Browsing by Subject "BORN"

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  • Tiirats, Airi; Viltrop, Triin; Noukas, Margit; Reimann, Ene; Salumets, Andres; Koks, Sulev (2016)
    Background: Despite extensive research the genetic component of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) in newborns has remained obscure. Results: The aim of the case study was to identify candidate gene(s) causing ELBW in newborns and hypotrophy in infants. A family of four was studied: mother, father and two ELBW-phenotype children. Studies were made of the medical conditions of the second child at birth and post-partum - peculiar phenotype, micro-anomalies, recurrent infections, suspicion of autoimmune hepatitis, multifactorial encephalopathy and suspected metabolic and chromosomal abnormalities. Whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping array was used to investigate the genomic rearrangements in both affected children using peripheral blood DNA samples. Whole blood transcriptome was assessed by using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) in all four family members. RNA-seq identified a single gene - C14orf132 (chromosome 14 open reading frame 132) differentially expressed, with the level of the transcript significantly lower in the blood samples of the children. Copy number variant (CNV) analysis did not reveal any pathogenic CNVs in the region of C14orf132 gene of both affected children. Conclusion: We demonstrated the importance of combining whole genome CNV and transcriptome analysis in identification of the candidate gene(s) in case studies. We propose the C14orf132 gene expression to be associated with the ELBW-phenotype. C14orf132 gene is a novel long non-coding RNA (lincRNA) with unknown function, which might be associated with the pre- and early postnatal developmental delay through the altered gene expression.
  • Björkqvist, Johan; Kuula, Juho; Kuula, Liisa; Nurhonen, Markku; Hovi, Petteri; Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu; Kajantie, Eero (2020)
    Chronotype is the temporal preference for activity and sleep during the 24 h day and is linked to mental and physical health, quality of life, and mortality. Later chronotypes, so-called “night owls”, consistently display poorer health outcomes than “larks”. Previous studies have suggested that preterm birth (<37 weeks of gestation) is associated with an earlier chronotype in children, adolescents, and young adults, but studies beyond this age are absent. Our aim was to determine if adults born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW, ≤1500 g) display different chronotypes than their siblings. We studied VLBW adults, aged 29.9 years (SD 2.8), matched with same-sex term-born siblings as controls. A total of 123 participants, consisting of 53 sibling pairs and 17 unmatched participants, provided actigraphy-derived data on the timing, duration, and quality of sleep from 1640 nights (mean 13.3 per participant, SD 2.7). Mixed effects models provided estimates and significance tests. Compared to their siblings, VLBW adults displayed 27 min earlier sleep midpoint during free days (95% CI: 3 to 51 min, p =.029). This was also reflected in the timing of falling asleep, waking up, and sleep-debt corrected sleep midpoint. The findings were emphasized in VLBW participants born small for gestational age. VLBW adults displayed an earlier chronotype than their siblings still at age 30, which suggests that the earlier chronotype is an enduring individual trait not explained by shared family factors. This preference could provide protection from risks associated with preterm birth.
  • Dudel, Christian; Myrskylä, Mikko (2020)
    Objectives: Little is known about the length of working life, even though it is a key indicator for policy-makers. In this paper, we study how the length of working life at age 50 has developed in the United States from a cohort perspective. Methods: We use a large longitudinal sample of U.S. Social Security register data that covers close to 1.7 million individuals of the cohorts born from 1920 to 1965. For all of these cohorts, we study the employment trajectories and working life expectancy (WLE) at age 50 by gender and nativity (native-born/foreign-born). For the cohorts with employment trajectories that are only incompletely observed, we borrow information from older cohorts to predict their WLE. Results: The length of working life has been increasing for the native-born males and females, and the younger cohorts worked longer than the older cohorts. However, WLE might soon peak, and then stall. The gap in WLE between the nativeborn and the foreign-born has increased over time, although latter group might be able to catch up in the coming years. Discussion: Our findings show that studying employment from a cohort perspective reveals crucial information about patterns of working life. The future development of the length of working life should be a major concern for policy-makers.
