Browsing by Subject "BODIES"

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  • Martikainen, J.; Muinonen, K.; Penttilä, A.; Cellino, A.; Wang, X. -B. (2021)
    Aims. We perform light curve inversion for 491 asteroids to retrieve phase curve parameters, rotation periods, pole longitudes and latitudes, and convex and triaxial ellipsoid shapes by using the sparse photometric observations from Gaia Data Release 2 and the dense ground-based observations from the DAMIT database. We develop a method for the derivation of reference absolute magnitudes and phase curves from the Gaia data, allowing for comparative studies involving hundreds of asteroids.Methods. For both general convex shapes and ellipsoid shapes, we computed least-squares solutions using either the Levenberg-Marquardt optimization algorithm or the Nelder-Mead downhill simplex method. Virtual observations were generated by adding Gaussian random errors to the observations, and, later on, a Markov chain Monte Carlo method was applied to sample the spin, shape, and scattering parameters. Absolute magnitude and phase curve retrieval was developed for the reference geometry of equatorial illumination and observations based on model magnitudes averaged over rotational phase.Results. The derived photometric slope values showed wide variations within each assumed Tholen class. The computed Gaia G-band absolute magnitudes matched notably well with the V-band absolute magnitudes retrieved from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Small-Body Database. Finally, the reference phase curves were well fitted with the H, G(1), G(2) phase function. The resulting G(1), G(2) distribution differed, in an intriguing way, from the G(1), G(2) distribution that is based on the phase curves corresponding to light curve brightness maxima.
  • Palmio, Johanna; Leonard-Louis, Sarah; Sacconi, Sabrina; Savarese, Marco; Penttilä, Sini; Semmler, Anna-Lena; Kress, Wolfram; Mozaffar, Tahseen; Lai, Tim; Stojkovic, Tanya; Berardo, Andres; Reisin, Ricardo; Attarian, Shahram; Urtizberea, Andoni; Cobo, Ana Maria; Maggi, Lorenzo; Kurbatov, Sergei; Nikitin, Sergei; Milisenda, Jose C.; Fatehi, Farzad; Raimondi, Monika; Silveira, Fernando; Hackman, Peter; Claeys, Kristl G.; Udd, Bjarne (2019)
    ObjectiveHereditary myopathy with early respiratory failure (HMERF) is caused by titin A-band mutations in exon 344 and considered quite rare. Respiratory insufficiency is an early symptom. A collection of families and patients with muscle disease suggestive of HMERF was clinically and genetically studied.MethodsAltogether 12 new families with 19 affected patients and diverse nationalities were studied. Most of the patients were investigated using targeted next-generation sequencing; Sanger sequencing was applied in some of the patients and available family members. Histological data and muscle MRI findings were evaluated.ResultsThree families had several family members studied while the rest were single patients. Most patients had distal and proximal muscle weakness together with respiratory insufficiency. Five heterozygous TTN A-band mutations were identified of which two were novel. Also with the novel mutations the muscle pathology and imaging findings were compatible with the previous reports of HMERF.ConclusionsOur collection of 12 new families expands mutational spectrum with two new mutations identified. HMERF is not that rare and can be found worldwide, but maybe underdiagnosed. Diagnostic process seems to be complex as this study shows with mostly single patients without clear dominant family history.
  • Dichlberger, Andrea; Schlager, Stefanie; Lappalainen, Jani; Käkelä, Reijo; Hattula, Katarina; Butcher, Sarah J.; Schneider, Wolfgang J.; Kovanen, Petri T. (2011)
  • Borghammer, Per; Horsager, Jacob; Andersen, Katrine; Van den Berge, Nathalie; Raunio, Anna; Murayama, Shigeo; Parkkinen, Laura; Myllykangas, Liisa (2021)
    Aggregation of alpha-synuclein into inclusion bodies, termed Lewy pathology, is a defining feature of Parkinson's disease (PD) and Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). In the majority of post mortem cases, the distribution of Lewy pathology seems to follow two overarching patterns: a caudo-rostral pattern with relatively more pathology in the brainstem than in the telencephalon, and an amygdala-centered pattern with the most abundant pathology in the "center of the brain", including the amygdala, entorhinal cortex, and substantia nigra, and relatively less pathology in the lower brainstem and spinal autonomic nuclei. The recent body-first versus brain-first model of Lewy Body Disorders proposes that the initial pathogenic alpha-synuclein in some patients originates in the enteric nervous system with secondary spreading to the brain; and in other patients originates inside the CNS with secondary spreading to the lower brainstem and peripheral autonomic nervous system. Here, we use two existing post mortem datasets to explore the possibility that clinical body-first and brain-first subtypes are equivalent to the caudo-rostral and amygdala-centered patterns of Lewy pathology seen at post mortem.
