Browsing by Subject "BODY-WEIGHT"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-18 of 18
  • Derrien, Muriel; Belzer, Clara; de Vos, Willem M. (2017)
    Akkermansia muciniphila is an intestinal bacterium that was isolated a decade ago from a human fecal sample. Its specialization in mucin degradation makes it a key organism at the mucosal interface between the lumen and host cells. Although it was isolated quite recently, it has rapidly raised significant interest as A. muciniphila is the only cultivated intestinal representative of the Verrucomicrobia, one of the few phyla in the human gut that can be easily detected in phylogenetic and metagenome analyses. There has also been a growing interest in A. muciniphila, due to its association with health in animals and humans. Notably, reduced levels of A. muciniphila have been observed in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (mainly ulcerative colitis) and metabolic disorders, which suggests it may have potential anti-inflammatory properties. The aims of this review are to summarize the existing data on the intestinal distribution of A. muciniphila in health and disease, to provide insight into its ecology and its role in founding microbial networks at the mucosal interface, as well as to discuss recent research on its role in regulating host functions that are disturbed in various diseases, with a specific focus on metabolic disorders in both animals and humans. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Uusi-Rasi, Kirsti; Karkkainen, Merja U. M.; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel J. E. (2013)
  • CHARGE Consortium; Ding, Ming (2017)
    OBJECTIVE To examine whether previous observed inverse associations of dairy intake with systolic blood pressure and risk of hypertension were causal. DESIGN Mendelian randomization study using the single nucleotide polymorphism rs4988235 related to lactase persistence as an instrumental variable. SETTING CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) Consortium. PARTICIPANTS Data from 22 studies with 171 213 participants, and an additional 10 published prospective studies with 26 119 participants included in the observational analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The instrumental variable estimation was conducted using the ratio of coefficients approach. Using metaanalysis, an additional eight published randomized clinical trials on the association of dairy consumption with systolic blood pressure were summarized. RESULTS Compared with the CC genotype (CC is associated with complete lactase deficiency), the CT/TT genotype (TT is associated with lactose persistence, and CT is associated with certain lactase deficiency) of LCT-13910 (lactase persistence gene) rs4988235 was associated with higher dairy consumption (0.23 (about 55 g/day), 95% confidence interval 0.17 to 0.29) serving/day; P CONCLUSION The weak inverse association between dairy intake and systolic blood pressure in observational studies was not supported by a comprehensive instrumental variable analysis and systematic review of existing clinical trials.
  • Koli, Raika; Kohler, Klaus; Tonteri, Elina; Peltonen, Juha; Tikkanen, Heikki; Fogelholm, Mikael (2015)
    Background: Several studies have shown that cocoa and cocoa-containing foods have the potential to lower blood pressure and improve endothelial function. Most of the studies reporting the beneficial effects of dark chocolate on blood pressure have been short ( Design: This was a randomized, controlled, cross-over trial involving 22 adults (8 women, 14 men), aged 33-64 y, BMI 27.7 +/- 3.7 kg/m(2) with mild hypertension. During the intervention period (8-wks) the participants reduced the intake of habitual snacks and replaced them with dark chocolate (49 g/day). In the control period, they only reduced the snacks without any added chocolate. Data (blood lipid profile, glucose, insulin, 24 h blood pressure) was collected in the beginning and end of both periods (intervention and control), and some variables also in the run-in and run-out periods (weight, body fat percentage, blood pressure, arterial stiffness index, diet and physical activity). Results: Daily consumption of dark chocolate had no effects on 24 h blood pressure, resting blood pressure (mean +/- SD, pre 142 +/- 11.5/89 +/- 4 mmHg vs. post 142 +/- 14.2/88 +/- 9.4 mmHg in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively) or arterial stiffness (mean +/- SD, pre 7.68 +/- 0.88 vs. post 7.76 +/- 0.89). Weight was reduced by 1.0 +/- 2.2 kg during the control (reduced snack only) period, but was unchanged while eating chocolate (p <0.027 between the treatments). Conclusion: The data collected in this study indicates that inclusion of dark chocolate daily in the diet had no significant effects on blood pressure or other cardiovascular risk factors during a reduced snack period.
