Browsing by Subject "BOW SHOCK"

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  • Turc, L.; Fontaine, D.; Savoini, P.; Kilpua, E. K. J. (2014)
  • Andreeova, K.; Juusola, L.; Kilpua, E. K. J.; Koskinen, H. E. J. (2014)
  • Turc, Lucile; Taryus, Vertti; Dimmock, Andrew P.; Battarbee, Markus; Ganse, Urs; Johlander, Andreas; Grandin, Maxime; Pfau-Kempf, Yann; Dubart, Maxime; Palmroth, Minna (2020)
    Bounded by the bow shock and the magnetopause, the magnetosheath forms the interface between solar wind and magnetospheric plasmas and regulates solar wind-magnetosphere coupling. Previous works have revealed pronounced dawn-dusk asymmetries in the magnetosheath properties. The dependence of these asymmetries on the upstream parameters remains however largely unknown. One of the main sources of these asymmetries is the bow shock configuration, which is typically quasi-parallel on the dawn side and quasi-perpendicular on the dusk side of the terrestrial magnetosheath because of the Parker spiral orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) at Earth. Most of these previous studies rely on collections of spacecraft measurements associated with a wide range of upstream conditions which are processed in order to obtain average values of the magnetosheath parameters. In this work, we use a different approach and quantify the magnetosheath asymmetries in global hybrid-Vlasov simulations performed with the Vlasiator model. We concentrate on three parameters: the magnetic field strength, the plasma density, and the flow velocity. We find that the Vlasiator model reproduces the polarity of the asymmetries accurately but that their level tends to be higher than in spacecraft measurements, probably because the magnetosheath parameters are obtained from a single set of upstream conditions in the simulation, making the asymmetries more prominent. A set of three runs with different upstream conditions allows us to investigate for the first time how the asymmetries change when the angle between the IMF and the Sun-Earth line is reduced and when the Alfven Mach number decreases. We find that a more radial IMF results in a stronger magnetic field asymmetry and a larger variability of the magnetosheath density. In contrast, a lower Alfven Mach number leads to a reduced magnetic field asymmetry and a decrease in the variability of the magnetosheath density, the latter likely due to weaker foreshock processes. Our results highlight the strong impact of the quasi-parallel shock and its associated foreshock on global magnetosheath properties, in particular on the magnetosheath density, which is extremely sensitive to transient quasi-parallel shock processes, even with the perfectly steady upstream conditions in our simulations. This could explain the large variability of the density asymmetry levels obtained from spacecraft measurements in previous studies.
  • Turc, L.; Roberts, O. W.; Archer, M. O.; Palmroth, M.; Battarbee, M.; Brito, T.; Ganse, U.; Grandin, M.; Pfau-Kempf, Y.; Escoubet, C. P.; Dandouras, I. (2019)
    The foreshock, extending upstream of Earth's bow shock, is a region of intense electromagnetic wave activity and nonlinear phenomena, which can have global effects on geospace. It is also the first geophysical region encountered by solar wind disturbances journeying toward Earth. Here, we present the first observations of considerable modifications of the foreshock wave field during extreme events of solar origin called magnetic clouds. Cluster's multispacecraft data reveal that the typical quasi-monochromatic foreshock waves can be completely replaced by a superposition of waves each with shorter correlation lengths. Global numerical simulations further confirm that the foreshock wave field is more intricate and organized at smaller scales. Ion measurements suggest that changes in shock-reflected particle properties may cause these modifications of the wave field. This state of the foreshock is encountered only during extreme events at Earth, but intense magnetic fields are typical close to the Sun or other stars.
