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  • Canaani, Jonathan; Savani, Bipin N.; Labopin, Myriam; Michallet, Mauricette; Craddock, Charles; Socie, Gerard; Volin, Liisa; Maertens, Johan A.; Crawley, Charles; Blaise, Didier; Ljungman, Per T.; Cornelissen, Jan; Russell, Nigel; Baron, Frederic; Gorin, Norbert; Esteve, Jordi; Ciceri, Fabio; Schmid, Christoph; Giebel, Sebastian; Mohty, Mohamad; Nagler, Arnon (2017)
    ABO incompatibility is commonly observed in stem cell transplantation and its impact in this setting has been extensively investigated. HLA-mismatched unrelated donors (MMURD) are often used as an alternative stem cell source but are associated with increased transplant related complications. Whether ABO incompatibility affects outcome in MMURD transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients is unknown. We evaluated 1,013 AML patients who underwent MMURD transplantation between 2005 and 2014. Engraftment rates were comparable between ABO matched and mismatched patients, as were relapse incidence [34%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 28-39; for ABO matched vs. 36%; 95% CI, 32-40; for ABO mismatched; P=.32], and nonrelapse mortality (28%; 95% CI, 23-33; for ABO matched vs. 25%; 95% CI, 21-29; for ABO mismatched; P=.2). Three year survival was 40% for ABO matched and 43% for ABO mismatched patients (P=.35), Leukemia free survival rates were also comparable between groups (37%; 95% CI, 32-43; for ABO matched vs. 38%; 95% CI, 33-42; for ABO mismatched; P=.87). Incidence of grade II-IV acute graft versus host disease was marginally lower in patients with major ABO mismatching (Hazard ratio of 0.7, 95% CI, 0.5-1; P=.049]. ABO incompatibility probably has no significant clinical implications in MMURD transplantation.
  • Stukenborg, Jan-Bernd; Jahnukainen, Kirsi; Hutka, Marsida; Mitchell, Rod T. (2018)
    Testicular function and future fertility may be affected by cancer treatment during childhood. Whilst survival of the germ (stem) cells is critical for ensuring the potential for fertility in these patients, the somatic cell populations also play a crucial role in providing a suitable environment to support germ cell maintenance and subsequent development. Regulation of the spermatogonial germ-stem cell niche involves many signalling pathways with hormonal influence from the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. In this review, we describe the somatic cell populations that comprise the testicular germ-stem cell niche in humans and how they may be affected by cancer treatment during childhood. We also discuss the experimental models that may be utilized to manipulate the somatic environment and report the results of studies that investigate the potential role of somatic cells in the protection of the germ cells in the testis from cancer treatment.
  • Buechner, Jochen; Caruana, Ignazio; Kuenkele, Annette; Rives, Susana; Vettenranta, Kim; Bader, Peter; Peters, Christina; Baruchel, Andre; Calkoen, Friso G. (2022)
    Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy (CAR-T) targeting CD19 has been associated with remarkable responses in paediatric patients and adolescents and young adults (AYA) with relapsed/refractory (R/R) B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (BCP-ALL). Tisagenlecleucel, the first approved CD19 CAR-T, has become a viable treatment option for paediatric patients and AYAs with BCP-ALL relapsing repeatedly or after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Based on the chimeric antigen receptor molecular design and the presence of a 4-1BB costimulatory domain, tisagenlecleucel can persist for a long time and thereby provide sustained leukaemia control. "Real-world" experience with tisagenlecleucel confirms the safety and efficacy profile observed in the pivotal registration trial. Recent guidelines for the recognition, management and prevention of the two most common adverse events related to CAR-T - cytokine release syndrome and immune-cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome - have helped to further decrease treatment toxicity. Consequently, the questions of how and for whom CD19 CAR-T could substitute HSCT in BCP-ALL are inevitable. Currently, 40-50% of R/R BCP-ALL patients relapse post CD19 CAR-T with either CD19(-) or CD19(+) disease, and consolidative HSCT has been proposed to avoid disease recurrence. Contrarily, CD19 CAR-T is currently being investigated in the upfront treatment of high-risk BCP-ALL with an aim to avoid allogeneic HSCT and associated treatment-related morbidity, mortality and late effects. To improve survival and decrease long-term side effects in children with BCP-ALL, it is important to define parameters predicting the success or failure of CAR-T, allowing the careful selection of candidates in need of HSCT consolidation. In this review, we describe the current clinical evidence on CAR-T in BCP-ALL and discuss factors associated with response to or failure of this therapy: product specifications, patient- and disease-related factors and the impact of additional therapies given before (e.g., blinatumomab and inotuzumab ozogamicin) or after infusion (e.g., CAR-T re-infusion and/or checkpoint inhibition). We discuss where to position CAR-T in the treatment of BCP-ALL and present considerations for the design of supportive trials for the different phases of disease. Finally, we elaborate on clinical settings in which CAR-T might indeed replace HSCT.