  • O'Toole, John M.; Boylan, Geraldine B.; Lloyd, Rhodri O.; Goulding, Robert M.; Vanhatalo, Sampsa; Stevenson, Nathan J. (2017)
    Aim: To develop a method that segments preterm EEG into bursts and inter-bursts by extracting and combining multiple EEG features. Methods: Two EEG experts annotated bursts in individual EEG channels for 36 preterm infants with gestational age <30 weeks. The feature set included spectral, amplitude, and frequency-weighted energy features. Using a consensus annotation, feature selection removed redundant features and a support vector machine combined features. Area under the receiver operator characteristic (AUC) and Cohen's kappa (K) evaluated performance within a cross-validation procedure. Results: The proposed channel-independent method improves AUC by 4-5% over existing methods (p <0.001, n = 36), with median (95% confidence interval) AUC of 0.989 (0.973-0.997) and sensitivity -specificity of 95.8-94.4%. Agreement rates between the detector and experts' annotations, K = 0.72 (0.36-0.83) and K = 0.65 (0.32-0.81), are comparable to inter-rater agreement, K = 0.60 (0.21-0.74). Conclusions: Automating the visual identification of bursts in preterm EEG is achievable with a high level of accuracy. Multiple features, combined using a data-driven approach, improves on existing single-feature methods. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of IPEM.
  • Idehen, Esther E.; Koponen, Päivikki; Härkänen, Tommi; Kangasniemi, Mari; Pietilä, Anna-Maija; Korhonen, Tellervo (2018)
    Background: Cervical cancer is currently ranked as the fourth commonly diagnosed cancer in women globally. A higher incidence has been reported in low- and-middle-income countries, and the disease poses significant public health challenges. Evidence suggests that this disease is preventable by means of regular screening using the Papanicolaou (Pap) test. However, limited knowledge exists about disparities in cervical screening participation among immigrants compared with non-immigrants, in countries with universal cervical screening programmes. We aimed to examine disparities in cervical screening participation among women of Russian, Somali, and Kurdish, origin in Finland, comparing them with the general Finnish population (Finns). We controlled for differences in several socio-demographic and health-related variables as potential confounders. Methods: We employed data from the Finnish Migrant Health and Well-being Study 2010-2012 and the National Health 2011 Survey. Data collection involved face-to-face interviews. Data on screening participation in the previous five years from women aged 29-60 were available from 537 immigrants (257 Russians, 113 Somalis, 167 Kurds) and from 436 Finns. For statistical analyses, we used multiple logistic regression. Results: Age-adjusted screening participation rates were as follows: Russians 79% (95% Cl 72.9-84.4), Somalis 41% (95% Cl 31.4-50.1), and Kurds 64% (95% Cl 57.2-70.8), compared with 94% (95% Cl 91.4-95.9) among Finns. After additionally adjusting for socio-demographic and health-related confounders, all the immigrant groups showed a significantly lower likelihood of screening participation when compared with Finns. The Odds Ratios were as follows: Russians 0.32 (95% Cl 0.18-0.58), Somalis 0.10 (95% Cl 0.04-0.23), and Kurds 0.17 (95% Cl 0.09-0.35). However, when additionally accounting for country of origin-confounder interactions, such differences were attenuated. Conclusions: Our results indicate disparities in screening participation among these immigrants and a lower likelihood of screening participation compared with the general Finnish population. To improve equity in cervical cancer screening participation, appropriate culturally tailored intervention programmes for each immigrant group might be beneficial.
  • Nyman, Anna; Munck, Petriina; Koivisto, Mari; Hagelstam, Camilla; Korhonen, Tapio; Lehtonen, Liisa; Haataja, Leena (2019)
    Objective: Executive function (EF) problems of children born at very low birth weight (VLBW; = 70 had clinically significant problems in the Working Memory subscale at school. Although they had clinically significant problems at home in the Behavioral Regulation Index, the difference disappeared when adjusted for paternal education. Lower gestational age, lower birth weight z-score, surgical necrotizing enterocolitis, low paternal and maternal education, and lower full-scale IQ were identified to be risk factors for higher scores in ecological assessment of EF. Conclusion: VLBW or VLGA children in this cohort exhibit fewer EF problems in ecological assessment of EF compared to previous literature. EF problems of this study population vary by home and school setting and are emphasized in working memory at school. Screening for EF problems in school environment is recommended to target the support.
