Browsing by Subject "BMI"

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  • Belfrage, Hanna; Lankinen, Emiel; Kylänpää, Leena; Louhimo, Johanna (2023)
    Objectives Updated population-based studies on acute pancreatitis (AP) in Finland are lacking. Our aim was to evaluate the current data for AP in Helsinki. Materials and methods We performed an electronic health care records (EHRs) search on AP patients treated at Helsinki University Hospital between the years 2016 - 2018. Incidence was calculated, etiological and potential risk factors, as well as severity of AP were documented and analyzed. Results Between 2016 and 2018 we found 1378 AP episodes on 1084 patients, 35% of the patients had several AP episodes, i.e., recurrent AP (RAP). The domicile-adjusted incidence was 42.2/100 000. 47% of the patients had alcohol etiology (59% men, 27% women) and 23% had biliary etiology, 21% were idiopathic and 2.9% were post-ERCP pancreatitis. 13.1% of the patients had passed at the end of September 2021. 45% of the patients were currently smoking, 11% were ex-smokers, and the highest percentage of smokers was in the group of alcohol-caused AP with 74% ever-smokers. Biliary AP had the highest amount of overweight patients. 24% of the patients used anticoagulation (AC) medication, and the percentage was significantly higher with idiopathic AP (48%). RAP, female sex and normal BMI associated with a mild form of AP. Conclusions Incidence of AP and the percentage of alcohol etiology are lower than earlier reported for Finland although still higher than in other Nordic countries. Smoking and the use of AC medication associate with AP.
  • Lankinen, Emiel (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Akuutti haimatulehdus on tavallinen sairaus kirurgian päivystyksessä akuutti vatsa -potilailla. Haimatulehduksen etiologian määrittämisellä on tärkeä rooli toisaalta mahdollisesti tarvittavien hoitotoimenpiteiden valitsemisessa, mutta ennen kaikkea uusiutumisen estossa. Yleisimmät etiologiset tekijät akuutin pankreatiitin taustalla ovat alkoholin liiallinen käyttö sekä sappikivitauti. Harvinaisempia aiheuttajia ovat haiman tai haimatiehyen mekaaninen ärsytys toimenpiteen seurauksena, hypertriglyseridemia, autoimmuunitulehdus sekä tietyt lääkeaineet. Osassa tapauksista aiheuttajaa ei löydetä ja nämä jäävät ns. idiopaattisiksi. Teimme retrospektiivisen katsauksen Helsingin Yliopistolliseen sairaalaan kuuluvassa Meilahden sairaalassa vuosina 2016-2018 hoidetuista akuuttiin pankreatiittiin sairastuneista potilaista. Tarkoituksenamme oli selvittää akuutin haimatulehduksen tämänhetkinen ilmaantuvuus sekä mahdolliset muutokset haimatulehdusten etiologiajakaumassa. Lisäksi arvioimme tarkasteltavina olleiden suureiden mahdollista osuutta altistavina tekijöinä akuuttiin haimatulehdukseen sairastumiselle. Arvioitavia suureita olivat potilaiden ikä, sukupuoli, tupakointihistoria, alkoholinkäyttö, BMI sekä veren hyytymistä estävän lääkityksen käyttö. Tarkistimme myös potilaiden elossaolotiedot sekä selvitimme ilmenneet haimasyöpätapaukset akuuttiin pankreatiittiin sairastaneilla potilailla. Akuutin pankreatiitin insidenssi oli matalampi kuin aiemmissa suomalaisissa tutkimuksissa. Alkoholipankreatiittien osuus oli vähentynyt, mutta oli edelleen korkeampi kuin muissa Pohjoismaissa. Sappipankreatiittien osuus oli noussut. Idiopaattisiksi jääneissä ja alkoholin aiheuttamissa tapauksissa tupakointi esittäytyi merkittävänä riskitekijänä. Idiopaattisissa tapauksissa myös antikoagulanttien käyttö oli mahdollinen haimatulehduksen riskitekijä. Obesiteetti vaikutti olevan merkittävä riskitekijä sekä idiopaattiselle että sappikivitaudin aiheuttamalle pankreatiitille.