  • Battarbee, Markus; Blanco-Cano, Xochitl; Turc, Lucile; Kajdic, Primoz; Johlander, Andreas; Tarvus, Vertti; Fuselier, Stephen; Trattner, Karlheinz; Alho, Markku; Brito, Thiago; Ganse, Urs; Pfau-Kempf, Yann; Akhavan-Tafti, Mojtaba; Karlsson, Tomas; Raptis, Savvas; Dubart, Maxime; Grandin, Maxime; Suni, Jonas; Palmroth, Minna (2020)
    The foreshock is a region of space upstream of the Earth's bow shock extending along the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). It is permeated by shock-reflected ions and electrons, low-frequency waves, and various plasma transients. We investigate the extent of the He2+ foreshock using Vlasiator, a global hybrid-Vlasov simulation. We perform the first numerical global survey of the helium foreshock and interpret some historical foreshock observations in a global context. The foreshock edge is populated by both proton and helium field-aligned beams, with the proton foreshock extending slightly further into the solar wind than the helium foreshock and both extending well beyond the ultra-low frequency (ULF) wave foreshock. We compare our simulation results with Magnetosphere Multiscale (MMS) Hot Plasma Composition Analyzer (HPCA) measurements, showing how the gradient of suprathermal ion densities at the foreshock crossing can vary between events. Our analysis suggests that the IMF cone angle and the associated shock obliquity gradient can play a role in explaining this differing behaviour. We also investigate wave-ion interactions with wavelet analysis and show that the dynamics and heating of He2+ must result from proton-driven ULF waves. Enhancements in ion agyrotropy are found in relation to, for example, the ion foreshock boundary, the ULF foreshock boundary, and specular reflection of ions at the bow shock. We show that specular reflection can describe many of the foreshock ion velocity distribution function (VDF) enhancements. Wave-wave interactions deep in the foreshock cause de-coherence of wavefronts, allowing He2+ to be scattered less than protons.
  • Milillo, A.; Fujimoto, M.; Murakami, G.; Benkhoff, J.; Zender, J.; Aizawa, S.; Dosa, M.; Griton, L.; Heyner, D.; Ho, G.; Imber, S. M.; Jia, Yan; Karlsson, T.; Killen, R. M.; Laurenza, M.; Lindsay, S. T.; McKenna-Lawlor, S.; Mura, A.; Raines, J. M.; Rothery, D. A.; Andre, N.; Baumjohann, W.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bourdin, P. A.; Bunce, E. J.; Califano, F.; Deca, J.; de la Fuente, S.; Dong, C.; Grava, C.; Fatemi, S.; Henri, P.; Ivanovski, S. L.; Jackson, B. V.; James, M.; Kallio, E.; Kasaba, Y.; Kilpua, E.; Kobayashi, M.; Langlais, B.; Leblanc, F.; Lhotka, C.; Mangano, V.; Martindale, A.; Massetti, S.; Masters, A.; Morooka, M.; Narita, Y.; Oliveira, J. S.; Odstrcil, D.; Orsini, S.; Pelizzo, M. G.; Plainaki, C.; Plaschke, F.; Sahraoui, Afaf; Seki, K.; Slavin, J. A.; Vainio, R.; Wurz, P.; Barabash, S.; Carr, C. M.; Delcourt, D.; Glassmeier, K. -H.; Grande, M.; Hirahara, M.; Huovelin, J.; Korablev, O.; Kojima, H.; Lichtenegger, H.; Livi, S.; Matsuoka, A.; Moissl, R.; Moncuquet, M.; Muinonen, K.; Quemerais, E.; Saito, Y.; Yagitani, S.; Yoshikawa, I.; Wahlund, J. -E. (2020)
    The ESA-JAXA BepiColombo mission will provide simultaneous measurements from two spacecraft, offering an unprecedented opportunity to investigate magnetospheric and exospheric dynamics at Mercury as well as their interactions with the solar wind, radiation, and interplanetary dust. Many scientific instruments onboard the two spacecraft will be completely, or partially devoted to study the near-space environment of Mercury as well as the complex processes that govern it. Many issues remain unsolved even after the MESSENGER mission that ended in 2015. The specific orbits of the two spacecraft, MPO and Mio, and the comprehensive scientific payload allow a wider range of scientific questions to be addressed than those that could be achieved by the individual instruments acting alone, or by previous missions. These joint observations are of key importance because many phenomena in Mercury's environment are highly temporally and spatially variable. Examples of possible coordinated observations are described in this article, analysing the required geometrical conditions, pointing, resolutions and operation timing of different BepiColombo instruments sensors.