  • The FinnDiane Study Group; Ahola, Aila J.; Forsblom, Carol; Harjutsalo, Valma; Groop, Per-Henrik (2019)
    Aims Low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) has gained interest among individuals with diabetes as a means to manage glycaemia. We investigated the adherence to LCD in the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy Study and whether carbohydrate restriction is associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors. Methods Cross-sectional data were available from 902 individuals with type 1 diabetes (44% men, age 47±13 years). Dietary data were collected twice with a 3-day diet record. Mean of the measurements was used. Carbohydrate intake 253 g/day or >48 E%). In the whole population, carbohydrate-to-fat ratio was calculated and its association with health variables was investigated. Results Higher carbohydrate-to-fat ratio was associated with higher blood glucose variability, higher blood pressure, lower HDL cholesterol concentration, and in men with lower waist-to-hip ratio. LCD adherence (n=69) was associated with lower BMI (25.6 vs. 27.8 kg/m2, p=0.030), lower variability of blood glucose measurements (0.38 vs. 0.45 mmol/l, p=0.030), and lower diastolic blood pressure (74 vs. 79 mmHg, p=0.048). Men reporting LCD had higher total (5.1 vs. 4.0 mmol/l, p=0.007) and non-HDL cholesterol (3.4 vs. 2.7 mmol/l, p=0.021). Women with LCD had higher HDL-cholesterol concentration (1.9 vs. 1.5 mmol/l, p=0.014). Conclusions Reduced blood glucose variability, related to LCD, could have clinical relevance to individuals with type 1 diabetes.
  • Kaartinen, Niina E.; Knekt, Paul; Kanerva, Noora Karoliina; Valsta, Liisa M.; Eriksson, Johan Gunnar; Rissanen, Harri; Jaaskelainen, Tuija; Männistö, Satu (2016)
    Background: The relationship between carbohydrate intake, dietary glycaemic index (GI) and load (GL), and obesity remains unsolved. Sugar intake and obesity represent a timely topic, but studies on sugar subcategories are scarce. We aimed to study whether total carbohydrate, sucrose, lactose, fibre, dietary GI, and GL are associated with obesity in 25-79-year-old Finns. Methods: Our pooled analysis included three cross-sectional population-based studies: the DILGOM Study (n = 4842), the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (n =1979), and the Health 2000 Survey (n = 5521). Diet was assessed by a validated food-frequency questionnaire, and anthropometric measurements were collected by standardised protocols. Pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using logistic regression analysis. Results: In the model, which included sex, age, education, smoking, physical activity, and energy intake, the likelihood of being obese (body mass index >= 30 kg/m(2)) appeared lower in the highest quartiles of total carbohydrate (OR 0.65; 95% CI 0.57-0.74; P for trend <0.0001), sucrose (OR 0.53; 95% CI 0.47-0.61; P <0.0001), and dietary GL (OR 0.64; 95% CI 0.56-0.73; P <0.0001) compared to the lowest quartiles. In contrast, dietary GI did not associate with obesity. Fibre intake associated inversely with abdominal obesity (OR 0.80; 95% CI 0.71-0.90; P <0.001). The inverse sucrose obesity relationship appeared stronger in high fruit consumers compared to low fruit consumers (P for interaction 0.02). Conclusions: Although most of the studied carbohydrate exposures were associated with a diminished likelihood of being obese, prospective studies are needed to assess temporal relations to support causal inference.
