Browsing by Subject "BMI"

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  • Leinonen, Jaakko T.; Surakka, Ida; Havulinna, Aki S.; Kettunen, Johannes; Luoto, Riitta; Salomaa, Veikko; Widen, Elisabeth (2012)
  • Miettinen, Ossi; Kämppi, Antti; Tanner, Tarja; Anttonen, Vuokko; Patinen, Pertti; Pakkila, Jari; Tjäderhane, Leo; Sipilä, Kirsi (2021)
    Studies on the role of physical fitness, physical activity and obesity as risk factors for temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are scarce. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of TMD symptoms with physical fitness, physical activity and body mass index (BMI) among Finnish conscripts. The study sample consisted of 8685 Finnish conscripts. Data on self-reported TMD symptoms were used as outcome variables. Physical activity (questionnaire), physical fitness (measured with physical tests: Cooper test, push-ups, sit-ups and standing long jump) and body mass index (BMI) were used as explanatory variables. The associations between TMD symptoms and explanatory variables were evaluated using Chi-squared test and logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of all TMD symptoms was significantly higher among those who exercised more rarely than weekly. Pain-related TMD symptoms were also significantly more frequent among those who were overweight (BMI >= 25). Poor push-up results and overweight (BMI >= 25) were significantly associated with jaw pain and TMJ pain at jaw rest. The present study showed that good physical fitness may be a protective factor against TMD pain. Dentists should also be prepared to motivate TMD patients to physical activity and regular exercise as part of the treatment.
  • Salmela, Jatta Helena; Mauramo, Elina; Lallukka, Tea; Rahkonen, Ossi; Kanerva, Noora (2019)
    Objective: Childhood disadvantage is associated with a higher risk of adult obesity, but little is known about its associations with body mass index (BMI) trajectories during adulthood. This study aimed first to identify adulthood BMI trajectories, and second to investigate how childhood disadvantage is associated with trajectory group membership. Methods: Data from the Helsinki Health Study, a longitudinal cohort study of initially 40- to 60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki in Finland, were used. The baseline survey was conducted in 2000–2002, and similar follow-up surveys in 2007, 2012, and 2017. Based on self-reported BMI, participants’ (n =5,266; 83% women) BMI trajectories, including their retrospectively reported BMI at the age of 25 years, were examined. Data on childhood disadvantage, including parental education and 7 types of childhood adversity (their own serious illness; parental divorce, death, mental disorder, or alcohol problems; economic difficulties at home; and peer group bullying) before the age of 16 years, were obtained from the baseline survey. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to identify BMI trajectories, and multinomial logistic regression to analyze the odds for trajectory group membership for the disadvantage variables. Results: Four ascending BMI trajectories in women and men were found: persistent normal weight (trajectory 1; women 35% and men 25%), normal weight to overweight (trajectory 2; women 41% and men 48%), normal weight to class I obesity (trajectory 3; women 19% and men 23%) and overweight to class II obesity (trajectory 4; women 5% and men 4%). Compared to trajectory 1, women with multiple adversities and repetitive peer bullying in childhood had greater odds of belonging to trajectories 3 and 4, whereas men with parental alcohol problems had greater odds of belonging to trajectory 4. For women and men, a low level of parental education was associated with a higher-level BMI trajectory. Conclusions: Low parental education for both genders, multiple adversities and repetitive peer bullying in childhood among women, and parental alcohol problems among men increased the odds of developing obesity during adulthood. Further studies are needed to clarify how gender differences modify the effects of childhood disadvantage on adult BMI trajectories.