  • Möstl, C.; Isavnin, A.; Boakes, P. D.; Kilpua, E. K. J.; Davies, J. A.; Harrison, R. A.; Barnes, D.; Krupar, V.; Eastwood, J. P.; Good, S. W.; Forsyth, R. J.; Bothmer, V.; Reiss, M. A.; Amerstorfer, T.; Winslow, R. M.; Anderson, B. J.; Philpott, L. C.; Rodriguez, L.; Rouillard, A. P.; Gallagher, P.; Nieves-Chinchilla, T.; Zhang, T. L. (2017)
    We present an advance toward accurately predicting the arrivals of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) at the terrestrial planets, including Earth. For the first time, we are able to assess a CME prediction model using data over two thirds of a solar cycle of observations with the Heliophysics System Observatory. We validate modeling results of 1337 CMEs observed with the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) heliospheric imagers (HI) (science data) from 8 years of observations by five in situ observing spacecraft. We use the self-similar expansion model for CME fronts assuming 60 degrees longitudinal width, constant speed, and constant propagation direction. With these assumptions we find that 23%-35% of all CMEs that were predicted to hit a certain spacecraft lead to clear in situ signatures, so that for one correct prediction, two to three false alarms would have been issued. In addition, we find that the prediction accuracy does not degrade with the HI longitudinal separation from Earth. Predicted arrival times are on average within 2.6 +/- 16.6 h difference of the in situ arrival time, similar to analytical and numerical modeling, and a true skill statistic of 0.21. We also discuss various factors that may improve the accuracy of space weather forecasting using wide-angle heliospheric imager observations. These results form a first-order approximated baseline of the prediction accuracy that is possible with HI and other methods used for data by an operational space weather mission at the Sun-Earth L5 point. Plain Language Summary Solar storms are formed by incredibly powerful explosions on the Sun and travel as clouds of plasma threaded by magnetic fields through the solar system. Depending on their propagation direction, they may impact planets such as Earth, where they elicit colorful aurorae or, in very seldom cases, can lead to power failures with potentially tremendous economical and societal effects, thus posing a serious natural hazard. In this work, we have shown how well the solar storm impact can be forecasted when using a special type of instrument that can actually image the solar storms as they propagate toward the planets and even as they sweep over them. Our analysis includes two thirds of a solar cycle with 8 years of data, and spacecraft at Mercury, Venus, Earth, and in the solar wind to check on the correctness of our predictions. We could forecast the arrival time within +/- 16 h, and for one correct impact there are two to three false alarms. This forms a new baseline for the science of space weather prediction. Clearly, the modeling should be further improved to be used on a daily basis for a space weather mission to the Sun-Earth L5 point.
  • Takahashi, Kazue; Turc, Lucile; Kilpua, Emilia; Takahashi, Naoko; Dimmock, Andrew P.; Kajdic, Primoz; Palmroth, Minna; Pfau-Kempf, Yann; Souček, Jan; Motoba, Tetsuo; Hartinger, Michael D.; Artemyev, Anton; Singer, Howard; Ganse, Urs; Battarbee, Markus (2021)
    We have examined the properties of ultralow-frequency (ULF) waves in space (the ion foreshock, magnetosheath, and magnetosphere) and at dayside magnetometer stations (L = 1.6-6.5) during Earth's encounter with a magnetic cloud in the solar wind, which is characterized by magnetic fields with large magnitudes (similar to 14 nT) and small cone angles (similar to 30 degrees). In the foreshock, waves were excited at similar to 90 m Hz as expected from theory, but there were oscillations at other frequencies as well. Oscillations near 90 mHz were detected at the other locations in space, but they were not in general the most dominant oscillations. On the ground, pulsations in the approximate Pc2-Pc4 band (5 mHz-120 mHz) were continuously detected at all stations, with no outstanding spectral peaks near 90 mHz in the H component except at stations where the frequency of the third harmonic of standing Alfven waves had this frequency. The fundamental toroidal wave frequency was below 90 mHz at all stations. In the D component spectra, a minor spectral peak is found near 90 mHz at stations located at L <3, and the power dropped abruptly above this frequency. Magnetospheric compressional wave power was much weaker on the nightside. A hybrid-Vlasov simulation indicates that foreshock ULF waves have short spatial scale lengths and waves transmitted into the magnetosphere are strongly attenuated away from noon.