  • Przybyla, Beata; Pinomäki, Anne; Petäjä, Jari; Joutsi-Korhonen, Lotta; Strandberg, Karin; Hillarp, Andreas; Öhlin, Ann-Kristin; Ruutu, Tapani; Volin, Liisa; Lassila, Riitta (2017)
    Background Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) enhances coagulation via endothelial perturbation and inflammation. Role of natural anticoagulants in interactions between coagulation and inflammation as well as in acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) are not well known. The purpose of this study was to define changes in natural anticoagulants over time in association with GVHD. Patients and methods This prospective study included 30 patients who received grafts from siblings (n = 19) or unrelated donors (n = 11). Eight patients developed GVHD. Standard clinical assays were applied to measure natural anticoagulants, represented by protein C (PC), antithrombin (AT), protein S (PS), complex of activated PC with its inhibitor (APC-PCI) and by markers of endothelial activation: Factor VIII coagulant activity (FVIII: C) and soluble thrombomodulin (s-TM) at 6-8 time points over three months. Results Overall, PC, AT and FVIII: C increased in parallel after engraftment. Significant correlations between PC and FVIII: C (r = 0.64-0.82, p Conclusion The coordinated activation of natural anticoagulants in our longitudinal study indicates the sustained ability of adaptation to endothelial and inflammatory activation during allogenic SCT treatment. The suboptimal control of coagulation by natural anticoagulants at early stage of SCT may contribute to onset of GVHD.
  • Corbacioglu, Selim; Carreras, Enric; Mohty, Mohamad; Pagliuca, Antonio; Boelens, Jaap Jan; Damaj, Gandhi; Iacobelli, Massimo; Niederwieser, Dietger; Olavarria, Eduardo; Suarez, Felipe; Ruutu, Tapani; Verdonck, Leo; Hume, Robin; Nejadnik, Bijan; Lai, Chinglin; Finetto, Giorgia; Richardson, Paul (2016)
    Hepatic veno-occlusive disease, also called sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (VOD/SOS), is an unpredictable and potentially fatal complication of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) or nontransplantation-associated chemotherapy/radiotherapy. In cases of severe hepatic VOD/SOS, typically defined by associated multiorgan failure (MOF, also known as multiorgan dysfunction), mortality exceeds 80%. Preclinical and early clinical data have provided a rationale for defibrotide treatment in hepatic VOD/SOS. Based on this evidence and in recognition of the dismal prognosis for these patients, defibrotide was made available through an international multicenter compassionate-use program conducted from December 1998 to March 2009. Physicians participating in the program voluntarily provided demographic and outcome data for patients given defibrotide. Efficacy and safety analyses were performed using the data received for 710 treated patients. Defibrotide was given at 10, 25, 40, 60, or 80 mg/kg/day for a median of 15 days (range, 1 to 119 days). By Kaplan-Meier analysis, the estimated overall day +100 survival was 54% (58% in the 25 mg/kg/day dose group). Adverse events (AEs) were reported in 53% of patients. The most common AEs were MOF, progression of hepatic VOD/SOS, sepsis, and graft-versus-host disease, which were consistent with the AEs expected for this patient population. No clinically meaningful trends in AEs were identified by gender, age, or dose group. Safety and efficacy results were consistent with prior studies of defibrotide in hepatic VOD/SOS, and subgroup analyses lend support to the use of the 25 mg/kg/day dose. (C) 2016 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.