  • Hoglund, K.; Lequarre, A. -S.; Ljungvall, I.; Mc Entee, K.; Merveille, A. -C.; Wiberg, M.; Gouni, V.; Willesen, J. Lundgren; Hanas, S.; Wess, G.; Sorensen, L. Mejer; Tiret, L.; Kierczak, M.; Forsberg, S. K. G.; Seppälä, E.; Lindblad-Toh, K.; Lohi, H.; Chetboul, V.; Fredholm, M.; Haggstrom, J. (2016)
    BackgroundThere are breed differences in several blood variables in healthy dogs. ObjectiveInvestigate breed variation in plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) concentration, plasma renin activity, and serum cortisol concentration. AnimalsFive-hundred and thirty-one healthy dogs of 9 breeds examined at 5 centers (2-4 breeds/center). MethodsProspective observational study. Circulating concentrations of ET-1 and cortisol, and renin activity, were measured using commercially available assays. Absence of organ-related or systemic disease was ensured by thorough clinical investigations, including blood pressure measurement, echocardiography, ECG, blood and urine analysis. ResultsMedian ET-1 concentration was 1.29 (interquartile range [IQR], 0.97-1.82) pg/mL, median cortisol concentration 46.0 (IQR, 29.0-80.8) nmol/L, and median renin activity 0.73 (IQR, 0.48-1.10) ng/mL/h in all dogs. Overall, breed differences were found in ET-1 and cortisol concentrations, and renin activity (P <.0001 for all). Pair-wise comparisons between breeds differed in 67% of comparisons for ET-1, 22% for cortisol, and 19% for renin activity, respectively. Within centers, breed differences were found at 5/5 centers for ET-1, 4/5 centers for cortisol, and 2/5 centers for renin activity. Newfoundlands had highest median ET-1 concentration, 3 times higher than Cavalier King Charles Spaniels, Doberman Pinschers, and Dachshunds. Median renin activity was highest in Dachshunds, twice the median value in Newfoundlands and Boxers. Median cortisol concentration was highest in Finnish Lapphunds, almost 3 times higher than in Boxers. Conclusions and Clinical ImportanceBreed variation might be important to take into consideration when interpreting test results in clinical studies.
  • Tischmann, Lea; Drummen, Mathijs; Gatta-Cherifi, Blandine; Raben, Anne; Fogelholm, Mikael; Hartmann, Bolette; Holst, Jens J.; Matias, Isabelle; Cota, Daniela; Mensink, Ronald P.; Joris, Peter J.; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S.; Adam, Tanja C. (2019)
    Favorable effects of a high-protein/moderate-carbohydrate (HP/MCHO) diet after weight loss on body weight management have been shown. To extend these findings, associations between perception of hunger and satiety with endocannabinoids, and with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and polypeptide YY (PYY) were assessed. At approximately 34 months after weight loss, 22 female and 16 male participants (mean age 64.5 +/- 5.9 years; body mass index (BMI) 28.9 +/- 3.9 kg/m(2)) completed a 48 h respiration chamber study. Participants were fed in energy balance with a HP/MCHO diet with 25%:45%:30% or a moderate-protein/high-carbohydrate (MP/HCHO) diet with 15%:55%:30% of energy from protein:carbohydrate:fat. Endocannabinoids and related compounds, relevant postprandial hormones (GLP-1, PYY), hunger, satiety, and ad libitum food intake were assessed. HP/MCHO versus MP/HCHO reduced hunger perception. The lower decremental area under the curve (dAUC) for hunger in the HP/MCHO diet (-56.6% compared to MP, p <0.05) was associated with the higher AUC for 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) concentrations (p <0.05). Hunger was inversely associated with PYY in the HP/MCHO group (r = -0.7, p <0.01). Ad libitum food intake, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and incremental AUCs for gut peptides were not different between conditions. HP/MCHO versus MP/HCHO diet-induced reduction in hunger was present after 34 months weight maintenance in the post-obese state. HP/MCHO diet-induced decrease of hunger is suggested to interact with increased 2-AG and PYY concentrations.