  • Leinonen, Jaakko T.; Surakka, Ida; Havulinna, Aki S.; Kettunen, Johannes; Luoto, Riitta; Salomaa, Veikko; Widen, Elisabeth (2012)
  • Salmela, Jatta Helena; Mauramo, Elina; Lallukka, Tea; Rahkonen, Ossi; Kanerva, Noora (2019)
    Objective: Childhood disadvantage is associated with a higher risk of adult obesity, but little is known about its associations with body mass index (BMI) trajectories during adulthood. This study aimed first to identify adulthood BMI trajectories, and second to investigate how childhood disadvantage is associated with trajectory group membership. Methods: Data from the Helsinki Health Study, a longitudinal cohort study of initially 40- to 60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki in Finland, were used. The baseline survey was conducted in 2000–2002, and similar follow-up surveys in 2007, 2012, and 2017. Based on self-reported BMI, participants’ (n =5,266; 83% women) BMI trajectories, including their retrospectively reported BMI at the age of 25 years, were examined. Data on childhood disadvantage, including parental education and 7 types of childhood adversity (their own serious illness; parental divorce, death, mental disorder, or alcohol problems; economic difficulties at home; and peer group bullying) before the age of 16 years, were obtained from the baseline survey. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to identify BMI trajectories, and multinomial logistic regression to analyze the odds for trajectory group membership for the disadvantage variables. Results: Four ascending BMI trajectories in women and men were found: persistent normal weight (trajectory 1; women 35% and men 25%), normal weight to overweight (trajectory 2; women 41% and men 48%), normal weight to class I obesity (trajectory 3; women 19% and men 23%) and overweight to class II obesity (trajectory 4; women 5% and men 4%). Compared to trajectory 1, women with multiple adversities and repetitive peer bullying in childhood had greater odds of belonging to trajectories 3 and 4, whereas men with parental alcohol problems had greater odds of belonging to trajectory 4. For women and men, a low level of parental education was associated with a higher-level BMI trajectory. Conclusions: Low parental education for both genders, multiple adversities and repetitive peer bullying in childhood among women, and parental alcohol problems among men increased the odds of developing obesity during adulthood. Further studies are needed to clarify how gender differences modify the effects of childhood disadvantage on adult BMI trajectories.
  • Teisala, Tiina; Mutikainen, Sara; Tolvanen, Asko; Rottensteiner, Mirva; Leskinen, Tuija; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Rusko, Heikki; Kujala, Urho M. (2014)
    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate how physical activity (PA), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and body composition are associated with heart rate variability (HRV)-based indicators of stress and recovery on workdays. Additionally, we evaluated the association of objectively measured stress with self-reported burnout symptoms. METHODS: Participants of this cross-sectional study were 81 healthy males (age range 26-40 y). Stress and recovery on workdays were measured objectively based on HRV recordings. CRF and anthropometry were assessed in laboratory conditions. The level of PA was based on a detailed PA interview (MET index [MET-h/d]) and self-reported activity class. RESULTS: PA, CRF, and body composition were significantly associated with levels of stress and recovery on workdays. MET index (P < 0.001), activity class (P = 0.001), and CRF (P = 0.019) were negatively associated with stress during working hours whereas body fat percentage (P = 0.005) was positively associated. Overall, 27.5% of the variance of total stress on workdays (P = 0.001) was accounted for by PA, CRF, and body composition. Body fat percentage and body mass index were negatively associated with night-time recovery whereas CRF was positively associated. Objective work stress was associated (P = 0.003) with subjective burnout symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: PA, CRF, and body composition are associated with HRV-based stress and recovery levels, which needs to be taken into account in the measurement, prevention, and treatment of work-related stress. The HRV-based method used to determine work-related stress and recovery was associated with self-reported burnout symptoms, but more research on the clinical importance of the methodology is needed.
  • Lundgren, Sara; Kuitunen, Sara; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Hurme, Mikko; Kähönen, Mika; Männistö, Satu; Perola, Markus; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Kaprio, Jaakko; Ollikainen, Miina (2022)
    Background Obesity is a heritable complex phenotype that can increase the risk of age-related outcomes. Biological age can be estimated from DNA methylation (DNAm) using various "epigenetic clocks." Previous work suggests individuals with elevated weight also display accelerated aging, but results vary by epigenetic clock and population. Here, we utilize the new epigenetic clock GrimAge, which closely correlates with mortality. Objectives We aimed to assess the cross-sectional association of body mass index (BMI) with age acceleration in twins to limit confounding by genetics and shared environment. Methods and results Participants were from the Finnish Twin Cohort (FTC; n = 1424), including monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs, and DNAm was measured using the Illumina 450K array. Multivariate linear mixed effects models including MZ and DZ twins showed an accelerated epigenetic age of 1.02 months (p-value = 6.1 x 10(-12)) per one-unit BMI increase. Additionally, heavier twins in a BMI-discordant MZ twin pair (Delta BMI >3 kg/m(2)) had an epigenetic age 5.2 months older than their lighter cotwin (p-value = 0.0074). We also found a positive association between log (homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance) and age acceleration, confirmed by a meta-analysis of the FTC and two other Finnish cohorts (overall effect = 0.45 years, p-value = 4.1 x 10(-25)) from adjusted models. Conclusion We identified significant associations of BMI and insulin resistance with age acceleration based on GrimAge, which were not due to genetic effects on BMI and aging. Overall, these results support a role of BMI in aging, potentially in part due to the effects of insulin resistance.