  • Impola, Ulla; Turpeinen, Hannu; Alakulppi, Noora; Linjama, Tiina; Volin, Liisa; Niittyvuopio, Riitta; Partanen, Jukka; Koskela, Satu (2014)
    Successful allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) depends not only on good HLA match but also on T-cell mediated graft-versus-leukemia (GyL) effect. Natural killer (NK) cells are able to kill malignant cells by receiving activation signal from the killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) recognizing HLA molecules on a cancer cell. It has been recently reported that the risk of relapse in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is reduced in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients whose donors have several activating KIR genes or KIR B-motifs in unrelated donor setting, obviously due to enhanced GyL effect by NK cells. We studied the effect on relapse rate of donor KIR haplotypes in the HLA-identical adult sibling HSCT, done in a single center, in Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland. Altogether, 134 patients with 6 different diagnoses were identified. Their donors were KIR genotyped using the Luminex and the SSP techniques. The clinical endpoint, that is, occurrence of relapse, was compared with the presence or absence of single KIR genes. Also, time from transplantation to relapse was analyzed. The patients with AML whose donors have KIR2DL2 or KIR2DS2 had statistically significantly longer relapse-free survival (P = 0.015). Our data support previous reports that donors with KIR B-haplotype defining genes have a lower occurrence of relapse in HSCT of AML patients. Determination of donor KIR haplotypes could be a useful addition for a risk assessment of HSCT especially in AML patients.
  • Trautinger, Franz; Eder, Johanna; Assaf, Chalid; Bagot, Martine; Cozzio, Antonio; Dummer, Reinhard; Gniadecki, Robert; Klemke, Claus-Detlev; Ortiz-Romero, Pablo L.; Papadavid, Evangelia; Pimpinelli, Nicola; Quaglino, Pietro; Ranki, Annamari; Scarisbrick, Julia; Stadler, Rudolf; Vakeva, Liisa; Vermeer, Maarten H.; Whittaker, Sean; Willemze, Rein; Knobler, Robert (2017)
    In order to provide a common standard for the treatment of mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sezary syndrome (SS), the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Cutaneous Lymphoma Task Force (EORTC-CLTF) published in 2006 its consensus recommendations for the stage-adapted selection of management options for these neoplasms. Since then, the understanding of the pathophysiology and epidemiology of MF/SS has advanced, the staging system has been revised, new outcome data have been published and novel treatment options have been introduced. The purpose of the present document is to update the original recommendations bearing in mind that there are still only a limited number of controlled studies to support treatment decisions for MF/SS and that often treatment is determined by institutional experience and availability. This consensus on treatment recommendations was established among the authors through a series of consecutive consultations in writing and a round of discussion. Recommended treatment options are presented according to disease stage, whenever possible categorised into first-and second-line options and supported with levels of evidence as devised by the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (OCEBM). Skin-directed therapies are still the most appropriate option for early-stage MF, and most patients can look forward to a normal life expectancy. For patients with advanced disease, prognosis is still grim, and only for a highly selected subset of patients, prolonged survival can be achieved with allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT). There is a high need for the development and investigation in controlled clinical trials of treatment options that are based on our increasing understanding of the molecular pathology of MF/SS. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Niittyvuopio, Riitta; Juvonen, Eeva; Heiskanen, Jouni; Lindstrom, Vesa; Nihtinen, Anne; Sahlstedt, Leila; Volin, Liisa (2018)