  • Seppa, Satu; Tenhola, Sirpa; Voutilainen, Raimo (2019)
    Context: Among cytokines, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), adiponectin (Adn), and irisin have been considered potential biomarkers for insulin sensitivity (IS). Objective: We evaluated whether serum FGF21, Adn, and irisin associate with markers of IS and serum lipids in 12-year-old children. Design, Participants, and Main Outcome Measures: This cohort study included 192 12-year-old children (109 girls). Seventy-eight of them had been born appropriate for gestational age (AGA), 70 small for gestational age (SGA), and 44 from preeclamptic pregnancies (PREs) as AGA. Fasting serum FGF21, Adn, irisin, lipids, inflammatory markers, and IS markers were measured. Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) was calculated. Results: The means of serum FGF21, high molecular weight (HMW) Adn, and irisin did not differ between the sexes or between the SGA, AGA, and PRE children. In the whole study population, FGF21 associated positively with irisin and uric acid and negatively with leptin and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). HMW Adn associated positively with total Adn, HDL-C, leptin, and SHBG. Apart from FGF21, irisin associated positively with insulin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, y-glutamyltransferase, and triglycerides, and negatively with QUICKI, SHBG, and IGF binding protein-1. In multivariate regression analyses, irisin predicted lower IS and HMW Adn predicted higher HDL-C body mass index-independently, whereas FGF21 had no independent contribution to IS or lipid variables. Conclusion: In 12-year-old children, serum irisin was associated with markers reflecting reduced IS. HMW Adn predicted HDL-C, whereas FGF21 did not contribute to IS or lipid parameters in multivariate regression analyses. Copyright (C) 2019 Endocrine Society
  • Kaseva, Nina; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Sundvall, Jouko; Matinolli, Hanna-Maria; Sipola, Marika; Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Heinonen, Kati; Lano, Aulikki; Wehkalampi, Karoliina; Wolke, Dieter; Ruokonen, Aimo; Andersson, Sture; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Räikkönen, Katri; Eriksson, Johan G.; Kajantie, Eero (2019)
    Context: Maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and prepregnancy overweight/obesity [body mass index (BMI) >= 25 kg/m(2)] might adversely affect offspring cardiometabolic health. Objective: To assess the associations between maternal GDM and prepregnancy overweight/obesity with adult offspring cardiometabolic risk factors. Design: Longitudinal cohort study (ESTER Maternal Pregnancy Disorders Study and the Arvo Ylppo Longitudinal Study). Setting: Province of Uusimaa and Northern Finland. Participants: At a mean age of 24.1 +/- 1.3 years, we classified offspring as offspring of mothers with GDM regardless of the prepregnancy BMI (OGDM; n = 193); normoglycemic mothers with pre pregnancy overweight/obesity (ONO; n = 157); and normoglycemic mothers with prepregnancy BMI Main Outcome Measures: We assessed the cardiometabolic biomarkers from blood and measured the blood pressure at rest and heart rate. Results: Compared with the controls, the OGDM and ONO groups had greater fasting glucose (1.6%; 95% CI, 0.1% to 3.1%; and 2.3%; 95% CI, 0.5% to 4.3%, respectively) and insulin (12.7%; 95% CI, 4.4% to 21.9%; and 8.7%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 17.8%). These differences attenuated to nonsignificance when adjusted for confounders and/or current offspring characteristics, including BMI or body fat percentage. The OGDM group had lower SHBG (men, 12.4%; 95% CI, 20.2% to 3.9%; women, 33.2%; 95% CI, 46.3% to 16.8%), high-density lipoprotein (-6.6%; 95% CI, 10.9% to 2.2%), and apolipoprotein Al (-4.5%; 95% CI, 7.5% to 1.4%). These differences survived the adjustments. The heart rate and other biomarkers were similar among the groups. Conclusions: Adult offspring of mothers with GDM have increased markers of insulin resistance and a more atherogenic lipid profile. These were only partly explained by confounders or current offspring adiposity. Maternal prepregnancy overweight/obesity was associated with impaired offspring glucose regulation, which was explained by confounders and/or current adiposity.