  • Leppänen, Marja H.; Lehtimäki, Aku-Ville; Roos, Eva; Viljakainen, Heli (2022)
    Body image dissatisfaction is a concern for adolescents' mental and physical well-being, and the role of body mass index (BMI) and physical activity (PA) in it is still unclear. This study investigates the associations of BMI and PA with body image, separately for boys and girls, in a large sample of Finnish adolescents. We also examine the associations of BMI with body image in varying PA levels. A total of 10,496 adolescents (girls 52.6%) were included in the analyses. Body image was assessed using a pictorial tool, and categorized as wishing for a smaller body, being satisfied, and wishing for a bigger body. BMI (kg/m(2)) was categorized as thin, normal weight, and overweight/obese. Self-reported PA was divided into three similar-sized categories as low, moderate, and high PA levels. Adjusted ordinal regression analyses were conducted. Our results show that adolescents with thinness had higher odds of wishing for a bigger body compared to their normal-weight peers, while adolescents with overweight/obesity had smaller odds of wishing for a bigger body. Adolescents in low and middle PA levels had lower odds of wishing for a bigger body compared to adolescents in the high PA level. Yet, the PA level modified the associations between BMI and body image, especially in adolescents with thinness and more so in girls than in boys. These findings highlight the need to pay attention to healthy weight gain and PA in adolescents to support their body image satisfaction.
  • Ruggiero, Salvatore; Kangas, Hanna-Liisa; Annala, Sari; Lazarevic, David (Elsevier, 2021)
    Environmental Innovation and Societal Transition 39
    Demand response (DR) is an innovation emerging at the intersection of the energy and information and communications technology sectors. This paper aims to investigate the drivers of—and differences in—business model innovation (BMI) behaviours of firms operating in these two interacting industries. Results from 22 semi-structured interviews with representatives of Finnish DR companies show that external drivers of BMI include regulation, competition, and the demise of the telecom industry following the fall of Nokia. Whereas technology start-ups and companies from adjacent industries are motivated by entrepreneurial opportunities, incumbent energy companies are driven by the threat of losing their existing customers and need to increase efficiency. The BMI behaviours observed do not fall neatly into the often-used dichotomous categories of niche/new entrant and regime/incumbent, as firms show behaviours from both extremes. To overcome this binary thinking, we propose a morphological box model that represents the extreme states of firm BMI while allowing for flexibility.
  • Stenholm, Sari; Solovieva, Svetlana; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Aalto, Ville; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background Retirement is a major life transition affecting health behaviors. The aim of this study was to examine within-individual changes in body mass index (BMI) during transition from full-time work to statutory retirement by sex and physical work characteristics. Methods A multiwave cohort study repeated every 4 years and data linkage to records from retirement registers. Participants were 5426 Finnish public-sector employees who retired on a statutory basis in 2000–2011 and who reported their body weight one to three times prior to (w−3, w−2, w−1), and one to three times after (w+1, w+2, w+3) retirement. Results During the 4-year retirement transition (w+1, vs. w−1) men showed decline in BMI, which was most marked among men with sedentary work (−0.18 kg/m2, 95% CI −.30 to −0.05). In contrast, BMI increased during retirement transition in women and was most marked among women with diverse (0.14 kg/m2, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.20) or physically heavy work (0.31 kg/m2, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.45). Physical activity during leisure time or commuting to work, alcohol consumption or smoking did not explain the observed changes during retirement transition. Conclusions In this study statutory retirement was associated with small changes in BMI. Weight loss was most visible in men retiring from sedentary jobs and weight gain in women retiring from diverse and physically heavy jobs.