  • Teisala, Tiina; Mutikainen, Sara; Tolvanen, Asko; Rottensteiner, Mirva; Leskinen, Tuija; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Rusko, Heikki; Kujala, Urho M. (2014)
    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate how physical activity (PA), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and body composition are associated with heart rate variability (HRV)-based indicators of stress and recovery on workdays. Additionally, we evaluated the association of objectively measured stress with self-reported burnout symptoms. METHODS: Participants of this cross-sectional study were 81 healthy males (age range 26-40 y). Stress and recovery on workdays were measured objectively based on HRV recordings. CRF and anthropometry were assessed in laboratory conditions. The level of PA was based on a detailed PA interview (MET index [MET-h/d]) and self-reported activity class. RESULTS: PA, CRF, and body composition were significantly associated with levels of stress and recovery on workdays. MET index (P < 0.001), activity class (P = 0.001), and CRF (P = 0.019) were negatively associated with stress during working hours whereas body fat percentage (P = 0.005) was positively associated. Overall, 27.5% of the variance of total stress on workdays (P = 0.001) was accounted for by PA, CRF, and body composition. Body fat percentage and body mass index were negatively associated with night-time recovery whereas CRF was positively associated. Objective work stress was associated (P = 0.003) with subjective burnout symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: PA, CRF, and body composition are associated with HRV-based stress and recovery levels, which needs to be taken into account in the measurement, prevention, and treatment of work-related stress. The HRV-based method used to determine work-related stress and recovery was associated with self-reported burnout symptoms, but more research on the clinical importance of the methodology is needed.
  • Ruggiero, Salvatore; Kangas, Hanna-Liisa; Annala, Sari; Lazarevic, David (Elsevier, 2021)
    Environmental Innovation and Societal Transition 39
    Demand response (DR) is an innovation emerging at the intersection of the energy and information and communications technology sectors. This paper aims to investigate the drivers of—and differences in—business model innovation (BMI) behaviours of firms operating in these two interacting industries. Results from 22 semi-structured interviews with representatives of Finnish DR companies show that external drivers of BMI include regulation, competition, and the demise of the telecom industry following the fall of Nokia. Whereas technology start-ups and companies from adjacent industries are motivated by entrepreneurial opportunities, incumbent energy companies are driven by the threat of losing their existing customers and need to increase efficiency. The BMI behaviours observed do not fall neatly into the often-used dichotomous categories of niche/new entrant and regime/incumbent, as firms show behaviours from both extremes. To overcome this binary thinking, we propose a morphological box model that represents the extreme states of firm BMI while allowing for flexibility.
  • Stenholm, Sari; Solovieva, Svetlana; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Aalto, Ville; Kivimaki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi (2017)
    Background: Retirement is a major life transition affecting health behaviors. The aim of this study was to examine within-individual changes in body mass index (BMI) during transition from full-time work to statutory retirement by sex and physical work characteristics. Methods: A multiwave cohort study repeated every 4 years and data linkage to records from retirement registers. Participants were 5426 Finnish public-sector employees who retired on a statutory basis in 2000-2011 and who reported their body weight one to three times prior to (w(-3), w(-2), w(-1)), and one to three times after (w(+1), w(+2), w(+3)) retirement. Results: During the 4-year retirement transition (w(+1), vs. w(-1)) men showed decline in BMI, which was most marked among men with sedentary work (-0.18 kg/m(2), 95% CI -.30 to -0.05). In contrast, BMI increased during retirement transition in women and was most marked among women with diverse (0.14 kg/m(2), 95% CI 0.08 to 0.20) or physically heavy work (0.31 kg/m(2), 95% CI 0.16 to 0.45). Physical activity during leisure time or commuting to work, alcohol consumption or smoking did not explain the observed changes during retirement transition. Conclusions: In this study statutory retirement was associated with small changes in BMI. Weight loss was most visible in men retiring from sedentary jobs and weight gain in women retiring from diverse and physically heavy jobs.
  • Stenholm, Sari; Solovieva, Svetlana; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Aalto, Ville; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background Retirement is a major life transition affecting health behaviors. The aim of this study was to examine within-individual changes in body mass index (BMI) during transition from full-time work to statutory retirement by sex and physical work characteristics. Methods A multiwave cohort study repeated every 4 years and data linkage to records from retirement registers. Participants were 5426 Finnish public-sector employees who retired on a statutory basis in 2000–2011 and who reported their body weight one to three times prior to (w−3, w−2, w−1), and one to three times after (w+1, w+2, w+3) retirement. Results During the 4-year retirement transition (w+1, vs. w−1) men showed decline in BMI, which was most marked among men with sedentary work (−0.18 kg/m2, 95% CI −.30 to −0.05). In contrast, BMI increased during retirement transition in women and was most marked among women with diverse (0.14 kg/m2, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.20) or physically heavy work (0.31 kg/m2, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.45). Physical activity during leisure time or commuting to work, alcohol consumption or smoking did not explain the observed changes during retirement transition. Conclusions In this study statutory retirement was associated with small changes in BMI. Weight loss was most visible in men retiring from sedentary jobs and weight gain in women retiring from diverse and physically heavy jobs.
