Browsing by Subject "BRAIN ACTIVITY"

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  • Quarto, Tiziana; Blasi, Giuseppe; Maddalena, Chiara; Viscanti, Giovanna; Lanciano, Tiziana; Soleti, Emanuela; Mangiulli, Ivan; Taurisano, Paolo; Fazio, Leonardo; Bertolino, Alessandro; Curci, Antonietta (2016)
    The human ability of identifying, processing and regulating emotions from social stimuli is generally referred as Emotional Intelligence (EI). Within EI, Ability EI identifies a performance measure assessing individual skills at perceiving, using, understanding and managing emotions. Previous models suggest that a brain "somatic marker circuitry" (SMC) sustains emotional sub-processes included in EI. Three primary brain regions are included: the amygdala, the insula and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Here, our aim was to investigate the relationship between Ability EI scores and SMC activity during social judgment of emotional faces. Sixty-three healthy subjects completed a test measuring Ability EI and underwent fMRI during a social decision task (i.e. approach or avoid) about emotional faces with different facial expressions. Imaging data revealed that EI scores are associated with left insula activity during social judgment of emotional faces as a function of facial expression. Specifically, higher EI scores are associated with greater left insula activity during social judgment of fearful faces but also with lower activity of this region during social judgment of angry faces. These findings indicate that the association between Ability EI and the SMC activity during social behavior is region- and emotionspecific.
  • Pigorini, Andrea; Sarasso, Simone; Proserpio, Paola; Szymanski, Caroline; Arnulfo, Gabriele; Casarotto, Silvia; Fecchio, Matteo; Rosanova, Mario; Mariotti, Maurizio; Lo Russo, Giorgio; Palva, J. Matias; Nobili, Lino; Massimini, Marcello (2015)
    During non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep (stage N3), when consciousness fades, cortico-cortical interactions are impaired while neurons are still active and reactive. Why is this? We compared cortico-cortical evoked-potentials recorded during wakefulness and NREM by means of time-frequency analysis and phase-locking measures in 8 epileptic patients undergoing intra-cerebral stimulations/recordings for clinical evaluation. We observed that, while during wakefulness electrical stimulation triggers a chain of deterministic phase-locked activations in its cortical targets, during NREM the same input induces a slow wave associated with an OFF-period (suppression of power > 20 Hz), possibly reflecting a neuronal down-state. Crucially, after the OFF-period, cortical activity resumes to wakefulness-like levels, but the deterministic effects of the initial input are lost, as indicated by a sharp drop of phase-locked activity. These findings suggest that the intrinsic tendency of cortical neurons to fall into a down-state after a transient activation (i.e. bistability) prevents the emergence of stable patterns of causal interactions among cortical areas during NREM. Besides sleep, the same basic neurophysiological dynamics may play a role in pathological conditions in which thalamo-cortical information integration and consciousness are impaired in spite of preserved neuronal activity. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Tei, Shisei; Fujino, Junya; Kawada, Ryosaku; Jankowski, Kathryn F.; Kauppi, Jukka-Pekka; van den Bos, Wouter; Abe, Nobuhito; Sugihara, Genichi; Miyata, Jun; Murai, Toshiya; Takahashi, Hidehiko (2017)
    Behavioural flexibility is essential for everyday life. This involves shifting attention between different perspectives. Previous studies suggest that flexibility is mainly subserved by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). However, although rarely emphasized, the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) is frequently recruited during flexible behaviour. A crucial question is whether TPJ plays a role in different types of flexibility, compared to its limited role in perceptual flexibility. We hypothesized that TPJ activity during diverse flexibility tasks plays a common role in stimulus-driven attention-shifting, thereby contributing to different types of flexibility, and thus the collaboration between DLPFC and TPJ might serve as a more appropriate mechanism than DLPFC alone. We used fMRI to measure DLPFC/TPJ activity recruited during moral flexibility, and examined its effect on other domains of flexibility (economic/perceptual). Here, we show the additional, yet crucial role of TPJ: a combined DLPFC/TPJ activity predicted flexibility, regardless of domain. Different types of flexibility might rely on more basic attention-shifting, which highlights the behavioural significance of alternatives.