  • Stenholm, Sari; Solovieva, Svetlana; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Aalto, Ville; Kivimaki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi (2017)
    Background: Retirement is a major life transition affecting health behaviors. The aim of this study was to examine within-individual changes in body mass index (BMI) during transition from full-time work to statutory retirement by sex and physical work characteristics. Methods: A multiwave cohort study repeated every 4 years and data linkage to records from retirement registers. Participants were 5426 Finnish public-sector employees who retired on a statutory basis in 2000-2011 and who reported their body weight one to three times prior to (w(-3), w(-2), w(-1)), and one to three times after (w(+1), w(+2), w(+3)) retirement. Results: During the 4-year retirement transition (w(+1), vs. w(-1)) men showed decline in BMI, which was most marked among men with sedentary work (-0.18 kg/m(2), 95% CI -.30 to -0.05). In contrast, BMI increased during retirement transition in women and was most marked among women with diverse (0.14 kg/m(2), 95% CI 0.08 to 0.20) or physically heavy work (0.31 kg/m(2), 95% CI 0.16 to 0.45). Physical activity during leisure time or commuting to work, alcohol consumption or smoking did not explain the observed changes during retirement transition. Conclusions: In this study statutory retirement was associated with small changes in BMI. Weight loss was most visible in men retiring from sedentary jobs and weight gain in women retiring from diverse and physically heavy jobs.
  • Silventoinen, Karri; Li, Weilong; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Aaltonen, Sari; Piirtola, Maarit; Sugawara, Masumi; Tanaka, Mami; Matsumoto, Satoko; Baker, Laura A.; Tuvblad, Catherine; Tynelius, Per; Rasmussen, Finn; Craig, Jeffrey M.; Saffery, Richard; Willemsen, Gonneke; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E.M.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Krueger, Robert F.; McGue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten O.; Saudino, Kimberly J.; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Ullemar, Vilhelmina; Almqvist, Catarina; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Corley, Robin P.; Huibregtse, Brooke M.; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Haworth, Claire M.A.; Plomin, Robert; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Duncan, Glen E.; Buchwald, Dedra; Burt, S. Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L.; Llewellyn, Clare H.; Fisher, Abigail; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Kaprio, Jaakko (2022)
    Background: Body mass index (BMI) shows strong continuity over childhood and adolescence and high childhood BMI is the strongest predictor of adult obesity. Genetic factors strongly contribute to this continuity, but it is still poorly known how their contribution changes over childhood and adolescence. Thus, we used the genetic twin design to estimate the genetic correlations of BMI from infancy to adulthood and compared them to the genetic correlations of height. Methods: We pooled individual level data from 25 longitudinal twin cohorts including 38,530 complete twin pairs and having 283,766 longitudinal height and weight measures. The data were analyzed using Cholesky decomposition offering genetic and environmental correlations of BMI and height between all age combinations from 1 to 19 years of age. Results: The genetic correlations of BMI and height were stronger than the trait correlations. For BMI, we found that genetic correlations decreased as the age between the assessments increased, a trend that was especially visible from early to middle childhood. In contrast, for height, the genetic correlations were strong between all ages. Age-to-age correlations between environmental factors shared by co-twins were found for BMI in early childhood but disappeared altogether by middle childhood. For height, shared environmental correlations persisted from infancy to adulthood. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the genes affecting BMI change over childhood and adolescence leading to decreasing age-to-age genetic correlations. This change is especially visible from early to middle childhood indicating that new genetic factors start to affect BMI in middle childhood. Identifying mediating pathways of these genetic factors can open possibilities for interventions, especially for those children with high genetic predisposition to adult obesity.
  • Masip, Guiomar; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Kujala, Urho M.; Rottensteiner, Mirva; Väisänen, Karoliina; Kaprio, Jaakko; Bogl, Leonie H. (2019)
    We constructed a food-based diet quality score (DQS) and examined its association with obesity measures, eating styles and nutrient intakes. Participants were 3592 individuals (764 dizygotic [DZ] and 430 monozygotic [MZ] twin pairs) from the FinnTwin16 study. The DQS (0-12 points) was constructed from a short 14 item food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric measures and eating styles were self-reported. Nutrient intakes were calculated from food diaries completed in a subsample of 249 individuals (45 same-sex DZ and 60 MZ twin pairs). Twins were analyzed both as individuals and as twin pairs. The DQS was inversely associated with body mass index (beta = -0.12, per one-unit increase in DQS, p <0.001), waist circumference (beta = -0.34, p <0.001), obesity (odds ratio [OR]: 0.95, p = 0.004) and abdominal obesity (OR: 0.88, p <0.001), independent of sex, age, physical activity and education. A higher DQS was associated with health-conscious eating, having breakfast, less snacking, fewer evening meals, and a higher frequency and regularity of eating. The DQS was positively correlated with the intakes of protein, fiber and magnesium and negatively correlated with the intakes of total fat, saturated fat and sucrose. Within twin pairs, most of the associations between the DQS with eating styles and some nutrients remained, but the DQS was not associated with obesity measures within twin pairs. The DQS is an easy-to-use tool for ranking adults according to diet quality and shows an association with obesity measures, eating styles and key nutrients in the expected direction.
