Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-6 of 6
  • 8th European Conf Infect Leukaemia; Lehrnbecher, Thomas; Averbuch, Dina; Castagnola, Elio; Kanerva, Jukka; Groll, Andreas H. (2021)
    Paediatric patients with cancer and those undergoing haematopoietic cell transplantation are at high risk of bacterial infections. The 8th European Conference on Infections in Leukaemia (ECIL-8) convened a Paediatric Group to review the literature and to formulate recommendations for the use of antibiotics according to the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases grading system. The evaluation of antibacterial prophylaxis included mortality, bloodstream infection, febrile neutropenia, emergence of resistance, and adverse effects as endpoints. Initial antibacterial therapy and antibiotic de-escalation or discontinuation focused on patients with a clinically stable condition and without previous infection or colonisation by resistant bacteria, and on patients with a clinically unstable condition or with previous infection or colonisation by resistant bacteria. The final considerations and recommendations of the ECIL-8 Paediatric Group on antibacterial prophylaxis, initial therapy, and de-escalation strategies are summarised in this Policy Review.
  • Sartelli, Massimo; Weber, Dieter G.; Ruppe, Etienne; Bassetti, Matteo; Wright, Brian J.; Ansaloni, Luca; Catena, Fausto; Coccolini, Federico; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M.; Coimbra, Raul; Moore, Ernest E.; Moore, Frederick A.; Maier, Ronald V.; De Waele, Jan J.; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.; Griffiths, Ewen A.; Eckmann, Christian; Brink, Adrian J.; Mazuski, John E.; May, Addison K.; Sawyer, Rob G.; Mertz, Dominik; Montravers, Philippe; Kumar, Anand; Roberts, Jason A.; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Watkins, Richard R.; Lowman, Warren; Spellberg, Brad; Abbott, Iain J.; Adesunkanmi, Abdulrashid Kayode; Al-Dahir, Sara; Al-Hasan, Majdi N.; Agresta, Ferdinando; Althani, Asma A.; Ansari, Shamshul; Ansumana, Rashid; Augustin, Goran; Bala, Miklosh; Balogh, Zsolt J.; Baraket, Oussama; Bhangu, Aneel; Beltran, Marcelo A.; Bernhard, Michael; Biffl, Walter L.; Boermeester, Marja A.; Brecher, Stephen M.; Cherry-Bukowiec, Jill R.; Buyne, Otmar R.; Cainzos, Miguel A.; Cairns, Kelly A.; Camacho-Ortiz, Adrian; Chandy, Sujith J.; Jusoh, Asri Che; Chichom-Mefire, Alain; Colijn, Caroline; Corcione, Francesco; Cui, Yunfeng; Curcio, Daniel; Delibegovic, Samir; Demetrashvili, Zaza; De Simone, Belinda; Dhingra, Sameer; Diaz, Jose J.; Di Carlo, Isidoro; Dillip, Angel; Di Saverio, Salomone; Doyle, Michael P.; Dorj, Gereltuya; Dogjani, Agron; Dupont, Herve; Eachempati, Soumitra R.; Enani, Mushira Abdulaziz; Egiev, Valery N.; Elmangory, Mutasim M.; Ferrada, Paula; Fitchett, Joseph R.; Fraga, Gustavo P.; Guessennd, Nathalie; Giamarellou, Helen; Ghnnam, Wagih; Gkiokas, George; Goldberg, Staphanie R.; Gomes, Carlos Augusto; Gomi, Harumi; Guzman-Blanco, Manuel; Haque, Mainul; Hansen, Sonja; Hecker, Andreas; Heizmann, Wolfgang