Browsing by Subject "BOREAL FEN"

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  • Alekseychik, Pavel; Korrensalo, Aino; Mammarella, Ivan; Launiainen, Samuli; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina; Korpela, Ilkka; Vesala, Timo (2021)
    Pristine boreal mires are known as substantial sinks of carbon dioxide (CO2) and net emitters of methane (CH4). Bogs constitute a major fraction of pristine boreal mires. However, the bog CO2 and CH4 balances are poorly known, having been largely estimated based on discrete and short-term measurements by manual chambers and seldom using the eddy-covariance (EC) technique. Eddy-covariance (EC) measurements of CO2 and CH4 exchange were conducted in the Siikaneva mire complex in southern Finland in 2011-2016. The site is a patterned bog having a moss-sedge-shrub vegetation typical of southern Eurasian taiga, with several ponds near the EC tower. The study presents a complete series of CO2 and CH4 EC flux (F-CH4) measurements and identifies the environmental factors controlling the ecosystem-atmosphere CO2 and CH4 exchange. A 6-year average growing season (May-September) cumulative CO2 exchange of -61 +/- 24 g Cm-2 was observed, which partitions into mean total respiration (Re) of 167 +/- 33 (interannual range 146-197) g Cm-2 and mean gross primary production (GPP) of 228 +/- 46 (interannual range 193-257) g Cm-2, while the corresponding F-CH4 amounts to 7.1 +/- 0.7 (interannual range 6.4-8.4) g Cm-2. The contribution of October-December CO2 and CH4 fluxes to the cumulative sums was not negligible based on the measurements during one winter. GPP, Re and F-CH4 increased with temperature. GPP and F-CH4 did not show any significant decline even after a substantial water table drawdown in 2011. Instead, GPP, Re and F-CH4 were limited in the cool, cloudy and wet growing season of 2012. May-September cumulative net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of 2013-2016 averaged at about 73 g Cm-2, in contrast with the hot and dry year 2011 and the wet and cool year 2012. Suboptimal weather likely reduced the net sink by about 25 g Cm-2 in 2011 due to elevated Re, and by about 40 g Cm-2 in 2012 due to limited GPP. The cumulative growing season sums of GPP and CH4 emission showed a strong positive relationship. The EC source area was found to be comprised of eight distinct surface types. However, footprint analyses revealed that contributions of different surface types varied only within 10 %-20% with respect to wind direction and stability conditions. Consequently, no clear link between CO2 and CH4 fluxes and the EC footprint composition was found despite the apparent variation in fluxes with wind direction.
  • Rinne, J.; Tuovinen, J. -P.; Klemedtsson, L.; Aurela, M.; Holst, J.; Lohila, A.; Weslien, P.; Vestin, P.; Łakomiec, P.; Peichl, M.; Peichl, M.; Tuittila, E. -S.; Heiskanen, L.; Laurila, T.; Li, Xuefei; Alekseychik, P.; Mammarella, I.; Ström, L.; Crill, P.; Nilsson, M. B. (2020)
    We analysed the effect of the 2018 European drought on greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange of five North European mire ecosystems. The low precipitation and high summer temperatures in Fennoscandia led to a lowered water table in the majority of these mires. This lowered both carbon dioxide (CO2) uptake and methane (CH4) emission during 2018, turning three out of the five mires from CO(2)sinks to sources. The calculated radiative forcing showed that the drought-induced changes in GHG fluxes first resulted in a cooling effect lasting 15-50 years, due to the lowered CH(4)emission, which was followed by warming due to the lower CO(2)uptake. This article is part of the theme issue 'Impacts of the 2018 severe drought and heatwave in Europe: from site to continental scale'.