  • Dubois, Lise; Diasparra, Maikol; Bedard, Brigitte; Kaprio, Jaakko; Fontaine-Bisson, Benedicte; Tremblay, Richard; Boivin, Michel; Perusse, Daniel (2013)
  • Drummen, Mathijs; Tischmann, Lea; Gatta-Cherifi, Blandine; Fogelholm, Mikael; Raben, Anne; Adam, Tanja C.; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S. (2020)
    Background: Weight loss has been associated with adaptations in energy expenditure. Identifying factors that counteract these adaptations are important for long-term weight loss and weight maintenance. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether increased protein/carbohydrate ratio would reduce adaptive thermogenesis (AT) and the expected positive energy balance (EB) during weight maintenance after weight loss in participants with prediabetes in the postobese state. Methods: In 38 participants, the effects of 2 diets differing in protein/carbohydrate ratio on energy expenditure and respiratory quotient (RQ) were assessed during 48-h respiration chamber measurements similar to 34 mo after weight loss. Participants consumed a high-protein (HP) diet In = 20; 13 women/7 men; age: 64.0 +/- 6.2 y; BMI: 28.9 +/- 4.0 kg/m(2)) with 25:45:30% or a moderate-protein (MP) diet (n = 18; 9 women/9 men; age: 65.1 +/- 5.8 y; BMI: 29.0 +/- 3.8 kg/m(2)) with 15:55:30% of energy from protein:carbohydrate:fat. Predicted resting energy expenditure (REEp) was calculated based on fat-free mass and fat mass. AT was assessed by subtracting measured resting energy expenditure (REE) from REEp. The main outcomes included differences in components of energy expenditure, substrate oxidation, and AT between groups. Results: EB (MP = 0.2 +/- 0.9 MJ/d; HP = -0.5 +/- 0.9 MJ/d) and RO (MP = 0.84 +/- 0.02; HP = 0.82 +/- 0.02) were reduced and REE (MP: 73 +/- 0.2 MJ/d compared with HP: 78 +/- 0.2 MJ/d) was increased in the HP group compared with the MP group (P <0.05). REE was not different from REEp in the HP group, whereas REE was lower than REEp in the MP group (P <0.05). Furthermore, EB was positively related to AT (r(s) = 0.74; P <0.001) and RQ (r(s) = 0.47; P <0.01) in the whole group of participants. Conclusions: In conclusion, an HP diet compared with an MP diet led to a negative EB and counteracted AT similar to 34 mo after weight loss, in participants with prediabetes in the postobese state. These results indicate the relevance of compliance to an increased protein/carbohydrate ratio for long-term weight maintenance after weight loss.
  • Åhlgren, Johanna; Voikar, Vootele (2019)
    Individually ventilated caging (IVC) systems for rodents are increasingly common in laboratory animal facilities. However, the impact of such substantial change in housing conditions on animal physiology and behavior is still debated. Most importantly, there arise the questions regarding reproducibility and comparison of previous or new phenotypes between the IVC and open cages. The present study was set up for detailed and systematic comparison of behavioral phenotypes in male and female mice of three widely used inbred strains (C57BL/6JRccHsd, DBA/2JRccHsd, 129S2/SvHSd) after being kept in two housing environments (IVC and open cages) for 6?weeks (since 4?weeks of age) before behavioral testing. The tests addressed exploratory, anxiety-like and stress-related behavior (light-dark box, open field, forced swim test, stress-induced hyperthermia), social approach and species-specific behavior (nest building, marble burying). In all tests, large and expected strain differences were found. Somewhat surprisingly, the most striking effect of environment was found for basal body temperature and weight loss after one night of single housing in respective cages. In addition, the performance in light-dark box and open field was affected by environment. Several parameters in different tests showed significant interaction between housing and genetic background. In summary, the IVC housing did not invalidate the well-known differences between the mouse strains which have been established by previous studies. However, within the strains the results can be influenced by sex and housing system depending on the behavioral tasks applied. The bottom-line is that the environmental conditions should be described explicitly in all publications.
  • Box, Justin R.; McGowan, Cathy M.; Raekallio, Marja R.; Mykkänen, Anna K.; Carslake, Harry; Karikoski, Ninja P. (2020)
    Background Obesity and insulin dysregulation (ID) predispose horses to laminitis. Determination of management practices or phenotypic markers associated with ID may benefit animal welfare. Objectives Determine ID status of a population of Finnhorses using an oral sugar test (OST) and compare phenotypes and management factors between ID and non-ID Finnhorses. Animals One hundred twenty-eight purebred Finnhorses >= 3 years of age. Methods Owners were recruited using an online questionnaire regarding signalment, history, feeding, and exercise of their horses. Selected contributing stables within a predefined area were visited. Phenotypic markers of obesity and the weight of each horse were recorded. After fasting overnight, horses received 0.45 mL/kg corn syrup PO. Serum samples before and at 60 and 90 minutes after syrup administration were analyzed for insulin by chemiluminescent assay. Horses met ID criteria if insulin concentrations were >= 33 mu IU/mL at T0, >= 66 mu IU/mL at T60 or T90 or some combination thereof. Associations between phenotypic markers, feeding and exercise variables, and ID were examined using mixed effects logistic regression modeling. Results Several phenotypic markers of obesity were significant on univariable analysis but in the final multivariable model, only obesity (body condition score >= 8) was associated with ID (P= .04). Over half of the horses (60% [95% confidence interval (CI), 51%-68%]) were considered overweight or obese whereas 16% (95% CI, 10%-23%) were classified as having ID. Conclusions and Clinical Importance Because obesity is associated with ID in cold-blooded type horses, objective monitoring of phenotypic markers by owners may be beneficial for health outcomes.