  • Dubois, Lise; Diasparra, Maikol; Bogl, Leonie-Helen; Fontaine-Bisson, Benedicte; Bedard, Brigitte; Tremblay, Richard E.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Boivin, Michel (2016)
    There is a lack of evidence pointing to specific dietary elements related to weight gain and obesity prevention in childhood and adulthood. Dietary intake and obesity are both inherited and culturally transmitted, but most prospective studies on the association between diet and weight status do not take genetics into consideration. The objective of this study was to document the association between dietary intake at 9 years and subsequent Body Mass Index (BMI) in adolescent monozygotic boy and girl twin pairs. This research used data from 152 twin pairs. Dietary data were collected from two 24-hour-recall interviews with a parent and the child aged 9 years. Height and weight were obtained when the twins were aged 9, 12, 13, and 14 years. Intrapair variability analysis was performed to identify dietary elements related to BMI changes in subsequent years. BMI-discordant monozygotic twin pairs were also identified to analyze the dietary constituents that may have generated the discordance. After eliminating potential confounding genetic factors, pre-adolescent boys who ate fewer grain products and fruit and consumed more high-fat meat and milk had higher BMIs during adolescence; pre-adolescent girls who consumed more grain products and high-fat meat and milk had higher BMIs during adolescence. Energy intake (EI) at 9 years was not related to BMI in subsequent years. Our study suggests that messages and interventions directed at obesity prevention could take advantage of sex-specific designs and, eventually, genetic information.
  • Silventoinen, Karri; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E.; Mack, Thomas M.; Honda, Chika; Inui, Fujio; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Mikio; Tomizawa, Rie; Pietilainen, Kirsi H.; Rissanen, Aila; Siribaddana, Sisira H.; Hotopf, Matthew; Sumathipala, Athula; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Tan, Qihua; Zhang, Dongfeng; Pang, Zengchang; Piirtola, Maarit; Aaltonen, Sari; Oncel, Sevgi Y.; Aliev, Fazil; Rebato, Esther; Hjelmborg, Jacob B.; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten O.; Silberg, Judy L.; Eaves, Lindon J.; Cutler, Tessa L.; Ordonana, Juan R.; Sanchez-Romera, Juan F.; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Song, Yun-Mi; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Kayoung; Franz, Carol E.; Kremen, William S.; Lyons, Michael J.; Busjahn, Andreas; Nelson, Tracy L.; Whitfield, Keith E.; Kandler, Christian; Jang, Kerry L.; Gatz, Margaret; Butler, David A.; Stazi, Maria A.; Fagnani, Corrado; D'Ippolito, Cristina; Duncan, Glen E.; Buchwald, Dedra; Martin, Nicholas G.; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Jeong, Hoe-Uk; Swan, Gary E.; Krasnow, Ruth; Magnusson, Patrik Ke; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Aslan, Anna K. Dahl; McAdams, Tom A.; Eley, Thalia C.; Gregory, Alice M.; Tynelius, Per; Baker, Laura A.; Tuvblad, Catherine; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol; Spector, Timothy D.; Mangino, Massimo; Lachance, Genevieve; Burt, S. Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L.; Harris, Jennifer R.; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas S.; Krueger, Robert F.; Mcgue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Corley, Robin P.; Huibregtse, Brooke M.; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E. M.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Goldberg, Jack H.; Rasmussen, Finn; Tarnoki, Adam D.; Tarnoki, David L.; Derom, Catherine A.; Vlietinck, Robert F.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Hopper, John L.; Sung, Joohon; Maes, Hermine H.; Turkheimer, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Kaprio, Jaakko (2017)
    Background: Genes and the environment contribute to variation in adult body mass index [BMI (in kg/m(2))], but factors modifying these variance components are poorly understood. Objective: We analyzed genetic and environmental variation in BMI between men and women from young adulthood to old age from the 1940s to the 2000s and between cultural-geographic regions representing high (North America and Australia), moderate (Europe), and low (East Asia) prevalence of obesity. Design: We used genetic structural equation modeling to analyze BMI in twins >= 20 y of age from 40 cohorts representing 20 countries (140,379 complete twin pairs). Results: The heritability of BMI decreased from 0.77 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.78) and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.75) in men and women 2029 y of age to 0.57 (95% CI: 0.54, 0.60) and 0.59 (95% CI: 0.53, 0.65) in men 70-79 y of age and women 80 y of age, respectively. The relative influence of unique environmental factors