  • Kajantie, Eero; Osmond, Clive; Eriksson, Johan G. (2017)
    BACKGROUND: Women with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes later in life. Offspring born from these hypertensive pregnancies have increased levels of cardiovascular risk factors; whether they are at an increased risk of type 2 diabetes is not known. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the investigation was to study the risk of type 2 diabetes in the adult offspring exposed to maternal preeclampsia or gestational hypertension in utero. STUDY DESIGN: We studied 5335 members of the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, who were born between 1934 and 1944 and who lived in Finland in 1995 when the National Medication Purchase Register was initiated. We ascertained gestational hypertension and preeclampsia according to modern criteria by using maternal and birth records. We defined type 2 diabetes through purchases of antidiabetic medication recorded in the comprehensive National Medication Purchase Register, excluding the 31 subjects who had purchased only insulin. We used Cox regression to assess hazard ratios for type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: A total of 590 men (21.6%) and 433 women (16.9%) had purchased medication for diabetes. The hazard ratio for type 2 diabetes for offspring exposed to any maternal hypertension in pregnancy was 1.13 (95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.29; n = 1780). For maternal gestational hypertension, it was 1.15 (95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.33; n = 1336) and for preeclampsia 0.98 (95% confidence interval, 0.71-1.34; n = 231). For type 2 diabetes with first medication purchase before 62 years, the corresponding hazard ratios were 1.25 (95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.51); 1.28 (95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.58), and 1.18 (95% confidence interval, 0.75-1.84). The hazard ratios were similar when adjusted for birthweight SD score for gestation, length of gestation, maternal body mass index in late pregnancy, height, age, and parity and for childhood or adult socioeconomic position. An increased risk of type 2 diabetes was also associated with low birthweight SD score, independent of the association with gestational hypertension. CONCLUSION: Offspring exposed to maternal gestational hypertension in utero have an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in late adult life. This finding underlines the role of the whole spectrum of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy as risk factors of offspring disease throughout life. It also reinforces previous suggestions that adult health care providers should incorporate birth histories when evaluating an individual's risk to develop type 2 diabetes.
  • Kaseva, Nina; Vääräsmaki, Marja; Matinolli, Hanna-Maria; Sipola, Marika; Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Kanerva, Noora; Heinonen, Kati; Lano, Aulikki; Wolke, Dieter; Andersson, Sture; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Räikkönen, Katri; Eriksson, Johan G.; Männistö, Satu; Kajantie, Eero (2020)
    Background/Objectives Maternal pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity and gestational diabetes (GDM) are associated with increased fat deposition in adult offspring. The purpose of this study was to identify if maternal pre-pregnancy overweight (body mass index (BMI) >= 25 kg/m(2)) or GDM are associated with dietary quality or intake in adult offspring. Subjects/Methods Participants (n = 882) from two longitudinal cohort studies (ESTER Maternal Pregnancy Disorders Study and the Arvo Ylppo Longitudinal Study) completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire at a mean age of 24.2 years (SD 1.3). Diet quality was evaluated by a Recommended Finnish Diet Index (RDI). The study sample included offspring of normoglycaemic mothers with pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity (ONO = 155), offspring of mothers with GDM regardless of BMI (OGDM = 190) and offspring of mothers with normal weight and no GDM (controls;n = 537). Results Among men, daily energy and macronutrient intakes were similar in ONO and controls. However, after adjusting for current offspring characteristics, including BMI, daily carbohydrate intake relative to total energy intake was higher in ONO-men [2.2 percentages of total energy intake (95% confidence interval 0.4, 4.0)]. In ONO-women, macronutrient intakes relative to total energy intake were similar with controls, while total daily energy intake seemed lower [-587.2 kJ/day (-1192.0, 4.4)]. After adjusting for confounders, this difference was attenuated. Adherence to a healthy diet, as measured by RDI, was similar in ONO and controls [mean difference: men 0.40 (-0.38, 1.18); women 0.25 (-0.50, 1.00)]. In OGDM vs. controls, total energy and macronutrient intakes were similar for both men and women. Also adherence to a healthy diet was similar [RDI: men 0.09 (-0.62, 0.80); women -0.17 (-0.93, 0.59)]. Conclusions Our study suggested higher daily carbohydrate intake in male offspring exposed to maternal pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity, compared with controls. Prenatal exposure to GDM was not associated with adult offspring dietary intakes.