  • Pekkarinen, Tuula; Mustonen, Harri; Sane, Timo; Jaser, Nabil; Juuti, Anne; Leivonen, Marja (2016)
    Few studies have examined weight loss sustainability after sleeve gastrectomy (SG). The purpose of this study was to determine long-term outcome after SG and gastric bypass (GBP) and learn whether preoperative weight loss and binge eating behavior can be used to predict outcome. Together, 257 patients (64 % women) were operated, 163 by GBP and 94 by SG. Binge eating was assessed by binge eating scale (BES) and preoperative weight loss was advised to all, including very low-calorie diet for 5 weeks. Postoperative visits took place at 1 and 2 years, and long-term outcome was at median 5 years (range 2.29-6.85). Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to predict outcome at 2-year and long-term control. Median age was 48 years, weight 141.1 kg, and BMI 48.2 kg/m(2). Preoperative weight loss was median 4.9 % before GBP and 3.8 % before SG, P = 0.04. Total weight loss at year one was 24.1 % in GBP and 23.7 % in SG (P = 0.40), at year two 24.4 and 23.4 % (P = 0.26), and at long-term control 23.0 and 20.2 % (P = 0.006), respectively. Weight was analyzed in 93, 88, and 89 % of those alive, respectively. BES did not predict weight outcome, but larger preoperative weight loss predicted less postoperative weight loss at 2 years. On long term, weight loss was better maintained after GBP compared with SG. Binge eating behavior was not a significant predictor, but larger preoperative weight loss predicted less postoperative weight loss for the next 2 years.
  • Dhandapani, Praveen K.; Lyyski, Annina M.; Paulin, Lars; Khan, Nahid A.; Suomalainen, Anu; Auvinen, Petri; Dufour, Eric; Szibor, Marten; Jacobs, Howard T. (2019)
    The alternative oxidase (AOX) from Ciona intestinalis was previously shown to be expressible in mice and to cause no physiological disturbance under unstressed conditions. Because AOX is known to become activated under some metabolic stress conditions, resulting in altered energy balance, we studied its effects in mice subjected to dietary stress. Wild-type mice (Mus musculus, strain C57BL/6JOlaHsd) fed a high-fat or ketogenic (high-fat, low-carbohydrate) diet show weight gain with increased fat mass, as well as loss of performance, compared with chow-fed animals. Unexpectedly, AOX-expressing mice fed on these metabolically stressful, fat-rich diets showed almost indistinguishable patterns of weight gain and altered body composition as control animals. Cardiac performance was impaired to a similar extent by ketogenic diet in AOX mice as in nontransgenic littermates. AOX and control animals fed on ketogenic diet both showed wide variance in weight gain. Analysis of the gut microbiome in stool revealed a strong correlation with diet, rather than with genotype. The microbiome of the most and least obese outliers reared on the ketogenic diet showed no consistent trends compared with animals of normal body weight. We conclude that AOX expression in mice does not modify physiological responses to extreme diets.
  • Karvinen, Sira; Waller, Katja; Silvennoinen, Mika; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kainulainen, Heikki; Kujala, Urho M. (2015)
    Observational studies report a strong inverse relationship between leisure-time physical activity and all-cause mortality. Despite suggestive evidence from population-based associations, scientists have not been able to show a beneficial effect of physical activity on the risk of death in controlled intervention studies among individuals who have been healthy at baseline. On the other hand, high cardiorespiratory fitness is known to be a strong predictor of reduced mortality, even more robust than physical activity level itself. Here, in both animals and/or human twins, we show that the same genetic factors influence physical activity levels, cardiorespiratory fitness, and risk of death. Previous observational follow-up studies in humans suggest that increasing fitness through physical activity levels could prolong life; however, our controlled interventional study with laboratory rats bred for low and high intrinsic fitness contrast with these findings. Also, we find no evidence for the suggested association using pairwise analysis among monozygotic twin pairs who are discordant in their physical activity levels. Based on both our animal and human findings, we propose that genetic pleiotropy might partly explain the frequently observed associations between high baseline physical activity and later reduced mortality in humans.