  • Masip, Guiomar; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Kujala, Urho M.; Rottensteiner, Mirva; Väisänen, Karoliina; Kaprio, Jaakko; Bogl, Leonie H. (2019)
    We constructed a food-based diet quality score (DQS) and examined its association with obesity measures, eating styles and nutrient intakes. Participants were 3592 individuals (764 dizygotic [DZ] and 430 monozygotic [MZ] twin pairs) from the FinnTwin16 study. The DQS (0-12 points) was constructed from a short 14 item food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric measures and eating styles were self-reported. Nutrient intakes were calculated from food diaries completed in a subsample of 249 individuals (45 same-sex DZ and 60 MZ twin pairs). Twins were analyzed both as individuals and as twin pairs. The DQS was inversely associated with body mass index (beta = -0.12, per one-unit increase in DQS, p <0.001), waist circumference (beta = -0.34, p <0.001), obesity (odds ratio [OR]: 0.95, p = 0.004) and abdominal obesity (OR: 0.88, p <0.001), independent of sex, age, physical activity and education. A higher DQS was associated with health-conscious eating, having breakfast, less snacking, fewer evening meals, and a higher frequency and regularity of eating. The DQS was positively correlated with the intakes of protein, fiber and magnesium and negatively correlated with the intakes of total fat, saturated fat and sucrose. Within twin pairs, most of the associations between the DQS with eating styles and some nutrients remained, but the DQS was not associated with obesity measures within twin pairs. The DQS is an easy-to-use tool for ranking adults according to diet quality and shows an association with obesity measures, eating styles and key nutrients in the expected direction.
  • Dubois, Lise; Diasparra, Maikol; Bogl, Leonie-Helen; Fontaine-Bisson, Benedicte; Bedard, Brigitte; Tremblay, Richard E.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Boivin, Michel (2016)
    There is a lack of evidence pointing to specific dietary elements related to weight gain and obesity prevention in childhood and adulthood. Dietary intake and obesity are both inherited and culturally transmitted, but most prospective studies on the association between diet and weight status do not take genetics into consideration. The objective of this study was to document the association between dietary intake at 9 years and subsequent Body Mass Index (BMI) in adolescent monozygotic boy and girl twin pairs. This research used data from 152 twin pairs. Dietary data were collected from two 24-hour-recall interviews with a parent and the child aged 9 years. Height and weight were obtained when the twins were aged 9, 12, 13, and 14 years. Intrapair variability analysis was performed to identify dietary elements related to BMI changes in subsequent years. BMI-discordant monozygotic twin pairs were also identified to analyze the dietary constituents that may have generated the discordance. After eliminating potential confounding genetic factors, pre-adolescent boys who ate fewer grain products and fruit and consumed more high-fat meat and milk had higher BMIs during adolescence; pre-adolescent girls who consumed more grain products and high-fat meat and milk had higher BMIs during adolescence. Energy intake (EI) at 9 years was not related to BMI in subsequent years. Our study suggests that messages and interventions directed at obesity prevention could take advantage of sex-specific designs and, eventually, genetic information.
