Browsing by Subject "BMP"

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  • Karhumaa, H.; Vähänikkilä, H.; Blomqvist, M.; Pätilä, T.; Anttonen, Esa (2022)
    Purpose This retrospective, practice-based study investigates behaviour management problems (BMPs) in dental care among Finnish children with operated congenital heart disease (CHD). Methods All the heart-operated children born between the years 1997 and 1999 were identified in the national ProCardio database (n = 570). Primary dental care records were requested from this population and were eventually received from 211 patients. Information on gender, diagnosis, number of heart operations and perioperative care were collected from the ProCardio database, and the CHDs were categorised as shunting/stenotic/complex/other defects. Data on BMP/dental fear, oral conscious sedation, dental general anaesthesia (DGA) and past and present caries indices at 6, 12 and 15 years (d/D, dmft/DMFT) were assessed. Results Notes on behaviour management problems or dental fear were found in 19% of the study population. BMPs in dental care were more frequent among boys. Children with re-operations, longer post-operative intensive care stay and hospitalisation, and complications had not more BMP than others. Those children diagnosed with syndromes had more BMP often than the rest. Past and present caries experience were significantly associated with BMP, need of oral conscious sedation and DGA. Oral conscious sedation, nitrogen oxide sedation and dental general anaesthesia were used in 17/211, 2/221 and 24/211 CHD patients, respectively. Conclusion Dental caries remains a main factor associated with BMP in the CHD population. Need for oral conscious sedation and DGA were rather common. To maintain a good oral health and to avoid development of BMP, CHD children benefit from focus in health promotion and preventive care.
  • Brodski, Claude; Blaess, Sandra; Partanen, Juha; Prakash, Nilima (2019)
    Dopamine-synthesizing neurons located in the mammalian ventral midbrain are at the center stage of biomedical research due to their involvement in severe human neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, most prominently Parkinson's Disease (PD). The induction of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons depends on two important signaling centers of the mammalian embryo: the ventral midline or floor plate (FP) of the neural tube, and the isthmic organizer (IsO) at the mid-/hindbrain boundary (MHB). Cells located within and close to the FP secrete sonic hedgehog (SHH), and members of the wingless-type MMTV integration site family (WNT1/5A), as well as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family. The IsO cells secrete WNT1 and the fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8). Accordingly, the FGF8, SHH, WNT, and BMP signaling pathways play crucial roles during the development of the mDA neurons in the mammalian embryo. Moreover, these morphogens are essential for the generation of stem cell-derived mDA neurons, which are critical for the modeling, drug screening, and cell replacement therapy of PD. This review summarizes our current knowledge about the functions and crosstalk of these signaling pathways in mammalian mDA neuron development in vivo and their applications in stem cell-based paradigms for the efficient derivation of these neurons in vitro.
  • Antson, Hanna; Tonissoo, Tambet; Shimmi, Osamu (2022)
    The Drosophila wing has been used as a model for studying tissue growth, morphogenesis and pattern formation. The wing veins of Drosophila are composed of two distinct structures, longitudinal veins and crossveins. Although positional information of longitudinal veins is largely defined in the wing imaginal disc during the larval stage, crossvein primordial cells appear to be naive until the early pupal stage. Here, we first review how wing crossveins have been investigated in the past. Then, the developmental mechanisms underlying crossvein formation are summarized. This review focuses on how a conserved trafficking mechanism of BMP ligands is utilized for crossvein formation, and how various co-factors play roles in sustaining BMP signalling. Recent findings further reveal that crossvein development serves as an excellent model to address how BMP signal and dynamic cellular processes are coupled. This comprehensive review illustrates the uniqueness, scientific value and future perspectives of wing crossvein development as a model.
  • Huang, Yunxian; Hatakeyama, Masatsugu; Shimmi, Osamu (2018)
    Wing venation among insects serves as an excellent model to address how diversified patterns are produced. Previous studies suggest that evolutionarily conserved Decapentaplegic (Dpp)/Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signal plays a critical role in wing vein development in the dipteran Drosophila melanogaster and the hymenopteran sawfly Athalia rosae. In sawfly, dpp is ubiquitously expressed in the wing during prepupal stages, but Dpp/BMP signal is localized in the future vein cells. Since localized BMP signaling involves BMP binding protein Crossveinless (Cv), redistribution of BMP ligands appears to be crucial for sawfly wing vein formation. However, how ubiquitously expressed ligands lead to a localized signal remains to be addressed. Here, we found that BMP binding protein short gastrulation (Sog) is highly expressed in the intervein cells. Our data also reveal that BMP type I receptors thickveins (Tkv) and saxophone (Sax) are highly expressed in intervein cells and at lower levels in the vein progenitor cells. RNAi knockdown of Ar-tkv or Ar-sax indicates that both receptors are required for localized BMP signaling in the wing vein progenitor cells. Taken together, our data suggest that spatial transcription of core- and co-factors of the BMP pathway sustain localized BMP signaling during sawfly wing vein development. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.