  • Mustelin, Linda; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna (2017)
    Binge eating disorder (BED) is associated with high levels of obesity and psychological suffering, but little is known about 1) the distribution of features of BED in the general population and 2) their consequences for weight development and psychological distress in young adulthood. We investigated the prevalence of features of BED and their association with body mass index (BMI) and psychological distress among men (n = 2423) and women (n = 2825) from the longitudinal community-based FinnTwin16 cohort (born 1975-1979). Seven eating-related cognitions and behaviors similar to the defining features of BED were extracted from the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 and were assessed at a mean age of 24. BMI and psychological distress, measured with the General Health Questionnaire, were assessed at ages 24 and 34. We assessed prevalence of the features and their association with BMI and psychological distress cross-sectionally and prospectively. More than half of our participants reported at least one feature of BED; clustering of several features in one individual was less common, particularly among men. The most frequently reported feature was 'stuffing oneself with food', whereas the least common was 'eating or drinking in secrecy'. All individual features of BED and their clustering particularly were associated with higher BMI and more psychological distress cross-sectionally. Prospectively, the clustering of features of BED predicted increase in psychological distress but not additional weight gain when baseline BMI was accounted for. In summary, although some features of BED were common, the clustering of several features in one individual was not. The features were cumulatively associated with BMI and psychological distress and predicted further increase in psychological distress over ten years of follow-up. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Broyles, Stephanie T.; Champagne, Catherine M.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Fogelholm, Mikael; Hu, Gang; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Kurpad, Anura; Lambert, Estelle V.; Maia, Jose; Matsudo, Victor; Olds, Timothy; Onywera, Vincent; Sarmiento, Olga L.; Standage, Martyn; Tremblay, Mark S.; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Zhao, Pei (2016)
    The purpose of this study was to determine the association between regular (sugar containing) and diet (artificially sweetened) soft drink consumption and obesity in children from 12 countries ranging in levels of economic and human development. The sample included 6162 children aged 9-11 years. Information on soft drink consumption was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire. Percentage body fat (%BF) was estimated by bio-electrical impedance analysis, body mass index (BMI) z-scores were computed using World Health Organization reference data, and obesity was defined as a BMI > +2 standard deviations (SD). Multi-level models were used to investigate trends in BMI z-scores, %BF and obesity across categories of soft drink consumption. Age, sex, study site, parental education and physical activity were included as covariates. There was a significant linear trend in BMI z-scores across categories of consumption of regular soft drinks in boys (p = 0.049), but not in girls; there were no significant trends in %BF or obesity observed in either boys or girls. There was no significant linear trend across categories of diet soft drink consumption in boys, but there was a graded, positive association in girls for BMI z-score (p = 0.0002) and %BF (p = 0.0001). Further research is required to explore these associations using longitudinal research designs.
  • EFSA Panel Anim Hlth Welf AHAW; Nielsen, Soren Saxmose; Sihvonen, Liisa Helena (2020)
    Rabbits of different ages may have to be killed on-farm for purposes other than slaughter (where slaughter is defined as killing for human consumption) either individually or on a large scale (e.g. for production reasons or for disease control). The purpose of this opinion was to assess the risks associated to the on-farm killing of rabbits. The processes during on-farm killing that were assessed included handling, stunning and/or killing methods (including restraint). The latter were grouped into four categories: electrical methods, mechanical methods, controlled atmosphere method and lethal injection. In total, 14 hazards were identified and characterised, most of these related to stunning and/or killing. The staff was identified as the origin for all hazards, either due to lack of the appropriate skill sets needed to perform tasks or due to fatigue. Possible corrective and preventive measures were assessed: measures to correct hazards were identified for five hazards and the staff was shown to have a crucial role in prevention. Five welfare consequences of the welfare hazards to which rabbits can be exposed to during on-farm killing were identified: not being dead, consciousness, pain, fear and distress. Welfare consequences and relevant animal-based measures were described. Outcome tables linking hazards, welfare consequences, animal-based measures, origins, preventive and corrective measures were developed for each process. Mitigation measures to minimise welfare consequences are proposed. (C) 2020 European Food Safety Authority. EFSA Journal published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd on behalf of European Food Safety Authority.