  • Silventoinen, Karri; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E.; Mack, Thomas M.; Honda, Chika; Inui, Fujio; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Mikio; Tomizawa, Rie; Pietilainen, Kirsi H.; Rissanen, Aila; Siribaddana, Sisira H.; Hotopf, Matthew; Sumathipala, Athula; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Tan, Qihua; Zhang, Dongfeng; Pang, Zengchang; Piirtola, Maarit; Aaltonen, Sari; Oncel, Sevgi Y.; Aliev, Fazil; Rebato, Esther; Hjelmborg, Jacob B.; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten O.; Silberg, Judy L.; Eaves, Lindon J.; Cutler, Tessa L.; Ordonana, Juan R.; Sanchez-Romera, Juan F.; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Song, Yun-Mi; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Kayoung; Franz, Carol E.; Kremen, William S.; Lyons, Michael J.; Busjahn, Andreas; Nelson, Tracy L.; Whitfield, Keith E.; Kandler, Christian; Jang, Kerry L.; Gatz, Margaret; Butler, David A.; Stazi, Maria A.; Fagnani, Corrado; D'Ippolito, Cristina; Duncan, Glen E.; Buchwald, Dedra; Martin, Nicholas G.; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Jeong, Hoe-Uk; Swan, Gary E.; Krasnow, Ruth; Magnusson, Patrik Ke; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Aslan, Anna K. Dahl; McAdams, Tom A.; Eley, Thalia C.; Gregory, Alice M.; Tynelius, Per; Baker, Laura A.; Tuvblad, Catherine; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol; Spector, Timothy D.; Mangino, Massimo; Lachance, Genevieve; Burt, S. Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L.; Harris, Jennifer R.; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas S.; Krueger, Robert F.; Mcgue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Corley, Robin P.; Huibregtse, Brooke M.; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E. M.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Goldberg, Jack H.; Rasmussen, Finn; Tarnoki, Adam D.; Tarnoki, David L.; Derom, Catherine A.; Vlietinck, Robert F.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Hopper, John L.; Sung, Joohon; Maes, Hermine H.; Turkheimer, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Kaprio, Jaakko (2017)
    Background: Genes and the environment contribute to variation in adult body mass index [BMI (in kg/m(2))], but factors modifying these variance components are poorly understood. Objective: We analyzed genetic and environmental variation in BMI between men and women from young adulthood to old age from the 1940s to the 2000s and between cultural-geographic regions representing high (North America and Australia), moderate (Europe), and low (East Asia) prevalence of obesity. Design: We used genetic structural equation modeling to analyze BMI in twins >= 20 y of age from 40 cohorts representing 20 countries (140,379 complete twin pairs). Results: The heritability of BMI decreased from 0.77 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.78) and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.75) in men and women 2029 y of age to 0.57 (95% CI: 0.54, 0.60) and 0.59 (95% CI: 0.53, 0.65) in men 70-79 y of age and women 80 y of age, respectively. The relative influence of unique environmental factors correspondingly increased. Differences in the sets of genes affecting BMI in men and women increased from 20-29 to 60-69 y of age. Mean BMI and variances in BMI increased from the 1940s to the 2000s and were greatest in North America and Australia, followed by Europe and East Asia. However, heritability estimates were largely similar over measurement years and between regions. There was no evidence of environmental factors shared by co-twins affecting BMI. Conclusions: The heritability of BMI decreased and differences in the sets of genes affecting BMI in men and women increased from young adulthood to old age. The heritability of BMI was largely similar between cultural-geographic regions and measurement years, despite large differences in mean BMI and variances in BMI. Our results show a strong influence of genetic factors on BMI, especially in early adulthood, regardless of the obesity level in the population.
  • Vehmeijer, Florianne O. L.; Kuepers, Leanne K.; Sharp, Gemma C.; Salas, Lucas A.; Lent, Samantha; Jima, Dereje D.; Tindula, Gwen; Reese, Sarah; Qi, Cancan; Gruzieva, Olena; Page, Christian; Rezwan, Faisal; Melton, Philip E.; Nohr, Ellen; Escaramis, Georgia; Rzehak, Peter; Heiskala, Anni; Gong, Tong; Tuominen, Samuli T.; Gao, Lu; Ross, Jason P.; Starling, Anne P.; Holloway, John W.; Yousefi, Paul; Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Beilin, Lawrence J.; Bergstrom, Anna; Binder, Elisabeth; Chatzi, Leda; Corpeleijn, Eva; Czamara, Darina; Eskenazi, Brenda; Ewart, Susan; Ferre, Natalia; Grote, Veit; Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Haberg, Siri E.; Hoyo, Cathrine; Huen, Karen; Karlsson, Robert; Kull, Inger; Langhendries, Jean-Paul; Lepeule, Johanna; Magnus, Maria C.; Maguire, Rachel L.; Molloy, Peter L.; Monnereau, Claire; Mori, Trevor