  • Dengel, S.; Zona, D.; Sachs, T.; Aurela, M.; Jammet, M.; Parmentier, F. J. W.; Oechel, W.; Vesala, T. (2013)
  • Vainio, Elisa; Peltola, Olli; Kasurinen, Ville; Kieloaho, Antti-Jussi; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina; Pihlatie, Mari (2021)
    Boreal forest soils are globally an important sink for methane (CH4), while these soils are also capable of emitting CH4 under favourable conditions. Soil wetness is a well-known driver of CH4 flux, and the wetness can be estimated with several terrain indices developed for the purpose. The aim of this study was to quantify the spatial variability of the forest floor CH4 flux with a topography-based upscaling method connecting the flux with its driving factors. We conducted spatially extensive forest floor CH4 flux and soil moisture measurements, complemented by ground vegetation classification, in a boreal pine forest. We then modelled the soil moisture with a random forest model using digital-elevation-model-derived topographic indices, based on which we upscaled the forest floor CH4 flux. The modelling was performed for two seasons: May–July and August–October. Additionally, we evaluated the number of flux measurement points needed to get an accurate estimate of the flux at the whole study site merely by averaging. Our results demonstrate high spatial heterogeneity in the forest floor CH4 flux resulting from the soil moisture variability as well as from the related ground vegetation. The mean measured CH4 flux at the sample points was −5.07 µmol m−2 h−1 in May–July and −8.67 µmol m−2 h−1 in August–October, while the modelled flux for the whole area was −7.42 and −9.91 µmol m−2 h−1 for the two seasons, respectively. The spatial variability in the soil moisture and consequently in the CH4 flux was higher in the early summer (modelled range from −12.3 to 6.19 µmol m−2 h−1) compared to the autumn period (range from −14.6 to −2.12 µmol m−2 h−1), and overall the CH4 uptake rate was higher in autumn compared to early summer. In the early summer there were patches emitting high amounts of CH4; however, these wet patches got drier and smaller in size towards the autumn, changing their dynamics to CH4 uptake. The mean values of the measured and modelled CH4 fluxes for the sample point locations were similar, indicating that the model was able to reproduce the results. For the whole site, upscaling predicted stronger CH4 uptake compared to simply averaging over the sample points. The results highlight the small-scale spatial variability of the boreal forest floor CH4 flux and the importance of soil chamber placement in order to obtain spatially representative CH4 flux results. To predict the CH4 fluxes over large areas more reliably, the locations of the sample points should be selected based on the spatial variability of the driving parameters, in addition to linking the measured fluxes with the parameters.
  • Zhang, Hui; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina; Korrensalo, Aino; Rasänen, Aleksi; Virtanen, Tarmo; Aurela, Mika; Penttilä, Timo; Laurila, Tuomas; Gerin, Stephanie; Lindholm, Viivi; Lohila, Annalea (2020)
    Northern peatlands are projected to be crucial in future atmospheric methane (CH4) budgets and have a positive feedback on global warming. Fens receive nutrients from catchments via inflowing water and are more sensitive than bogs to variations in their ecohydrology. Yet, due to a lack of data detailing the impacts of moving water on microhabitats and CH4 fluxes in fens, large uncertainties remain with respect to predicting CH4 emissions from these sites under climate changes. We measured CH4 fluxes with manual chambers over three growing seasons (2017-2019) at a northern boreal fen. To address the spatial variation at the site where a stream flows through the long and narrow valley fen, we established sample plots at varying distances from the stream. To link the variations in CH4 emissions to environmental controls, we quantified water levels, peat temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, vegetation composition, and leaf area index in combination with flux measurements during the growing season in 2019. We found that due to the flowing water, there was a higher water level, cooler peat temperatures, and more oxygen in the peat close to the stream, which also had the highest total leaf area and gross primary production (GPP) values but the lowest CH4 emissions. CH4 emissions were highest at an intermediate distance from the stream where the oxygen concentration in the surface peat was low but GPP was still high. Further from the stream, the conditions were drier and produced low CH4 emissions. Our results emphasize the key role of ecohydrology in CH4 dynamics in fens and, for the first time, show how a stream controls CH4 emissions in a flow-through fen. As valley fens are common peatland ecosystems from the Arctic to the temperate zones, future projections of global CH4 budgets need to take flowing water features into account.