  • Kiuru, Annika; Ahola, Terhi; Klenberg, Liisa; Tommiska, Viena; Lano, Aulikki; Kleemola, Päivi; Haavisto, Anu; Fellman, Vineta (2019)
  • PIPARI Study Grp; Nyman, Anna; Korhonen, Tapia; Lehtonen, Liisa; Haataja, Leena (2019)
    Aim This Finnish regional birth-cohort study compared the school performance of very preterm and full-term children when they reached 11 years of age. Methods Teachers rated the educational abilities of 123 preterm children and 133 full-term controls at the age of 11 years as well as the support services they received. The children were all born in the Turku University Hospital between 2001 and 2005. In the preterm group, neurosensory impairments were confirmed at two years of corrected age, and full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) was assessed at 11 years of age using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale, Fourth Edition. Results Educational abilities, including academic skills and classroom functioning, did not differ between the two groups after excluding the children with a full-scale IQ <70. However, 40% of the preterm group and 26% of the controls had received at least one support service (p = 70 and age-appropriate educational abilities do not exclude a significant need for support services in very preterm children at the age of 11 years.
  • Niutanen, Ulla; Harra, Toini; Lano, Aulikki; Metsaranta, Marjo (2019)
    Aim Preterm birth poses concerns in daily functioning and behaviour in childhood, possibly connected to sensory processing disorder. This review aimed to systematically identify assessments, incidence and nature of sensory processing disorder in preterm-born infants and children. Methods We searched literature through CINAHL-EBSCOhost, Cochrane, Ovid/PsychINFO, PubMed/Medline, Scopus and Google Scholar, published until November 2018. We included electronically available, peer-reviewed studies of preterm-born children that applied standardised sensory processing assessments. We excluded studies of preterm-born children with major neurodevelopmental impairments. Results We identified 27 studies of premature children, aged from birth to 9 years 7 months. The assessments represented three versions of Sensory Profile questionnaires and three clinical tests, Test of Sensory Functions in Infants, the Miller Assessment for Preschoolers, and the Sensory Integration and Praxis Test. The studies revealed wide variation of atypical sensory processing: 28%-87% in sensory modulation, 9%-70% in somatosensory processing and 20%-70% in sensory-based motor processing. Conclusion Preterm-born children exhibited elevated risk for sensory processing disorder from infancy into school age. Routine screening of sensory processing, intervention intervals and parental consultations should be considered in ameliorating sensory processing and neurocognitive development. Moreover, a larger body of intervention studies is needed.
  • Heinonen, Kati; Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Andersson, Sture; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G.; Vartia, Timo; Wolke, Dieter; Lano, Aulikki (2011)
  • Hägglund, Gunnar; Hollung, Sandra Julsen; Ahonen, Matti; Andersen, Guro L.; Eggertsdottir, Guobjorg; Gaston, Mark S.; Jahnsen, Reidun; Jeglinsky-Kankainen, Ira; Nordbye-Nielsen, Kirsten; Tresoldi, Ilaria; Alriksson-Schmidt, Ann (2021)
    BackgroundSpasticity is present in more than 80% of the population with cerebral palsy (CP). The aim of this study was to describe and compare the use of three spasticity reducing methods; Botulinum toxin-A therapy (BTX-A), Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) and Intrathecal baclofen therapy (ITB) among children and adolescents with CP in six northern European countries.MethodsThis registry-based study included population-based data in children and adolescents with CP born 2002 to 2017 and recorded in the follow-up programs for CP in Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Iceland and Scotland, and a defined cohort in Finland.ResultsA total of 8,817 individuals were included. The proportion of individuals treated with SDR and ITB was significantly different between the countries. SDR treatment ranged from 0% ( Finland and Iceland) to 3.4% (Scotland) and ITB treatment from 2.2% (Sweden) to 3.7% (Denmark and Scotland). BTX-A treatment in the lower extremities reported 2017-2018 ranged from 8.6% in Denmark to 20% in Norway (p
  • PIPARI Study Grp (2018)
    The aim of this study is to investigate the working memory (WM) of very-low-birthweight (VLBW, 1500g) children at the age of 11years using Baddeley's WM model. A regional cohort of 95 VLBW children was assessed for the domains of the WM model (central executive [CE], visuospatial sketchpad [VS], and phonological loop [PL]) using subtests from the Working Memory Test Battery for Children (WMTB-C) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fourth Edition (WISC-IV). VLBW children were categorized into three groups according to their degree of brain pathology (normal, minor, or major) in neonatal brain magnetic resonance imaging at the term age, and the WM performance was compared between groups to test norms. The structure of the WM model was studied by analyzing correlations among domains. Even VLBW children with normal cognitive development (general ability index 85) performed worse compared to the test norms (M=100, SD=15) on CE (M=87.64, SD=20.54, p