A.; Oken, Emily; Räikkönen, Katri; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl; Ruiz-Arenas, Carlos; Sebert, Sylvain; Ullemar, Vilhelmina; Verduci, Elvira; Vonk, Judith M.; Xu, Cheng-jian; Yang, Ivana; Zhang, Hongmei; Zhang, Weiming; Karmaus, Wilfried; Dabelea, Dana; Muhlhausler, Beverly S.; Breton, Carrie; Lahti, Jari; Almqvist, Catarina; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Koletzko, Berthold; Vrijheid, Martine; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Huang, Rae-Chi; Arshad, Syed Hasan; Nystad, Wenche; Melen, Erik; Koppelman, Gerard H.; London, Stephanie J.; Holland, Nina; Bustamante, Mariona; Murphy, Susan K.; Hivert, Marie-France; Baccarelli, Andrea; Relton, Caroline L.; Snieder, Harold; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Felix, Janine F. (2020)
    Background DNA methylation has been shown to be associated with adiposity in adulthood. However, whether similar DNA methylation patterns are associated with childhood and adolescent body mass index (BMI) is largely unknown. More insight into this relationship at younger ages may have implications for future prevention of obesity and its related traits. Methods We examined whether DNA methylation in cord blood and whole blood in childhood and adolescence was associated with BMI in the age range from 2 to 18 years using both cross-sectional and longitudinal models. We performed meta-analyses of epigenome-wide association studies including up to 4133 children from 23 studies. We examined the overlap of findings reported in previous studies in children and adults with those in our analyses and calculated enrichment. Results DNA methylation at three CpGs (cg05937453, cg25212453, and cg10040131), each in a different age range, was associated with BMI at Bonferroni significance, P <1.06 x 10(-7), with a 0.96 standard deviation score (SDS) (standard error (SE) 0.17), 0.32 SDS (SE 0.06), and 0.32 BMI SDS (SE 0.06) higher BMI per 10% increase in methylation, respectively. DNA methylation at nine additional CpGs in the cross-sectional childhood model was associated with BMI at false discovery rate significance. The strength of the associations of DNA methylation at the 187 CpGs previously identified to be associated with adult BMI, increased with advancing age across childhood and adolescence in our analyses. In addition, correlation coefficients between effect estimates for those CpGs in adults and in children and adolescents also increased. Among the top findings for each age range, we observed increasing enrichment for the CpGs that were previously identified in adults (birth P-enrichment = 1; childhood P-enrichment = 2.00 x 10(-4); adolescence P-enrichment = 2.10 x 10(-7)). Conclusions There were only minimal associations of DNA methylation with childhood and adolescent BMI. With the advancing age of the participants across childhood and adolescence, we observed increasing overlap with altered DNA methylation loci reported in association with adult BMI. These findings may be compatible with the hypothesis that DNA methylation differences are mostly a consequence rather than a cause of obesity.
  • Serlachius, Anna; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Juonala, Markus; Sabin, Matthew; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Elovainio, Marko (2017)
    Objective: The transmission of overweight from one generation to the next is well established, however little is known about what psychosocial factors may protect against this familial risk. The aim of this study was to examine whether optimism plays a role in the intergenerational transmission of obesity. Methods: Our sample included 1043 participants from the prospective Cardiovascular Risk in Young FINNS Study. Optimism was measured in early adulthood (2001) when the cohort was aged 24-39 years. BMI was measured in 2001 (baseline) and 2012 when they were aged 35-50 years. Parental BMI was measured in 1980. Hierarchical linear regression and logistic regression were used to examine the association between optimism and future BMI/obesity, and whether an interaction existed between optimism and parental BMI when predicting BMI/obesity 11 years later. Results: High optimism in young adulthood demonstrated a negative relationship with high BMI in mid-adulthood, but only in women (beta = - 0.127, p = 0.001). The optimism x maternal BMI interaction term was a significant predictor of future BMI in women (beta = 0.588, p = 0.036). The logistic regression results confirmed that high optimism predicted reduced obesity in women (OR = 0.68, 95% CI, 0.55-0.86), however the optimism x maternal obesity interaction term was not a significant predictor (OR = 0.50, 95% CI, 0.10-2.48). Conclusions: Our findings supported our hypothesis that high optimism mitigated the intergenerational transmission of high BMI, but only in women. These findings also provided evidence that positive psychosocial factors such as optimism are associated with long-term protective effects on BMI in women.
