that could occur during slaughter were identified and characterised, most of them related to stunning and bleeding. Staff were identified as the origin of 39 hazards, which were attributed to the lack of appropriate skill sets needed to perform tasks or to fatigue. Measures to prevent and correct hazards were identified, and structural and managerial measures were identified as those with a crucial role in prevention. Outcome tables linking hazards, welfare consequences, animal-based measures, origin of hazards, and preventive and corrective measures were developed for each process. Mitigation measures to minimise welfare consequences are proposed. (C) 2020 European Food Safety Authority. EFSA Journal published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd on behalf of European Food Safety Authority.