Browsing by Subject "BRAIN-DEVELOPMENT"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-15 of 15
  • Knight, Anna K.; Craig, Jeffrey M.; Theda, Christiane; Baekvad-Hansen, Marie; Bybjerg-Grauholm, Jonas; Hansen, Christine S.; Hollegaard, Mads V.; Hougaard, David M.; Mortensen, Preben B.; Weinsheimer, Shantel M.; Werge, Thomas M.; Brennan, Patricia A.; Cubells, Joseph F.; Newport, D. Jeffrey; Stowe, Zachary N.; Cheong, Jeanie L. Y.; Dalach, Philippa; Doyle, Lex W.; Loke, Yuk J.; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Just, Allan C.; Wright, Robert O.; Tellez-Rojo, Mara M.; Svensson, Katherine; Trevisi, Letizia; Kennedy, Elizabeth M.; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Iurato, Stella; Räikkönen, Katri; Lahti, Jari M. T.; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Kajantie, Eero; Villa, Pia M.; Laivuori, Hannele; Hämäläinen, Esa; Park, Hea Jin; Bailey, Lynn B.; Parets, Sasha E.; Kilaru, Varun; Menon, Ramkumar; Horvath, Steve; Bush, Nicole R.; LeWinn, Kaja Z.; Tylavsky, Frances A.; Conneely, Karen N.; Smith, Alicia K. (2016)
    Background: Gestational age is often used as a proxy for developmental maturity by clinicians and researchers alike. DNA methylation has previously been shown to be associated with age and has been used to accurately estimate chronological age in children and adults. In the current study, we examine whether DNA methylation in cord blood can be used to estimate gestational age at birth. Results: We find that gestational age can be accurately estimated from DNA methylation of neonatal cord blood and blood spot samples. We calculate a DNA methylation gestational age using 148 CpG sites selected through elastic net regression in six training datasets. We evaluate predictive accuracy in nine testing datasets and find that the accuracy of the DNA methylation gestational age is consistent with that of gestational age estimates based on established methods, such as ultrasound. We also find that an increased DNA methylation gestational age relative to clinical gestational age is associated with birthweight independent of gestational age, sex, and ancestry. Conclusions: DNA methylation can be used to accurately estimate gestational age at or near birth and may provide additional information relevant to developmental stage. Further studies of this predictor are warranted to determine its utility in clinical settings and for research purposes. When clinical estimates are available this measure may increase accuracy in the testing of hypotheses related to developmental age and other early life circumstances.
  • Heinonen, Kati; Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Andersson, Sture; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan; Wolke, Dieter; Lano, Aulikki (2010)
  • Sugiaman-Trapman, Debora; Vitezic, Morana; Jouhilahti, Eeva-Mari; Mathelier, Anthony; Lauter, Gilbert; Misra, Sougat; Daub, Carsten O.; Kere, Juha; Swoboda, Peter (2018)
    Background: Evolutionarily conserved RFX transcription factors (TFs) regulate their target genes through a DNA sequence motif called the X-box. Thereby they regulate cellular specialization and terminal differentiation. Here, we provide a comprehensive analysis of all the eight human RFX genes (RFX1-8), their spatial and temporal expression profiles, potential upstream regulators and target genes. Results: We extracted all known human RFX1-8 gene expression profiles from the FANTOM5 database derived from transcription start site (TSS) activity as captured by Cap Analysis of Gene Expression (CAGE) technology. RFX genes are broadly (RFX1-3, RFX5, RFX7) and specifically (RFX4, RFX6) expressed in different cell types, with high expression in four organ systems: immune system, gastrointestinal tract, reproductive system and nervous system. Tissue type specific expression profiles link defined RFX family members with the target gene batteries they regulate. We experimentally confirmed novel TSS locations and characterized the previously undescribed RFX8 to be lowly expressed. RFX tissue and cell type specificity arises mainly from differences in TSS architecture. RFX transcript isoforms lacking a DNA binding domain (DBD) open up new possibilities for combinatorial target gene regulation. Our results favor a new grouping of the RFX family based on protein domain composition. We uncovered and experimentally confirmed the TFs SP2 and ESR1 as upstream regulators of specific RFX genes. Using TF binding profiles from the JASPAR database, we determined relevant patterns of X-box motif positioning with respect to gene TSS locations of human RFX target genes. Conclusions: The wealth of data we provide will serve as the basis for precisely determining the roles RFX TFs play in human development and disease.