  • Wilkman, Olli; Gritsevich, Maria; Zubko, Nataliya; Peltoniemi, Jouni I.; Muinonen, Karri (2016)
    We have performed laboratory measurements of the bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) of a sample of dark volcanic sand. The measurements were carried out with three different treatments of the sample to produce different porosity and roughness characteristics. We model the measured BRF with a semi-numerical scattering model for particulate media, meant especially for dark planetary regoliths. We compare the BRF in two different spectral bands, 500-600 nm and 800-900 nm. The particulate medium (PM). scattering model is found to fit the measured data well, with a phase function representing the differences between the spectral bands. The interpretation of the physical parameters of the PM model is qualitatively sound, but remains somewhat uncertain due in part to the difficulty of characterizing the measured sample. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Piippo, Simo; Sadeghi, Martiya; Koivisto, Emilia; Skyttä, Pietari; Baker, Tim (2022)
    This study focuses on using multivariate analyses to generate semi-automated geological maps and exploration targets associated with porphyry Au-Cu mineralization within the Kassandra mining district, Greece. We use principal component analysis (PCA) and self-organizing maps (SOM) to reveal variations in geochemical and magnetic signatures within the input datasets. We visualize the results as pseudo-geological maps reflecting the associated geological processes and their end products. In specific, we utilize the potential of these two methods through an integrated interpretation and comparison of the results. We test the validity of the unsupervised PCAand SOM-derived lithological and prospectivity models by comparing them with existing geological observations and interpretations. The results of this investigation show that both PCA and SOM are able to reproduce the key features of existing geological observations within the study area, but more importantly, also provide useful information that can be used to recognize prospective geological units and exploration targets from previously unknown locations.
  • Klemm, Robin W.; Ikonen, Elina (2020)
  • Back, Nils; Kanerva, Kristiina; Kurutihallib, Vishwanatha; Yanik, Andrew; Ikonen, Elina; Mains, Richard E.; Eipper, Betty A. (2017)
    Peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM) is highly expressed in neurons and endocrine cells, where it catalyzes one of the final steps in the biosynthesis of bioactive peptides. PAM is also expressed in unicellular organisms such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which do not store peptides in secretory granules. As for other granule membrane proteins, PAM is retrieved from the cell surface and returned to the trans-Golgi network. This pathway involves regulated entry of PAM into multivesicular body intralumenal vesicles (ILVs). The aim of this study was defining the endocytic pathways utilized by PAM in cells that do not store secretory products in granules. Using stably transfected HEK293 cells, endocytic trafficking of PAM was compared to that of the mannose 6-phosphate (MPR) and EGF (EGFR) receptors, established markers for the endosome to trans-Golgi network and degradative pathways, respectively. As in neuroendocrine cells, PAM internalized by HEK293 cells accumulated in the trans-Golgi network. Based on surface biotinylation, >70% of the PAM on the cell surface was recovered intact after a 4 h chase and soluble, bifunctional PAM was produced. Endosomes containing PAM generally contained both EGFR and MPR and ultrastructural analysis confirmed that all three cargos accumulated in ILVs. PAM containing multivesicular bodies made frequent dynamic tubular contacts with younger and older multivesicular bodies. Frequent dynamic contacts were observed between lysosomes and PAM containing early endosomes and multivesicular bodies. The ancient ability of PAM to localize to ciliary membranes, which release bioactive ectosomes, may be related to its ability to accumulate in ILVs and exosomes. (C) 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
  • Lizotte, Christopher (2020)
    I lay out a case for recognizing "vulgar territory," a fusing of superficial categories of spatial sovereignty with identarian rhetorics of belonging. I argue that vulgar territory is composed of two primary elements: first, a simplistic conception of sovereignty as being entirely contiguous with state borders. Second, affective elements of spatial belonging, particularly hope and fear. These two basic elements combine in various ways depending on the particular meanings, images, and emotions that are assembled in particular geohistorical contexts. I show this with a rough typology of "vulgates" of hyper-bordered and feminized territory by examining recent examples from around the world.