    BACKGROUND: Steroid-refractory acute graft-versushost disease (aGVHD) is a serious complication after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The long-term outcome of the patients is poor. Various immunosuppressive agents have been proposed as the second-line therapy but none of them has turned out more effective than the others. Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) is a treatment option that does not predispose the patients to severe side effects of the immunosuppressive drugs. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed the treatment results of ECP in 52 patients with steroidrefractory or steroid-dependent aGVHD. Eighty-one percent of the patients suffered from a severe, Grade III or IV, aGVHD. ECP was started alone as the second-line treatment in 23 patients and in combination with an immunosuppressive drug in 18 patients. Eleven patients received ECP as the third-line or later treatment. RESULTS: A total of 62% of the patients responded, with 48% achieving complete response. In the patients with complete or partial response, the probabilities of survival at 4 years were 54 and 17%, respectively. The outcome of nonresponders was poor. The 1-year overall survivals of the patients with ECP as the second-line treatment either alone or in combination with an immunosuppressive drug or as the third-line treatment were 51, 28, and 18%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, starting ECP no later than 10 days after the start of the first-line treatment correlated with a good response and a consequent survival benefit. CONCLUSION: Extracorporeal photopheresis is an effective and well-tolerated treatment that should be considered as a second-line treatment for aGVHD.
  • Canaani, Jonathan; Beohou, Eric; Labopin, Myriam; Socie, Gerard; Huynh, Anne; Volin, Liisa; Cornelissen, Jan; Milpied, Noel; Gedde-Dahl, Tobias; Deconinck, Eric; Fegueux, Nathalie; Blaise, Didier; Mohty, Mohamad; Nagler, Arnon (2017)
    The French, American, and British (FAB) classification system for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is extensively used and is incorporated into the AML, not otherwise specified (NOS) category in the 2016 WHO edition of myeloid neoplasm classification. While recent data proposes that FAB classification does not provide additional prognostic information for patients for whom NPM1 status is available, it is unknown whether FAB still retains a current prognostic role in predicting outcome of AML patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Using the European Society of Blood and Bone Marrow Transplantation registry we analyzed outcome of 1690 patients transplanted in CR1 to determine if FAB classification provides additional prognostic value. Multivariate analysis revealed that M6/M7 patients had decreased leukemia free survival (hazard ratio (HR) of 1.41, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01-1.99; P = .046) in addition to increased nonrelapse mortality (NRM) rates (HR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.06-3.01; P = .028) compared with other FAB types. In the NPM1(wt) AML, NOS cohort, FAB M6/M7 was also associated with increased NRM (HR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.14-4.16; P = .019). Finally, in FLT3-ITD+ patients, multivariate analyses revealed that specific FAB types were tightly associated with adverse outcome. In conclusion, FAB classification may predict outcome following transplantation in AML, NOS patients.
  • Haavisto, Anu; Mathiesen, Sidsel; Suominen, Anu; Lähteenmäki, Päivi; Sorensen, Kaspar; Ifversen, Marianne; Juul, Anders; Nielsen, Malene Mejdahl; Müller, Klaus; Jahnukainen, Kirsi (2020)
    There are many known endocrine complications after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in childhood including increased risk of biochemical hypogonadism. However, little is known about sexuality in adulthood following childhood HSCT. In this multicenter study, sexual functions and possible risk factors were assessed comprehensively in two national cohorts (Finland and Denmark) of male adult survivors of childhood HSCT. Compared to a healthy control group (n= 56), HSCT survivors (n= 97) reported less sexual fantasies, poorer orgasms, lower sexual activity with a partner and reduced satisfaction with their sex life, even in the presence of normal erectile functions and a similar frequency of autoerotic acts. Of the HSCT survivors, 35% were cohabitating/married and 66% were sexually active. Risk factors for poorer self-reported sexual functions were partner status (not cohabitating with a partner), depressive symptoms, CNS and testicular irradiation. Sexual dysfunction increased by age in the HSCT group with a pace comparable to that of the control group. However, because of the lower baseline level of sexual functions in the HSCT group, they will reach the level of clinically significant dysfunction at a younger age. Hence, male survivors of childhood HSCT should be interviewed in detail about their sexual health beyond erectile functions.