  • Fan, Yuxin; Li, Weiqin; Liu, Huikun; Wang, Leishen; Zhang, Shuang; Liu, Hongyan; Leng, Junhong; Shen, Yun; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Yu, Zhijie; Yang, Xilin; Liu, Ming; Hu, Gang (2019)
    Objective: To evaluate the independent or combined effects of gestational diabetes (GDM) and pre-pregnancy and postpartum BMI on the odds of postpartum diabetes and hyperglycemia. Methods: The study samples included 1263 women with prior GDM and 705 women without GDM. Postpartum 1-7 years diabetes was diagnosed by the standard oral glucose tolerance test. Results: The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios among women with prior GDM, compared with those without it, were 7.52 for diabetes and 2.27 for hyperglycemia. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios at different postpartum BMI levels (= 28 kg/m(2)) were 1.00, 2.80, and 8.08 for diabetes (P-trend <0.001), and 1.00, 2.10, and 4.42 for hyperglycemia (P-trend <0.001), respectively. Women with high body fat (>= 31.9%) or abdominal obesity (>= 85 cm) had a 2.7-6.9-fold higher odds ratio for diabetes or hyperglycemia. Women with both obesity and prior GDM had the highest risk of diabetes or hyperglycemia compared with non-obese women without GDM. Non-obese women with prior GDM had the same risk of diabetes and hyperglycemia as non-GDM women with obesity. When using Cox regression models, the results were very close to those using logistic regression models. Conclusions: Maternal prior GDM and pre-pregnancy or postpartum obesity contribute equally to postpartum diabetes and hyperglycemia risk. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Jalo, Elli; Konttinen, Hanna; Vepsalainen, Henna; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Hu, Gang; Maher, Carol; Maia, José; Sarmiento, Olga L.; Standage, Martyn; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Fogelholm, Mikael (2019)
    Eating in response to negative emotions (emotional eating, EE) may predispose an individual to obesity. Yet, it is not well known how EE in children is associated with body mass index (BMI) and health behaviours (i.e., diet, physical activity, sleep, and TV-viewing). In the present study, we examined these associations in a cross-sectional sample of 5426 (54% girls) 9-11-year-old children from 12 countries and five continents. EE, food consumption, and TV-viewing were measured using self-administered questionnaires, and physical activity and nocturnal sleep duration were measured with accelerometers. BMI was calculated using measured weights and heights. EE factor scores were computed using confirmatory factor analysis, and dietary patterns were identified using principal components analysis. The associations of EE with health behaviours and BMI z-scores were analyzed using multilevel models including age, gender, and household income as covariates. EE was positively and consistently (across 12 study sites) associated with an unhealthy dietary pattern ( = 0.29, SE = 0.02, p <0.0001), suggesting that the association is not restricted to Western countries. Positive associations between EE and physical activity and TV viewing were not consistent across sites. Results tended to be similar in boys and girls. EE was unrelated to BMI in this sample, but prospective studies are needed to determine whether higher EE in children predicts the development of undesirable dietary patterns and obesity over time.
  • Lommi, Sohvi; Figueiredo, Rejane Augusta de Oliveira; Tuorila, Hely; Viljakainen, Heli (2020)
    Convincing evidence suggests that diets laden with added sugar, specifically sugar-sweetened beverages, associate with excess weight in children. The relationships between sugar consumption frequency and BMI remain less well studied. We, therefore, evaluated children's consumption frequency of selected sugary products (n8461; mean age 11 center dot 1 (sd0 center dot 9) years) selected from the Finnish Health in Teens cohort study. Using a sixteen-item FFQ including six sugary products (chocolate/sweets, biscuits/cookies, ice cream, sweet pastry, sugary juice drinks and sugary soft drinks), we calculated a Sweet Treat Index (STI) for the frequency of weekly sugary product consumption and categorised children based on quartiles (Q) into low (Q1, cut-off <4 center dot 0), medium (Q2 + Q3, range 4 center dot 0-10 center dot 5) and high STI (Q4, cut-off > 10 center dot 5), and as thin, normal and overweight/obese based on the measured BMI. Through multinomial logistic regression analyses, we found that subjects with a high STI exhibited a higher risk of being thin (OR 1 center dot 20, 95 % CI 1 center dot 02, 1 center dot 41) and lower risk of being overweight (OR 0 center dot 79, 95 % CI 0 center dot 67, 0 center dot 92), while subjects with a low STI were at higher risk of being overweight (OR 1 center dot 32, 95 % CI 1 center dot 14, 1 center dot 53). High consumption frequencies of salty snacks, pizza and hamburgers most closely were associated with a high STI. Our findings suggest that consuming sugary products at a high frequency does not associate with being overweight. The relationship between a low consumption frequency and being overweight suggests that overweight children's consumption frequency of sugary products may be controlled, restricted or underreported.