  • Walta, Anna-Mari; Keltanen, Terhi; Lindroos, Katarina; Sajantila, Antti (2016)
    The aim was to evaluate the performance of point-of-care (POC) tests in detecting glucose and ketone bodies in postmortem (PM) samples and to assess the usefulness of POC tests in sample screening for more precise analyses. Glucose and ketone body, beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), were measured from vitreous humor (VH) in 52 autopsy cases with a POC blood glucose monitoring device (BGMD). In addition glucose and ketone bodies, acetone (Ac) and acetoacetate (AcAc), were measured from urine samples in another set of 59 cases with semi-quantitative stick tests. The results were compared to the concentration in VH measured with validated methods (values > 7 mmol/l indicate possible hyperglycemia and total ketone body levels >= 3 mmol/l ketoacidosis). The sensitivity for glucose with the BGMD was 1.0 and specificity 0.94 when the threshold value for the meter to predict elevated glucose was set to >= 10 mmol/l. The correlation between the BGMD and the validated method was strong (R-2 = 0.89). For detecting ketoacidosis, the BGMD had a sensitivity of 1.0 and specificity of 0.73, when the threshold value was set to 2.5 mmol/l. The urine stick test presented a sensitivity of 0.89 and specificity of 0.90 for detecting elevated VH glucose concentration. The sensitivity and specificity for the stick test to detect cases with possible ketoacidosis were 0.84 and 0.68, respectively. According to the results, BGMD can be reliably applied for sample screening, although more samples need to be analyzed for delineating the correct threshold values. In the case of glucose, the urine stick tests could be indicative in detecting cases with VH glucose >= 10 mmol/l. For predicting possible ketoacidosis with elevated VH total ketone bodies, the stick test is not reliable as the test presented both false-positive and -negative results. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Moreno-Ibanez, Manuel; Silber, Elizabeth A.; Gritsevich, Maria; Trigo-Rodriguez, Josep M. (2018)
    Infrasound monitoring has proved to be effective in detection of meteor-generated shock waves. When combined with optical observations of meteors, this technique is also reliable for detecting centimeter-sized meteoroids that usually ablate at high altitudes, thus offering relevant clues that open the exploration of the meteoroid flight regimes. Since a shock wave is formed as a result of a passage of the meteoroid through the atmosphere, the knowledge of the physical parameters of the surrounding gas around the meteoroid surface can be used to determine the meteor flow regime. This study analyzes the flow regimes of a data set of 24 centimeter-sized meteoroids for which well-constrained infrasound and photometric information is available. This is the first time that the flow regimes for meteoroids in this size range are validated from observations. From our approach, the Knudsen and Reynolds numbers are calculated, and two different flow regime evaluation approaches are compared in order to validate the theoretical formulation. The results demonstrate that a combination of fluid dynamic dimensionless parameters is needed to allow a better inclusion of the local physical processes of the phenomena.
  • Markkanen, Johannes (IEEE, 2016)
    URSI International Symposium on Electromagnetic Theory
    A volume potential-integral-equation formulation for electromagnetic scattering by dielectric objects is developed and discretized with fully continuous nodal basis functions. The equations are tested with either the point-matching or Galerkin's testing procedure. Galerkin's testing shows superior accuracy over the point-matching as well as over the standard discretization of the electric field volume integral equation with Schaubert-Wilton-Glisson (SWG) functions. The potential formulation is accelerated by the precorrected-FFT method.
  • Charitsis, Vassilis; Fyrberg Yngfalk, Anna; Skålén, Per (2019)
    While previous critical marketing research on co-creation has focused on how consumers' cognitive and social abilities are governed, this article focuses on how firms' marketing strategies attempt to govern every aspect of consumers' lives. By drawing on a biopolitical framework and a study of Nike+, a marketing system for runners which Nike has developed around its self-tracking devices, three biopolitical marketing dimensions were identified: the gamification of the running experience, the transformation of running into a competitive activity and the conversion of running into a social activity. In identifying these marketing dimensions, the study demonstrates how self-tracking affordances are deployed in the development of a biopolitical marketing environment that tames, captures and appropriates value from different aspects of consumers' lives, including - and combining - their social behaviours, cognitive capacities and bodily conducts. This article contributes to critical studies of value co-creation by focusing on the tamed self-tracking body as a resource for value creation, but also by demonstrating that consumers engage, through cognitive labour, in the production of the biopolitical environment that leads to their exploitation.