  • Dubart, Maxime; Ganse, Urs; Osmane, Adnane; Johlander, Andreas; Battarbee, Markus; Grandin, Maxime; Pfau-Kempf, Yann; Turc, Lucile; Palmroth, Minna (2020)
    Kinetically driven plasma waves are fundamental for a description of the thermodynamical properties of the Earth's magnetosheath. The most commonly observed ion-scale instabilities are generated by temperature anisotropy of the ions, such as the mirror and proton cyclotron instabilities. We investigate here the spatial resolution dependence of the mirror and proton cyclotron instabilities in a global hybrid-Vlasov simulation using the Vlasiator model; we do this in order to find optimal resolutions and help future global hybrid-Vlasov simulations to save resources when investigating those instabilities in the magnetosheath. We compare the proton velocity distribution functions, power spectra and growth rates of the instabilities in a set of simulations with three different spatial resolutions but otherwise identical setup. We find that the proton cyclotron instability is absent at the lowest resolution and that only the mirror instability remains, which leads to an increased temperature anisotropy in the simulation. We conclude that the proton cyclotron instability, its saturation and the reduction of the anisotropy to marginal levels are resolved at the highest spatial resolution. A further increase in resolution does not lead to a better description of the instability to an extent that would justify this increase at the cost of numerical resources in future simulations. We also find that spatial resolutions between 1.32 and 2.64 times the inertial length in the solar wind present acceptable limits for the resolution within which the velocity distribution functions resulting from the proton cyclotron instability are still bi-Maxwellian and reach marginal stability levels. Our results allow us to determine a range of spatial resolutions suitable for the modelling of the proton cyclotron and mirror instabilities and should be taken into consideration regarding the optimal grid spacing for the modelling of these two instabilities, within available computational resources.
  • Ala-Lahti, Matti M.; Kilpua, Emilia K. J.; Dimmock, Andrew P.; Osmane, Adnane; Pulkkinen, Tuija; Soucek, Jan (2018)
    We present a comprehensive statistical analysis of mirror mode waves and the properties of their plasma surroundings in sheath regions driven by interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME). We have constructed a semi-automated method to identify mirror modes from the magnetic field data. We analyze 91 ICME sheath regions from January 1997 to April 2015 using data from the Wind spacecraft. The results imply that similarly to planetary magnetosheaths, mirror modes are also common structures in ICME sheaths. However, they occur almost exclusively as dip-like structures and in mirror stable plasma. We observe mirror modes throughout the sheath, from the bow shock to the ICME leading edge, but their amplitudes are largest closest to the shock. We also find that the shock strength (measured by Alfven Mach number) is the most important parameter in controlling the occurrence of mirror modes. Our findings suggest that in ICME sheaths the dominant source of free energy for mirror mode generation is the shock compression. We also suggest that mirror modes that are found deeper in the sheath are remnants from earlier times of the sheath evolution, generated also in the vicinity of the shock.
  • Dimmock, A. P.; Alho, M.; Kallio, E.; Pope, S. A.; Zhang, T. L.; Kilpua, E.; Pulkkinen, T. I.; Futaana, Y.; Coates, A. J. (2018)
    Owing to the heritage of previous missions such as the Pioneer Venus Orbiter and Venus Express, the typical global plasma environment of Venus is relatively well understood. On the other hand, this is not true for more extreme driving conditions such as during passages of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). One of the outstanding questions is how do ICMEs, either the ejecta or sheath portions, impact (1) the Venusian magnetic topology and (2) escape rates of planetary ions? One of the main issues encountered when addressing these problems is the difficulty of inferring global dynamics from single spacecraft obits; this is where the benefits of simulations become apparent. In the present study, we present a detailed case study of an ICME interaction with Venus on 5 November 2011 in which the magnetic barrier reached over 250 nT. We use both Venus Express observations and hybrid simulation runs to study the impact on the field draping pattern and the escape rates of planetary O+ ions. The simulation showed that the magnetic field line draping pattern around Venus during the ICME is similar to that during typical solar wind conditions and that O+ ion escape rates are increased by approximately 30% due to the ICME. Moreover, the atypically large magnetic barrier appears to manifest from a number of factors such as the flux pileup, dayside compression, and the driving time from the ICME ejecta.