  • Markkanen, Helene M.; Pekkarinen, Tuula; Hamalainen, Esa; Valimaki, Matti J.; Alfthan, Henrik V.; Stenman, Ulf-Hakan (2017)
    Objective: Data on the effect of gender on the interpretation of the GHRH plus arginine stimulation test (GHRH + ARG test) is controversial. We validated the GHRH + ARG stimulation test in control subjects and patients with organic or idiopathic pituitary disease and a suspicion of adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) using the Immulite 2000 XPi GH assay. Design: We studied 126 apparently healthy adults (median age 38.8 years) and 34 patients with a suspicion of AGHD (median age 42.2 years). Identification of AGHD with the GHRH + ARG test was investigated with commonly accepted BMI-related consensus cut-off limits for peak GH concentrations. Serum samples collected during the GHRH + ARG test were analysed for GH in 2014-2015. Serum IGF-1 concentrations were studied as a reference. Results: In 14 of 65 (22%) control males the GH peak value was below the BMI-related cut-off limits for GH sufficiency indicating a false diagnosis of AGHD. All control females had a normal GHRH + ARG response. Median peak GH response was significantly (p <0.001) higher in female (39.3 mu g/L) than in male controls (21 mu g/L). According to consensus cut-offs all but one young female patient had a deficient response compatible with a diagnosis of AGHD. Conclusions: The GH response to stimulation by GHRH + ARG is gender-dependent, being lower in healthy males than in females. Gender should be considered when defining cut-off limits for peak GH concentrations in the GHRH + ARG test. The presently used BMI-related cut-off levels will lead to a significant misclassification of males as GH deficient.
  • Konttinen, H.; Llewellyn, C.; Silventoinen, K.; Joensuu, A.; Männistö, S.; Salomaa, V.; Jousilahti, P.; Kaprio, J.; Perola, M.; Haukkala, A. (2018)
    OBJECTIVES: There is no consensus on whether cognitive control over food intake (that is, restrained eating) is helpful, merely ineffective or actually harmful in weight management. We examined the interplay between genetic risk of obesity, restrained eating and changes in body weight and size. METHODS: Participants were Finnish aged 25-74 years who attended the Dietary. Lifestyle and Genetic determinants of Obesity and Metabolic syndrome study at baseline in 2007 and follow-up in 2014. At baseline (n=5024), height, weight and waist circumference (WC) were measured in a health examination and participants self-reported their weight at age 20 years. At follow-up (n=3735), height, weight and WC were based on measured or self-reported information. We calculated 7-year change in body mass index (BMI) and WC and annual weight change from age 20 years to baseline. Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18 was used to assess restrained eating. Genetic risk of obesity was assessed by calculating a polygenic risk score of 97 known BMI-related loci. RESULTS: Cross-lagged autoregressive models indicated that baseline restrained eating was unrelated to 7-year change in BMI (beta=0.00; 95% confidence interval (CI) =-0.01, 0.02). Instead, higher baseline BMI predicted greater 7-year increases in restrained eating (beta = 0.08; 95% CI =0.05, 0.11). Similar results were obtained with WC. Polygenic risk score correlated positively with restrained eating and obesity indicators in both study phases, but it did not predict 7-year change in BMI or WC. However, individuals with higher genetic risk of obesity tended to gain more weight from age 20 years to baseline, and this association was more pronounced in unrestrained eaters than in restrained eaters (P=0.038 for interaction). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that restrained eating is a marker for previous weight gain rather than a factor that leads to future weight gain in middle-aged adults. Genetic influences on weight gain from early to middle adulthood may vary according to restrained eating, but this finding needs to be replicated in future studies.