  • Saraceni, Francesco; Labopin, Myriam; Gorin, Norbert-Claude; Blaise, Didier; Tabrizi, Reza; Volin, Liisa; Cornelissen, Jan; Cahn, Jean-Yves; Chevallier, Patrice; Craddock, Charles; Wu, Depei; Huynh, Anne; Arcese, William; Mohty, Mohamad; Nagler, Arnon (2016)
    Background: Optimal post-remission strategy for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is matter of intense debate. Recent reports have shown stronger anti-leukemic activity but similar survival for allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) from matched sibling donor compared to autologous transplantation (auto-HSCT); however, there is scarcity of literature confronting auto-HSCT with allo-HSCT from unrelated donor (UD-HSCT), especially mismatched UD-HSCT. Methods: We retrospectively compared outcome of allogeneic transplantation from matched (10/10 UD-HSCT) or mismatched at a single HLA-locus unrelated donor (9/10 UD-HSCT) to autologous transplantation in patients with AML in first complete remission (CR1). A total of 2879 patients were included; 1202 patients received auto-HSCT, 1302 10/10 UD-HSCT, and 375 9/10 UD-HSCT. A propensity score-weighted analysis was conducted to control for disease risk imbalances between the groups. Results: Matched 10/10 UD-HSCT was associated with the best leukemia-free survival (10/10 UD-HSCT vs auto-HSCT: HR 0.7, rho = 0.0016). Leukemia-free survival was not statistically different between auto-HSCT and 9/10 UD-HSCT (9/10 UD-HSCT vs auto-HSCT: HR 0.8, rho = 0.2). Overall survival was similar across the groups (10/10 UD-HSCT vs auto-HSCT: HR 0.98, rho = 0.84; 9/10 UD-HSCT vs auto-HSCT: HR 1.1, rho = 0.49). Notably, in intermediate-risk patients, OS was significantly worse for 9/10 UD-HSCT (9/10 UD-HSCT vs auto-HSCT: HR 1.6, rho = 0.049), while it did not differ between auto-HSCT and 10/10 UD-HSCT (HR 0.95, rho = 0.88). In favorable risk patients, auto-HSCT resulted in 3-year LFS and OS rates of 59 and 78 %, respectively. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that in AML patients in CR1 lacking an HLA-matched sibling donor, 10/10 UD-HSCT significantly improves LFS, but this advantage does not translate in better OS compared to auto-HSCT. In intermediate-risk patients lacking a fully HLA-matched donor, auto-HSCT should be considered as a valid option, as better survival appears to be provided by auto-HSCT compared to mismatched UD-HSCT. Finally, auto-HSCT provided an encouraging outcome in patients with favorable risk AML.