R.; Herzog, Torsten; Hodonou, Adrien Montcho; Hong, Suk-Kyung; Kafka-Ritsch, Reinhold; Kaplan, Lewis J.; Kapoor, Garima; Karamarkovic, Aleksandar; Kees, Martin G.; Kenig, Jakub; Kiguba, Ronald; Kim, Peter K.; Kluger, Yoram; Khokha, Vladimir; Koike, Kaoru; Kok, Kenneth Y. Y.; Kong, Victory; Knox, Matthew C.; Inaba, Kenji; Isik, Arda; Iskandar, Katia; Ivatury, Rao R.; Labbate, Maurizio; Labricciosa, Francesco M.; Laterre, Pierre-Francois; Latifi, Rifat; Lee, Jae Gil; Lee, Young Ran; Leone, Marc; Leppäniemi, Ari; Li, Yousheng; Liang, Stephen Y.; Loho, Tonny; Maegele, Marc; Malama, Sydney; Marei, Hany E.; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Marwah, Sanjay; Massele, Amos; McFarlane, Michael; Melo, Renato Bessa; Negoi, Ionut; Nicolau, David P.; Nord, Carl Erik; Ofori-Asenso, Richard; Omari, AbdelKarim H.; Ordonez, Carlos A.; Ouadii, Mouaqit; Pereira Junior, Gerson Alves; Piazza, Diego; Pupelis, Guntars; Rawson, Timothy Miles; Rems, Miran; Rizoli, Sandro; Rocha, Claudio; Sakakhushev, Boris; Sanchez-Garcia, Miguel; Sato, Norio; Lohse, Helmut A. Segovia; Sganga, Gabriele; Siribumrungwong, Boonying; Shelat, Vishal G.; Soreide, Kjetil; Soto, Rodolfo; Talving, Peep; Tilsed, Jonathan V.; Timsit, Jean-Francois; Trueba, Gabriel; Trung, Ngo Tat; Ulrych, Jan; van Goor, Harry; Vereczkei, Andras; Vohra, Ravinder S.; Wani, Imtiaz; Uhl, Waldemar; Xiao, Yonghong; Yuan, Kuo-Ching; Zachariah, Sanoop K.; Zahar, Jean-Ralph; Zakrison, Tanya L.; Corcione, Antonio; Melotti, Rita M.; Viscoli, Claudio; Viale, Perluigi (2016)
    Intra-abdominal infections (IAI) are an important cause of morbidity and are frequently associated with poor prognosis, particularly in high-risk patients. The cornerstones in the management of complicated IAIs are timely effective source control with appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Empiric antimicrobial therapy is important in the management of intra-abdominal infections and must be broad enough to cover all likely organisms because inappropriate initial antimicrobial therapy is associated with poor patient outcomes and the development of bacterial resistance. The overuse of antimicrobials is widely accepted as a major driver of some emerging infections (such as C. difficile), the selection of resistant pathogens in individual patients, and for the continued development of antimicrobial resistance globally. The growing emergence of multi-drug resistant organisms and the limited development of new agents available to counteract them have caused an impending crisis with alarming implications, especially with regards to Gram-negative bacteria. An international task force from 79 different countries has joined this project by sharing a document on the rational use of antimicrobials for patients with IAIs. The project has been termed AGORA (Antimicrobials: A Global Alliance for Optimizing their Rational Use in Intra-Abdominal Infections). The authors hope that AGORA, involving many of the world's leading experts, can actively raise awareness in health workers and can improve prescribing behavior in treating IAIs.