  • Ämmälä, Antti-Jussi; Urrila, Anna-Sofia; Lahtinen, Aleksandra; Santangeli, Olena; Hakkarainen, Antti; Kantojärvi, Katri; Castaneda, Anu E.; Lundbom, Nina; Marttunen, Mauri; Paunio, Tiina (2019)
    Objectives: This study aimed to test the hypothesis that sleep and depression have independent effects on brain development and plasticity in adolescents, and that these changes are reflected in changes in the epigenome. Methods: Participants were 17 medication-free adolescent boys (age 16.05 +/- 0.80 years, mean +/- standard deviation (SD); eight cases with depression and sleep symptoms, nine healthy controls). Sleep was assessed by polysomnography recordings and the Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS) and Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS). Participants underwent a clinical evaluation. DNA methylation of blood leukocytes was measured by Illumina 450K array, and Ingenuity Pathway analysis was applied to identify the most significant pathways with differentially methylated positions (DMPs). Secondary analysis of the identified loci included linear correlations between methylation and the subjectively rated scales of sleep, depression and sleep microarchitecture. Results: Due to small sample size, we found no genome-wide significant differences in methylation between cases and controls. However, pathway analysis identified the synaptic long-term depression (LTD) canonical pathway (p = 0.00045) when the best 500 DMPs from the original case-control design were included. A flattened dissipation of slow wave sleep, tiredness and depression severity values correlated with five of 10 sites from the LTD pathway (IGF1R, PLAG16, PLA2R1, PPP2C5 and ERK12) in the secondary analysis when the case-control status was controlled for. Conclusion: Among adolescents, depressive disorder with sleep symptoms is associated with a distinctive epigenetic pattern of DNA methylation in blood leukocytes. The enrichment of DMPs on genes related to synaptic LTD emphasizes the role of sleep in synaptic plasticity and the widespread physiological consequences of disturbed sleep. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Sucksdorff, Minna; Brown, Alan S.; Chudal, Roshan; Surcel, Helja-Marja; Hinkka-Yli-Salomaki, Susanna; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Gyllenberg, David; Sourander, Andre (2021)
    Objective: Recent evidence has highlighted the importance of vitamin D in the development of the central nervous system. Some studies have shown an association between maternal vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy and offspring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms based on parent or teacher ratings. There are no previous studies on early pregnancy 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and the risk of diagnosed offspring ADHD. Our aim was to examine maternal 25(OH)D levels in early pregnancy and offspring ADHD. Method: In this nationwide population-based case-control study, 1,067 ADHD cases (born between 1998 and 1999 and diagnosed according to the International Classification of Diseases) and 1,067 matched controls were identified from Finnish registers. Maternal 25(OH)D levels were measured using quantitative immunoassay from maternal sera, collected during the first trimester and archived in the national biobank. Conditional logistic regression was used to examine the association between maternal 25(OH)D and offspring ADHD. Results: There was a significant association between decreasing log-transformed maternal 25(OH)D levels and offspring ADHD both in the unadjusted analyses (odds ratio 1.65; 95% CI 1.33-2.05; p <.001) and in the analyses adjusting for maternal socioeconomic status and age (odds ratio 1.45; 95% CI 1.15-1.81; p = .002). Analyses by quintiles of maternal 25(OH)D levels in the lowest versus highest quintile revealed an adjusted odds ratio for offspring ADHD of 1.53 (95% CI 1.11-2.12; p = .010). Conclusion: This study demonstrated an association between low maternal 25(OH)D during pregnancy and an elevated risk for offspring ADHD. If replicated in independent samples, this finding may have significant public health implications.
  • Fagerlund, Ilkka; Dougalis, Antonios; Shakirzyanova, Anastasia; Gomez-Budia, Mireia; Pelkonen, Anssi; Konttinen, Henna; Ohtonen, Sohvi; Fazaludeen, Mohammad Feroze; Koskuvi, Marja; Kuusisto, Johanna; Hernandez, Damian; Pebay, Alice; Koistinaho, Jari; Rauramaa, Tuomas; Lehtonen, Sarka; Korhonen, Paula; Malm, Tarja (2022)
    Human cerebral organoids, derived from induced pluripotent stem cells, offer a unique in vitro research window to the development of the cerebral cortex. However, a key player in the developing brain, the microglia, do not natively emerge in cerebral organoids. Here we show that erythromyeloid progenitors (EMPs), differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells, migrate to cerebral organoids, and mature into microglia-like cells and interact with synaptic material. Patch-clamp electrophysiological recordings show that the microglia-like population supported the emergence of more mature and diversified neuronal phenotypes displaying repetitive firing of action potentials, low-threshold spikes and synaptic activity, while multielectrode array recordings revealed spontaneous bursting activity and increased power of gamma-band oscillations upon pharmacological challenge with NMDA. To conclude, microglia-like cells within the organoids promote neuronal and network maturation and recapitulate some aspects of microglia-neuron co-development in vivo, indicating that cerebral organoids could be a useful biorealistic human in vitro platform for studying microglia-neuron interactions.