  • Pavlu, Jiri; Labopin, Myriam; Niittyvuopio, Riitta; Socie, Gerard; Yakoub-Agha, Ibrahim; Wu, Depei; Remenyi, Peter; Passweg, Jakob; Beelen, Dietrich W.; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Kroeger, Nicolaus; Labussiere-Wallet, Helene; Peric, Zinaida; Giebel, Sebastian; Nagler, Arnon; Mohty, Mohamad (2019)
    Background: Assessment of measurable residual disease (MRD) is rapidly transforming the therapeutic and prognostic landscape of a wide range of hematological malignancies. Its prognostic value in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has been established and MRD measured at the end of induction is increasingly used to guide further therapy. Although MRD detectable immediately before allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is known to be associated with poor outcomes, it is unclear if or to what extent this differs with different types of conditioning. Methods: In this retrospective registry study, we explored whether measurable residual disease (MRD) before allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for acute lymphoblastic leukemia is associated with different outcomes in recipients of myeloablative total body irradiation (TBI)-based versus chemotherapy-based conditioning. We analyzed outcomes of 2780 patients (median age 38 years, range 18-72) who underwent first HCT in complete remission between 2000 and 2017 using sibling or unrelated donors. Results: In 1816 of patients, no disease was detectable, and in 964 patients, MRD was positive. Conditioning was TBI-based in 2122 (76%) transplants. In the whole cohort MRD positivity was a significant independent factor for lower overall survival (OS) and leukemia-free survival (LFS), and for higher relapse incidence (RI), with respective hazard ratios (HR, 95% confidence intervals) of 1.19 (1.02-1.39), 1.26 (1.1-1.44), and 1.51 (1.26-1.8). TBI was associated with a higher OS, LFS, and lower RI with HR of 0.75 (0.62-0.90), 0.70 (0.60-0.82), and 0.60 (0.49-0.74), respectively. No significant interaction was found between MRD status and conditioning. When investigating the impact of MRD separately in the TBI and chemotherapy-based conditioning cohorts by multivariate analysis, we found MRD positivity to be associated with lower OS and LFS and higher RI in the TBI group, and with higher RI in the chemotherapy group. TBI-based conditioning was associated with improved outcomes in both MRD-negative and MRD-positive patients. Conclusions: In this large study, we confirmed that patients who are MRD-negative prior to HCT achieve superior outcomes. This is particularly apparent if TBI conditioning is used. All patients with ALL irrespective of MRD status benefit from TBI-based conditioning in the myeloablative setting.
  • Cremers, E. M. P.; van Biezen, A.; de Wreede, L. C.; Scholten, M.; Vitek, A.; Finke, J.; Platzbecker, U.; Beelen, D.; Schwerdtfeger, R.; Volin, L.; Harhalakis, N.; Blijlevens, N.; Nagler, A.; Kroger, N.; de Witte, T. (2016)
    Many pre-transplant factors are known to influence the outcome of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) treatment in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). However, patient cohorts are often heterogeneous by disease stage and treatment modalities, which complicates interpretation of the results. This study aimed to obtain a homogeneous patient cohort by including only de novo MDS patients who received upfront allogeneic SCT after standard high dose myelo-ablative conditioning. The effect of pre-transplant factors such as age, disease stage, transfusions, iron parameters and comorbidity on overall survival (OS), non-relapse mortality (NRM), and relapse incidence (RI) was evaluated in 201 patients. In this cohort, characterized by low comorbidity and a short interval between diagnosis and transplantation, NRM was the most determinant factor for survival after SCT (47 % after 2-year follow-up). WHO classification and transfusion burden were the only modalities with a significant impact on overall survival after SCT. Estimated hazard ratios (HR) showed a strongly increased risk of death, NRM and RI, in patients with a high transfusion-burden (HR 1.99; P = 0.006, HR of 1.89; P = 0.03 and HR 2.67; P = 0.03). The HR's for ferritin level and comorbidity were not significantly increased.
  • Mohty, Mohamad; Malard, Florent; Abecasis, Manuel; Aerts, Erik; Alaskar, Ahmed S.; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Arat, Mutlu; Bader, Peter; Baron, Frederic; Basak, Grzegorz; Bazarbachi, Ali; Blaise, Didier; Ciceri, Fabio; Corbacioglu, Selim; Dalle, Jean-Hugues; Dignan, Fiona; Fukuda, Takahiro; Huynh, Anne; Kuball, Jurgen; Lachance, Silvy; Lazarus, Hillard; Masszi, Tamas; Michallet, Mauricette; Nagler, Arnon; NiChonghaile, Mairead; Okamoto, Shinichiro; Pagliuca, Antonio; Peters, Christina; Petersen, Finn B.; Richardson, Paul G.; Ruutu, Tapani; Saber, Wael; Savani, Bipin N.; Soiffer, Robert; Styczynski, Jan; Wallhult, Elisabeth; Yakoub-Agha, Ibrahim; Duarte, Rafael F.; Carreras, Enric (2020)
    Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, also known as veno-occlusive disease (SOS/VOD), is a potentially life-threatening complication that can develop after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). While SOS/VOD may resolve within a few weeks in the majority of patients with mild-to-moderate disease, the most severe forms result in multiorgan dysfunction and are associated with a high mortality rate (>80%). Therefore, careful surveillance may allow early detection of SOS/VOD, particularly as the licensed available drug is proven to be effective and reduce mortality. The aim of this work is to propose an international consensus guideline for the treatment and prevention of SOS/VOD in adult patients, on behalf of an international expert group.