  • Pereira, Ana P.; Antunes, Patricia; Willems, Rob; Corander, Jukka; Coque, Teresa M.; Peixe, Luisa; Freitas, Ana R.; Novais, Carla (2022)
    Chlorhexidine (CHX) is widely used to control the spread of pathogens (e.g., human/animal clinical settings, ambulatory care, food industry). Enterococcus faecalis, a major nosocomial pathogen, is broadly distributed in diverse hosts and environments facilitating its exposure to CHX over the years. Nevertheless, CHX activity against E. faecalis is understudied. Our goal was to assess CHX activity and the variability of ChlR-EfrEF proteins (associated with CHX tolerance) among 673 field isolates and 1,784 E. faecalis genomes from the PATRIC database from different sources, time spans, clonal lineages, and antibiotic-resistance profiles. The CHX MIC (MICCHX) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBCCHX) against E. faecalis presented normal distributions (0.5 to 64 mg/L). However, more CHX-tolerant isolates were detected in the food chain and recent human infections, suggesting an adaptability of E. faecalis populations in settings where CHX is heavily used. Heterogeneity in ChlR-EfrEF sequences was identified, with isolates harboring incomplete ChlR-EfrEF proteins, particularly the EfrE identified in the ST40 clonal lineage, showing low MICCHX (= 500 mg/L). However, increased CHX use, combined with concentration gradients occurring in diverse environments, potentially selecting multidrug-resistant strains with different CHX susceptibilities, signals the importance of monitoring the trends of E. faecalis CHX tolerance within a One Health approach. IMPORTANCE Chlorhexidine (CHX) is a disinfectant and antiseptic used since the 1950s and included in the World Health Organization's list of essential medicines. It has been widely applied in hospitals, the community, the food industry, animal husbandry and pets. CHX tolerance in Enterococcus faecalis, a ubiquitous bacterium and one of the leading causes of human hospital-acquired infections, remains underexplored. Our study provides novel and comprehensive insights about CHX susceptibility within the E. faecalis population structure context, revealing more CHX-tolerant subpopulations from the food chain and recent human infections. We further show a detailed analysis of the genetic diversity of the efrEF operon (previously associated with E. faecalis CHX tolerance) and its correlation with CHX phenotypes. The recent strains with a higher tolerance to CHX and the multiple sources where bacteria are exposed to this biocide alert us to the need for the continuous monitoring of E. faecalis adaptation toward CHX tolerance within a One Health approach. Chlorhexidine (CHX) is a disinfectant and antiseptic used since the 1950s and included in the World Health Organization's list of essential medicines. It has been widely applied in hospitals, the community, the food industry, animal husbandry and pets.
  • Forsblom, E.; Kakriainen, A.; Ruotsalainen, E.; Järvinen, A. (2018)
    Background Infectious specialist consultations (ISC) provide ever more evidence for improved outcome in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB). Most ISC are formal (bedside). However, the impact of ISC on clinical management and prognosis lacks evaluation in aged patients with SAB. Methods Multicenter retrospective analysis of methicillin-sensitive (MS) SAB. Patients were stratified according to age >= 60 years (sub-analyses for >= 75 years and females) and formal (bedside) ISC given within 7 days of SAB diagnosis. The impact on management and outcome of formal ISC was explored. Statistics were performed with univariate analysis, Cox proportional hazards regression model analysis, including propensity-score adjustment, and graphic Kaplan-Meier interpretation. Results Altogether 617 patients were identified and 520 (84%) had formal ISC. Presence of formal ISC resulted in equivalent clinical management regardless of age over or under 60 years: localization and eradication of infection foci (80 vs. 82% and 34 vs. 36%) and use of anti-staphylococcal antibiotics (65 vs. 61%). Patients aged >= 60 years managed without formal ISC, compared to those with formal ISC, had less infection foci diagnosed (53 vs. 80%, p <0.001). Lack of formal ISC in patients aged >= 60 years resulted in no infection eradication and absence of first-line anti-staphylococcal antibiotics. Formal ISC, compared to absence of formal ISC, lowered mortality at 90 days in patients aged >= 60 years (24 vs. 47%, p = 0.004). In Cox proportional regression, before and after propensity-score adjustment, formal ISC was a strong positive prognostic parameter in patients aged >= 60 years (HR 0.45; p = 0.004 and HR 0.44; p = 0.021), in patients aged >= 75 years (HR 0.18; p = 0.001 and HR 0.11; p = 0.003) and in female patients aged >= 75 years (HR 0.13; p = 0.005). Conclusion Formal ISC ensures proper active clinical management irrespective of age and improve prognosis in aged patients with MS-SAB.
  • Poikonen, Eira; Lyytikainen, Outi; Anttila, Veli-Jukka; Koivula, Irma; Lumio, Jukka; Kotilainen, Pirkko; Syrjala, Hannu; Ruutu, Petri (2010)