  • Moisala, Mona; Salmela, Viljami; Carlson, Synnöve; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Lonka, Kirsti; Hakkarainen, Kai; Alho, Kimmo (2018)
    Background: Adolescence is a time of ongoing neural maturation and cognitive development, especially regarding executive functions. In the current study, age-related differences in the neural correlates of different executive functions were tracked by comparing three age groups consisting of adolescents and young adults. Methods: Brain activity was measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) from 167 human participants (13- to 14-year-old middle adolescents, 16- to 17-year-old late adolescents and 20-to 24-year-old young adults; 80 female, 87 male) while they performed attention and working memory tasks. The tasks were designed to tap into four putative sub-processes of executive function: division of attention, inhibition of distractors, working memory, and attention switching. Results: Behaviorally, our results demonstrated superior task performance in older participants across all task types. When brain activity was examined, young adult participants demonstrated a greater degree of overlap between brain regions recruited by the different executive tasks than adolescent participants. Similarly, functional connectivity between frontoparietal cortical regions was less task specific in the young adult participants than in adolescent participants. Conclusions: Together, these results demonstrate that the similarity between different executive processes in terms of both neural recruitment and functional connectivity increases with age from middle adolescence to early adulthood, possibly contributing to age-related behavioral improvements in executive functioning. These developmental changes in brain recruitment may reflect a more homogenous morphological organization between process-specific neural networks, increased reliance on a more domain-general network involved in executive processing, or developmental changes in cognitive strategy.
  • Johne, Marie; Roemermann, Kerstin; Hampel, Philip; Gailus, Bjoern; Theilmann, Wiebke; Ala-Kurikka, Tommi; Kaila, Kai; Loescher, Wolfgang (2021)
    Objective: Neonatal seizures are the most frequent type of neurological emergency in newborn infants, often being a consequence of prolonged perinatal asphyxia. Phenobarbital is currently the most widely used antiseizure drug for treatment of neonatal seizures, but fails to stop them in similar to 50% of cases. In a neonatal hypoxia-only model based on 11-day-old (P11) rats, the NKCC1 inhibitor bumetanide was reported to potentiate the antiseizure activity of phenobarbital, whereas it was ineffective in a human trial in neonates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of clinically relevant doses of bumetanide as add-on to phenobarbital on neonatal seizures in a noninvasive model of birth asphyxia in P11 rats, designed for better translation to the human term neonate. Methods: Intermittent asphyxia was induced for 30 minutes by exposing the rat pups to three 7 + 3-minute cycles of 9% and 5% O-2 at constant 20% CO2. Drug treatments were administered intraperitoneally either before or immediately after asphyxia. Results: All untreated rat pups had seizures within 10 minutes after termination of asphyxia. Phenobarbital significantly blocked seizures when applied before asphyxia at 30 mg/kg but not 15 mg/kg. Administration of phenobarbital after asphyxia was ineffective, whereas midazolam (0.3 or 1 mg/kg) exerted significant antiseizure effects when administered before or after asphyxia. In general, focal seizures were more resistant to treatment than generalized convulsive seizures. Bumetanide (0.3 mg/kg) alone or in combination with phenobarbital (15 or 30 mg/kg) exerted no significant effect on seizure occurrence. Significance: The data demonstrate that bumetanide does not increase the efficacy of phenobarbital in a model of birth asphyxia, which is consistent with the negative data of the recent human trial. The translational data obtained with the novel rat model of birth asphyxia indicate that it is a useful tool to evaluate novel treatments for neonatal seizures.