  • Gratwohl, Alois; Iacobelli, Simona; Bootsman, Natalia; van Biezen, Anja; Baldomero, Helen; Arcese, William; Arnold, Renate; Bron, Dominique; Cordonnier, Catherine; Ernst, Peter; Ferrant, Augustin; Frassoni, Francesco; Gahrton, Gosta; Richard, Carlos; Kolb, Hans Jochem; Link, Hartmut; Niederwieser, Dietger; Ruutu, Tapani; Schattenberg, Anton; Schmitz, Norbert; Torres-Gomez, Antonio; Zwaan, Ferry; Apperley, Jane; Olavarria, Eduardo; Kroeger, Nicolaus; European Soc Blood Marrow Transpla (2016)
    In the context of discussions on the reproducibility of clinical studies, we reanalyzed a prospective randomized study on the role of splenic irradiation as adjunct to the conditioning for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Between 1986 and 1989, a total of 229 patients with CML were randomized; of these, 225 (98 %; 112 with, 113 without splenic irradiation) could be identified in the database and their survival updated. Results confirmed the early findings with no significant differences in all measured endpoints (overall survival at 25 years: 42.7 %, 32.0-52.4 % vs 52.9 %, 43.2-62.6 %; p = 0.355, log rank test). Additional splenic irradiation failed to reduce relapse incidence. It did not increase non-relapse mortality nor the risk of late secondary malignancies. Comforting are the long-term results from this predefined consecutive cohort of patients: more than 60 % were alive at plus 25 years when they were transplanted with a low European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) risk sore. This needs to be considered today when treatment options are discussed for patients who failed initial tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy and have an available low risk HLA-identical donor.
  • Brissot, Eolia; Labopin, Myriam; Beckers, Marielle M.; Socie, Gerard; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Volin, Liisa; Finke, Juergen; Lenhoff, Stig; Kroeger, Nicolaus; Ossenkoppele, Gert J.; Craddock, Charles F.; Yakoub-Agha, Ibrahim; Gurman, Gunhan; Russell, Nigel H.; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Potter, Michael N.; Nagler, Armon; Ottmann, Oliver; Cornelissen, Jan J.; Esteve, Jordi; Mohty, Mohamad (2015)
    This study aimed to determine the impact of tyrosine kinase inhibitors given pre- and post- allogeneic stem cell transplantation on long- term outcome of patients allografted for Philadelphia chromosome- positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia. This retrospective analysis from the EBMT Acute Leukemia Working Party included 473 de novo Philadelphia chromosome- positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients in first complete remission who underwent an allogeneic stem cell transplantation using a human leukocyte antigen- identical sibling or human leukocyte antigen- matched unrelated donor between 2000 and 2010. Three hundred and ninety patients received tyrosine kinase inhibitors before transplant, 329 at induction and 274 at consolidation. Kaplan- Meier estimates of leukemia- free survival, overall survival, cumulative incidences of relapse incidence, and non- relapse mortality at five years were 38%, 46%, 36% and 26%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, tyrosine- kinase inhibitors given before allogeneic stem cell transplantation was associated with a better overall survival ( HR= 0.68; P= 0.04) and was associated with lower relapse incidence ( HR= 0.5; P= 0.01). In the post- transplant period, multivariate analysis identified prophylactic tyrosine- kinase inhibitor administration to be a significant factor for improved leukemiafree survival ( HR= 0.44; P= 0.002) and overall survival ( HR= 0.42; P= 0.004), and a lower relapse incidence ( HR= 0.40; P= 0.01). Over the past decade, administration of tyrosine kinase inhibitors before allogeneic stem cell transplantation has significantly improved the long- term allogeneic stem cell transplantation outcome of adult Philadelphia chromosome- positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Prospective studies will be of great interest to further confirm the potential benefit of the prophylactic use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the post- transplant setting.