correspondingly increased. Differences in the sets of genes affecting BMI in men and women increased from 20-29 to 60-69 y of age. Mean BMI and variances in BMI increased from the 1940s to the 2000s and were greatest in North America and Australia, followed by Europe and East Asia. However, heritability estimates were largely similar over measurement years and between regions. There was no evidence of environmental factors shared by co-twins affecting BMI. Conclusions: The heritability of BMI decreased and differences in the sets of genes affecting BMI in men and women increased from young adulthood to old age. The heritability of BMI was largely similar between cultural-geographic regions and measurement years, despite large differences in mean BMI and variances in BMI. Our results show a strong influence of genetic factors on BMI, especially in early adulthood, regardless of the obesity level in the population.
  • Vehmeijer, Florianne O. L.; Kuepers, Leanne K.; Sharp, Gemma C.; Salas, Lucas A.; Lent, Samantha; Jima, Dereje D.; Tindula, Gwen; Reese, Sarah; Qi, Cancan; Gruzieva, Olena; Page, Christian; Rezwan, Faisal; Melton, Philip E.; Nohr, Ellen; Escaramis, Georgia; Rzehak, Peter; Heiskala, Anni; Gong, Tong; Tuominen, Samuli T.; Gao, Lu; Ross, Jason P.; Starling, Anne P.; Holloway, John W.; Yousefi, Paul; Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Beilin, Lawrence J.; Bergstrom, Anna; Binder, Elisabeth; Chatzi, Leda; Corpeleijn, Eva; Czamara, Darina; Eskenazi, Brenda; Ewart, Susan; Ferre, Natalia; Grote, Veit; Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Haberg, Siri E.; Hoyo, Cathrine; Huen, Karen; Karlsson, Robert; Kull, Inger; Langhendries, Jean-Paul; Lepeule, Johanna; Magnus, Maria C.; Maguire, Rachel L.; Molloy, Peter L.; Monnereau, Claire; Mori, Trevor A.; Oken, Emily; Räikkönen, Katri; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl; Ruiz-Arenas, Carlos; Sebert, Sylvain; Ullemar, Vilhelmina; Verduci, Elvira; Vonk, Judith M.; Xu, Cheng-jian; Yang, Ivana; Zhang, Hongmei; Zhang, Weiming; Karmaus, Wilfried; Dabelea, Dana; Muhlhausler, Beverly S.; Breton, Carrie; Lahti, Jari; Almqvist, Catarina; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Koletzko, Berthold; Vrijheid, Martine; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Huang, Rae-Chi; Arshad, Syed Hasan; Nystad, Wenche; Melen, Erik; Koppelman, Gerard H.; London, Stephanie J.; Holland, Nina; Bustamante, Mariona; Murphy, Susan K.; Hivert, Marie-France; Baccarelli, Andrea; Relton, Caroline L.; Snieder, Harold; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Felix, Janine F. (2020)
    Background DNA methylation has been shown to be associated with adiposity in adulthood. However, whether similar DNA methylation patterns are associated with childhood and adolescent body mass index (BMI) is largely unknown. More insight into this relationship at younger ages may have implications for future prevention of obesity and its related traits. Methods We examined whether DNA methylation in cord blood and whole blood in childhood and adolescence was associated with BMI in the age range from 2 to 18 years using both cross-sectional and longitudinal models. We performed meta-analyses of epigenome-wide association studies including up to 4133 children from 23 studies. We examined the overlap of findings reported in previous studies in children and adults with those in our analyses and calculated enrichment. Results DNA methylation at three CpGs (cg05937453, cg25212453, and cg10040131), each in a different age range, was associated with BMI at Bonferroni significance, P <1.06 x 10(-7), with a 0.96 standard deviation score (SDS) (standard error (SE) 0.17), 0.32 SDS (SE 0.06), and 0.32 BMI SDS (SE 0.06) higher BMI per 10% increase in methylation, respectively. DNA methylation at nine additional CpGs in the cross-sectional childhood model was associated with BMI at false discovery rate significance. The strength of the associations of DNA methylation at the 187 CpGs previously identified to be associated with adult BMI, increased with advancing age across childhood and adolescence in our analyses. In addition, correlation coefficients between effect estimates for those CpGs in adults and in children and adolescents also increased. Among the top findings for each age range, we observed increasing enrichment for the CpGs that were previously identified in adults (birth P-enrichment = 1; childhood P-enrichment = 2.00 x 10(-4); adolescence P-enrichment = 2.10 x 10(-7)). Conclusions There were only minimal associations of DNA methylation with childhood and adolescent BMI. With the advancing age of the participants across childhood and adolescence, we observed increasing overlap with altered DNA methylation loci reported in association with adult BMI. These findings may be compatible with the hypothesis that DNA methylation differences are mostly a consequence rather than a cause of obesity.