  • Lankinen, Kaisu; Saari, Jukka; Hlushchuk, Yevhen; Tikka, Pia; Parkkonen, Lauri; Hari, Riitta; Koskinen, Miika (2018)
    Movie viewing allows human perception and cognition to be studied in complex, real-life-like situations in a brain-imaging laboratory. Previous studies with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and with magneto-and electroencephalography (MEG and EEG) have demonstrated consistent temporal dynamics of brain activity across movie viewers. However, little is known about the similarities and differences of fMRI and MEG or EEG dynamics during such naturalistic situations. We thus compared MEG and fMRI responses to the same 15-min black-and-white movie in the same eight subjects who watched the movie twice during both MEG and fMRI recordings. We analyzed intra-and intersubject voxel-wise correlations within each imaging modality as well as the correlation of the MEG envelopes and fMRI signals. The fMRI signals showed voxel-wise within-and between-subjects correlations up to r = 0.66 and r = 0.37, respectively, whereas these correlations were clearly weaker for the envelopes of band-pass filtered (7 frequency bands below 100 Hz) MEG signals (within-subjects correlation r <0.14 and between-subjects r <0.05). Direct MEG-fMRI voxel-wise correlations were unreliable. Notably, applying a spatial-filtering approach to the MEG data uncovered consistent canonical variates that showed considerably stronger (up to r = 0.25) between-subjects correlations than the univariate voxel-wise analysis. Furthermore, the envelopes of the time courses of these variates up to about 10 Hz showed association with fMRI signals in a general linear model. Similarities between envelopes of MEG canonical variates and fMRI voxel time-courses were seen mostly in occipital, but also in temporal and frontal brain regions, whereas intra-and intersubject correlations for MEG and fMRI separately were strongest only in the occipital areas. In contrast to the conventional univariate analysis, the spatial-filtering approach was able to uncover associations between the MEG envelopes and fMRI time courses, shedding light on the similarities of hemodynamic and electromagnetic brain activities during movie viewing.
  • Li, Xueqiao; Zhu, Yongjie; Vuoriainen, Elisa; Ye, Chaoxiong; Astikainen, Piia (2021)
    Emotional reactions to movies are typically similar between people. However, depressive symptoms decrease synchrony in brain responses. Less is known about the effect of depressive symptoms on intersubject synchrony in conscious stimulus-related processing. In this study, we presented amusing, sad and fearful movie clips to dysphoric individuals (those with elevated depressive symptoms) and control participants to dynamically rate the clips' valences (positive vs. negative). We analysed both the valence ratings' mean values and intersubject correlation (ISC). We used electrodermal activity (EDA) to complement the measurement in a separate session. There were no group differences in either the EDA or mean valence rating values for each movie type. As expected, the valence ratings' ISC was lower in the dysphoric than the control group, specifically for the sad movie clips. In addition, there was a negative relationship between the valence ratings' ISC and depressive symptoms for sad movie clips in the full sample. The results are discussed in the context of the negative attentional bias in depression. The findings extend previous brain activity results of ISC by showing that depressive symptoms also increase variance in conscious ratings of valence of stimuli in a mood-congruent manner.
  • Saarinen, Aino; Lieslehto, Johannes; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Häkli, Jani; Tuovinen, Timo; Hintsanen, Mirka; Veijola, Juha (2020)
    Background: Physiological brain pulsations have been shown to play a critical role in maintaining interstitial homeostasis in the glymphatic brain clearance mechanism. We investigated whether psychotic symptomatology is related to the physiological variation of the human brain using fMRI. Methods: The participants (N= 277) were from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. Psychotic symptoms were evaluated with the Positive Symptoms Scale of the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes(SIPS). We used the coefficient of variation of BOLD signal (CVBOLD) as a proxy for physiological brain pulsatility.The CVBOLD-analyses were controlled for motion, age, sex, and educational level. The results were also compared with fMRI and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) meta-analyses of schizophrenia patients (data from theBrainmap database). Results: At the global level, participants with psychotic-like symptoms had higher CVBOLDin cerebrospinal fluid(CSF) and white matter (WM), when compared to participants with no psychotic symptoms. Voxel-wise analy-ses revealed that CVBOLDwas increased, especially in periventricular white matter, basal ganglia, cerebellum and parts of the cortical structures. Those brain regions, which included alterations of physiological fluctuation in symptomatic psychosis risk, overlappedb6% with the regions that were found to be affected in the meta-analyses of previous fMRI and VBM studies in schizophrenia patients. Motion did not vary as a function of SIPS. Conclusions: Psychotic-like symptoms were associated with elevated CVBOLDin a variety of brain regions. The CVBOLD findings may produce new information about cerebral physiological fluctuations that have been out of reach in previous fMRI and VBM studies.