  • Scheid, C.; de Wreede, L.; van Biezen, A.; Koenecke, C.; Gohring, G.; Volin, L.; Maertens, J.; Finke, J.; Passweg, J.; Beelen, D.; Cornelissen, J. J.; Itälä-Remes, M.; Chevallier, P.; Russell, N.; Petersen, E.; Milpied, N.; Espiga, C. Richard; Peniket, A.; Sierra, J.; Mufti, G.; Crawley, C.; Veelken, J. H.; Ljungman, P.; Cahn, J. Y.; Alessandrino, E. P.; de Witte, T.; Robin, M.; Kroeger, N. (2017)
    The International Prognostic Scoring System has been revised (IPSS-R) to predict prognosis of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes at diagnosis. To validate the use of the IPSS-R assessed before transplant rather than at diagnosis we performed a retrospective analysis of the EBMT database. A total of 579 patients had sufficient information available to calculate IPSS-R at transplant. Median overall survival (OS) from transplant was significantly different according to IPSS-R: very low 23.6 months, low 55.0 months, intermediate 19.7 months, high 13.5 months, very high 7.8 months (P <0.001). In a multivariate Cox model the following parameters were significant risk factors for OS: IPSS-R, graft source, age and prior treatment. Median relapse free survival also showed significant differences according to IPSS-R: very low: 23.6 months, low: 24.8 months, intermediate 10.6 months, high 7.9 months, very high 5.5 months (P <0.001). Multivariate risk factors for relapse-free survival (RFS) were: IPSS-R, reduced intensity conditioning, graft source and prior treatment. A trend for an increased relapse incidence was noted for very high risk IPSS-R. We conclude that the IPSS-R at transplant is a useful prognostic score for predicting OS and RFS after transplantation, capturing both disease evolution and response to prior treatment before transplant.
  • Vettenranta, Kim; Dobsinska, Veronika; Kertesz, Gabriella; Svec, Peter; Buechner, Jochen; Schultz, Kirk R. (2022)
    Previously, the outcome of paediatric Philadelphia-chromosome-positive (Ph+) ALL treated with conventional chemotherapy alone was poor, necessitating the use of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for the best outcomes. The recent addition of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) alongside the chemotherapy regimens for Ph+ ALL has markedly improved outcomes, replacing the need for HSCT for lower risk patients. An additional poor prognosis group of Philadelphia-chromosome-like (Ph-like) ALL has also been identified. This group also can be targeted by TKIs in combination with chemotherapy, but the role of HSCT in this population is not clear. The impact of novel targeted immunotherapies (chimeric antigen receptor T cells and bispecific or drug-conjugated antibodies) has improved the outcome of patients, in combination with chemotherapy, and made the role of HSCT as the optimal curative therapy for Ph+ ALL and Ph-like ALL less clear. The prognosis of patients with Ph+ ALL and persistent minimal residual disease (MRD) at the end of consolidation despite TKI therapy or with additional genetic risk factors remains inferior when HSCT is not used. For such high-risk patients, HSCT using total-body-irradiation-containing conditioning is currently recommended. This review aims to provide an update on the current and future role of HSCT for Ph+ ALL and addresses key questions related to the management of these patients, including the role of HSCT in first complete remission, MRD evaluation and related actions post HSCT, TKI usage post HSCT, and the putative role of HSCT in Ph-like ALL.