  • Serlachius, Anna; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Juonala, Markus; Sabin, Matthew; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Elovainio, Marko (2017)
    Objective: The transmission of overweight from one generation to the next is well established, however little is known about what psychosocial factors may protect against this familial risk. The aim of this study was to examine whether optimism plays a role in the intergenerational transmission of obesity. Methods: Our sample included 1043 participants from the prospective Cardiovascular Risk in Young FINNS Study. Optimism was measured in early adulthood (2001) when the cohort was aged 24-39 years. BMI was measured in 2001 (baseline) and 2012 when they were aged 35-50 years. Parental BMI was measured in 1980. Hierarchical linear regression and logistic regression were used to examine the association between optimism and future BMI/obesity, and whether an interaction existed between optimism and parental BMI when predicting BMI/obesity 11 years later. Results: High optimism in young adulthood demonstrated a negative relationship with high BMI in mid-adulthood, but only in women (beta = - 0.127, p = 0.001). The optimism x maternal BMI interaction term was a significant predictor of future BMI in women (beta = 0.588, p = 0.036). The logistic regression results confirmed that high optimism predicted reduced obesity in women (OR = 0.68, 95% CI, 0.55-0.86), however the optimism x maternal obesity interaction term was not a significant predictor (OR = 0.50, 95% CI, 0.10-2.48). Conclusions: Our findings supported our hypothesis that high optimism mitigated the intergenerational transmission of high BMI, but only in women. These findings also provided evidence that positive psychosocial factors such as optimism are associated with long-term protective effects on BMI in women.
  • Fan, Yuxin; Li, Weiqin; Liu, Huikun; Wang, Leishen; Zhang, Shuang; Liu, Hongyan; Leng, Junhong; Shen, Yun; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Yu, Zhijie; Yang, Xilin; Liu, Ming; Hu, Gang (2019)
    Objective: To evaluate the independent or combined effects of gestational diabetes (GDM) and pre-pregnancy and postpartum BMI on the odds of postpartum diabetes and hyperglycemia. Methods: The study samples included 1263 women with prior GDM and 705 women without GDM. Postpartum 1-7 years diabetes was diagnosed by the standard oral glucose tolerance test. Results: The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios among women with prior GDM, compared with those without it, were 7.52 for diabetes and 2.27 for hyperglycemia. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios at different postpartum BMI levels (= 28 kg/m(2)) were 1.00, 2.80, and 8.08 for diabetes (P-trend <0.001), and 1.00, 2.10, and 4.42 for hyperglycemia (P-trend <0.001), respectively. Women with high body fat (>= 31.9%) or abdominal obesity (>= 85 cm) had a 2.7-6.9-fold higher odds ratio for diabetes or hyperglycemia. Women with both obesity and prior GDM had the highest risk of diabetes or hyperglycemia compared with non-obese women without GDM. Non-obese women with prior GDM had the same risk of diabetes and hyperglycemia as non-GDM women with obesity. When using Cox regression models, the results were very close to those using logistic regression models. Conclusions: Maternal prior GDM and pre-pregnancy or postpartum obesity contribute equally to postpartum diabetes and hyperglycemia risk. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Jalo, Elli; Konttinen, Hanna; Vepsalainen, Henna; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Hu, Gang; Maher, Carol; Maia, José; Sarmiento, Olga L.; Standage, Martyn; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Fogelholm, Mikael (2019)
    Eating in response to negative emotions (emotional eating, EE) may predispose an individual to obesity. Yet, it is not well known how EE in children is associated with body mass index (BMI) and health behaviours (i.e., diet, physical activity, sleep, and TV-viewing). In the present study, we examined these associations in a cross-sectional sample of 5426 (54% girls) 9-11-year-old children from 12 countries and five continents. EE, food consumption, and TV-viewing were measured using self-administered questionnaires, and physical activity and nocturnal sleep duration were measured with accelerometers. BMI was calculated using measured weights and heights. EE factor scores were computed using confirmatory factor analysis, and dietary patterns were identified using principal components analysis. The associations of EE with health behaviours and BMI z-scores were analyzed using multilevel models including age, gender, and household income as covariates. EE was positively and consistently (across 12 study sites) associated with an unhealthy dietary pattern ( = 0.29, SE = 0.02, p <0.0001), suggesting that the association is not restricted to Western countries. Positive associations between EE and physical activity and TV viewing were not consistent across sites. Results tended to be similar in boys and girls. EE was unrelated to BMI in this sample, but prospective studies are needed to determine whether higher EE in children predicts the development of undesirable dietary patterns and obesity over time.