  • Rounge, Trine B.; Page, Christian M.; Lepistö, Maija; Ellonen, Pekka; Andreassen, Bettina K.; Weiderpass, Elisabete (2016)
    Aim: We performed an epigenome-wide association study within the Finnish Health in Teens cohort to identify differential DNA methylation and its association with BMI in adolescents. Materials & methods: Differential DNA methylation analyses of 3.1 million CpG sites were performed in saliva samples from 50 lean and 50 heavy adolescent girls by genome-wide targeted bisulfite-sequencing. Results: We identified 100 CpG sites with p-values <0.000524, seven regions by 'bumphunting' and five CpG islands that differed significantly between the two groups. The ten CpG sites and regions most strongly associated with BMI substantially overlapped with obesity-and insulin-related genes, including MC2R, IGFBPL1, IP6K1 and IGF2BP1. Conclusion: Our findings suggest an association between the saliva methylome and BMI in adolescence.
  • Li, Weilong; Baumbach, Jan; Mohammadnejad, Afsaneh; Lund, Jesper; Larsen, Martin Jakob; Hjelmborg, Jacob v. B.; Mengel-From, Jonas; Christensen, Kaare; Christiansen, Lene; Tan, Qihua (2020)
    Objective: The body mass index (BMI) measured as weight in relation to height is an important monitor for obesity and diabetes, with individual variation under control by genetic and environmental factors. In transcriptome-wide association studies on BMI, the genetic contribution calls for controlling of genetic confounding that affects both BMI and gene expression. We performed a global gene expression profiling of BMI on peripheral blood cells using monozygotic twins for efficient handling of genetic make-ups. Methods: We applied a generalized association method to genome-wide gene expression data on 229 pairs of monozygotic twins (age 56-80 years) for detecting diverse patterns of correlation between BMI and gene expression. Results: We detected seven probes associated with BMI with p<1e-04, among them two probes with p<1e-05 (p=2.83e-06 AAK1; p=7.83e-06 LILRA3). In total, the analysis found 1579 probes with nominal p<0.05. Biological pathway analysis of enriched pathways found 50 KEGG and 45 Reactome pathways (FDR<0.05). The identified top functional pathways included immune function, JAK-STAT signalling, insulin signalling and regulation of energy metabolism. Conclusion: This transcriptome-wide association study using monozygotic twins and generalized correlation identified differentially expressed genes and a broad spectrum of enriched biological pathways that may implicate metabolic health.
  • Galante, Laura; Pundir, Shikha; Lagström, Hanna; Rautava, Samuli; Reynolds, Clare Marie; Milan, Amber Marie; Cameron-Smith, David; Vickers, Mark Hedley (2020)
    Background:Human milk bioactives may play a role in infant health and development. Although the variability in their concentrations in milk is well-established, the impact of differential milk profiles on infant growth outcomes remains unclear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether different concentrations of metabolic hormones are associated with different weight and BMI in infants beyond the first year of life. Methods:Milk samples at 2.6 (+/- 0.4) months after birth and anthropometric measures at 13 months, 2, 3, and 5 years were collected as part of the Finnish STEPS cohort study from 501 mothers and the respective 507 infants. Leptin, adiponectin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and cyclic glycine-proline (cGP) in milk were analyzed. Multiple regression models and a repeated measures mixed model were used to examine associations between milk hormone concentrations and weight and BMI z-scores across time, at each time-point, and weight gain from birth to each follow-up visit. All models were corrected for birth weight, infant sex, duration of exclusive and total breastfeeding, time of introduction of solid foods and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. Results:Higher milk IGF-1 was associated with higher weight at 13 months (p= 0.004) but lower weight at 3 (p= 0.011) and 5 years of age (p= 0.049). Higher cGP was associated with lower weight across the 5 years (p= 0.019) but with higher BMI at 5 years (p= 0.021). Leptin and adiponectin did not display associations with infant growth at this time. Sex interactions were also absent. Conclusions:Our results suggest that the interplay between human milk-borne IGF-1 and cGP is similar to that reported in other mammals and may have an important role in defining infant growth trajectories beyond the first year of life. Further research should explore the determinants and origins of these milk-borne compounds and evaluate their effect on infant growth and metabolism.