  • IDEFICS I Family Consortia; Stahlmann, Katharina; Lissner, Lauren; Bogl, Leonie H.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Hunsberger, Monica (2022)
    Background Living in single parent and blended families or as an only child-compared to living in two-parent biological families or with siblings, respectively-is associated with a higher body mass index (BMI) in cross-sectional studies. However, longitudinal research addressing the children's BMI in this context is scarce. Further, little is known about the association between family structure and metabolic health. Objectives This study aimed at investigating the association between both aspects of family structure with BMI and a metabolic score (MetS). Methods Cross-sectional data from 7804 children participating in the European multi-center I.Family study (2013/2014) and longitudinal data from 5621 children who also participated previously in the IDEFICS study (2007-2010) were used. Family structure was assessed by a detailed interview. BMI z-score and the MetS were based on measured anthropometry, blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein, blood glucose, and triglycerides. Linear regressions were performed to model associations between family structure with BMI and MetS. Results Children from single-parent families had higher BMI z-scores in the cross-sectional (beta = 0.09, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.001 to 0.18) and longitudinal analyses compared to those from two-parent families. Cross-sectionally, the number of siblings was associated with lower BMI z-scores (beta = -0.07, 95% CI: -0.10 to -0.03) and lower MetS (beta = -0.14, 95% CI: -0.26 to -0.01). Longitudinally, only children between baseline and follow-up had higher BMI z-scores at follow-up (beta = 0.07, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.14) compared to stable siblings. Conclusion Obesity prevention measures should focus on single-parent households and families with an only child.
  • Lommi, Sohvi; Figueiredo, Rejane Augusta de Oliveira; Tuorila, Hely; Viljakainen, Heli (2020)
    Convincing evidence suggests that diets laden with added sugar, specifically sugar-sweetened beverages, associate with excess weight in children. The relationships between sugar consumption frequency and BMI remain less well studied. We, therefore, evaluated children's consumption frequency of selected sugary products (n8461; mean age 11 center dot 1 (sd0 center dot 9) years) selected from the Finnish Health in Teens cohort study. Using a sixteen-item FFQ including six sugary products (chocolate/sweets, biscuits/cookies, ice cream, sweet pastry, sugary juice drinks and sugary soft drinks), we calculated a Sweet Treat Index (STI) for the frequency of weekly sugary product consumption and categorised children based on quartiles (Q) into low (Q1, cut-off <4 center dot 0), medium (Q2 + Q3, range 4 center dot 0-10 center dot 5) and high STI (Q4, cut-off > 10 center dot 5), and as thin, normal and overweight/obese based on the measured BMI. Through multinomial logistic regression analyses, we found that subjects with a high STI exhibited a higher risk of being thin (OR 1 center dot 20, 95 % CI 1 center dot 02, 1 center dot 41) and lower risk of being overweight (OR 0 center dot 79, 95 % CI 0 center dot 67, 0 center dot 92), while subjects with a low STI were at higher risk of being overweight (OR 1 center dot 32, 95 % CI 1 center dot 14, 1 center dot 53). High consumption frequencies of salty snacks, pizza and hamburgers most closely were associated with a high STI. Our findings suggest that consuming sugary products at a high frequency does not associate with being overweight. The relationship between a low consumption frequency and being overweight suggests that overweight children's consumption frequency of sugary products may be controlled, restricted or underreported.