  • Lahti, Jari; Lahti, Marius; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Heinonen, Kati; Kajantie, Eero; Forsen, Tom; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Osmond, Clive; Barker, David J. P.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Raikkonen, Katri (2014)
  • IMAGEN Consortium; Ernst, Monique; Benson, Brenda; Artiges, Eric; Penttilä, Jani (2019)
    This study examines the effects of puberty and sex on the intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) of brain networks, with a focus on the default-mode network (DMN). Consistently implicated in depressive disorders, the DMN's function may interact with puberty and sex in the development of these disorders, whose onsets peak in adolescence, and which show strong sex disproportionality (females > males). The main question concerns how the DMN evolves with puberty as a function of sex. These effects are expected to involve within- and between-network iFC, particularly, the salience and the central-executive networks, consistent with the Triple-Network Model. Resting-state scans of an adolescent community sample (n = 304, male/female: 157/147; mean/std age: 14.6/0.41 years), from the IMAGEN database, were analyzed using the AFNI software suite and a data reduction strategy for the effects of puberty and sex. Three midline regions (medial prefrontal, pregenual anterior cingulate, and posterior cingulate), within the DMN and consistently implicated in mood disorders, were selected as seeds. Within- and between-network clusters of the DMN iFC changed with pubertal maturation differently in boys and girls (puberty-X-sex). Specifically, pubertal maturation predicted weaker iFC in girls and stronger iFC in boys. Finally, iFC was stronger in boys than girls independently of puberty. Brain-behavior associations indicated that lower connectivity of the anterior cingulate seed predicted higher internalizing symptoms at 2-year follow-up. In conclusion, weaker iFC of the anterior DMN may signal disconnections among circuits supporting mood regulation, conferring risk for internalizing disorders.
  • Teng, S.; Thomson, P. A.; McCarthy, S.; Kramer, M.; Muller, S.; Lihm, J.; Morris, S.; Soares, D. C.; Hennah, W.; Harris, S.; Camargo, L. M.; Malkov, V.; McIntosh, A. M.; Millar, J. K.; Blackwood, D. H.; Evans, K. L.; Deary, I. J.; Porteous, D. J.; McCombie, W. R. (2018)
    Schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BD) and recurrent major depressive disorder (rMDD) are common psychiatric illnesses. All have been associated with lower cognitive ability, and show evidence of genetic overlap and substantial evidence of pleiotropy with cognitive function and neuroticism. Disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) protein directly interacts with a large set of proteins (DISC1 Interactome) that are involved in brain development and signaling. Modulation of DISC1 expression alters the expression of a circumscribed set of genes (DISC1 Regulome) that are also implicated in brain biology and disorder. Here we report targeted sequencing of 59 DISC1 Interactome genes and 154 Regulome genes in 654 psychiatric patients and 889 cognitively-phenotyped control subjects, on whom we previously reported evidence for trait association from complete sequencing of the DISC1 locus. Burden analyses of rare and singleton variants predicted to be damaging were performed for psychiatric disorders, cognitive variables and personality traits. The DISC1 Interactome and Regulome showed differential association across the phenotypes tested. After family-wise error correction across all traits (FWERacross), an increased burden of singleton disruptive variants in the Regulome was associated with SCZ (FWERacross P=0.0339). The burden of singleton disruptive variants in the DISC1 Interactome was associated with low cognitive ability at age 11 (FWERacross P=0.0043). These results identify altered regulation of schizophrenia candidate genes by DISC1 and its core Interactome as an alternate pathway for schizophrenia risk, consistent with the emerging effects of rare copy number variants associated with intellectual disability.
  • IMAGEN Consortium; Frere, Pauline Bezivin; Vetter, Nora C.; Artiges, Eric; Penttilä, Jani; Lemaitre, Herve (2020)
    Though adolescence is a time of emerging sex differences in emotions, sex-related differences in the anatomy of the maturing brain has been under-explored over this period. The aim of this study was to investigate whether puberty and sexual differentiation in brain maturation could explain emotional differences between girls and boys during adolescence. We adapted a dedicated longitudinal pipeline to process structural and diffusion images from 335 typically developing adolescents between 14 and 16 years. We used voxel-based and Regions of Interest approaches to explore sex and puberty effects on brain and behavioral changes during adolescence. Sexual differences in brain maturation were characterized by amygdala and hippocampal volume increase in boys and decrease in girls. These changes were mediating the sexual differences in positive emotional regulation as illustrated by positive attributes increase in boys and decrease in girls. Moreover, the differential maturation rates between the limbic system and the prefrontal cortex highlighted the delayed maturation in boys compared to girls. This is the first study to show the sex effects on the differential cortico/subcortical maturation rates and the interaction between sex and puberty in the limbic system maturation related to positive attributes, reported as being protective from emotional disorders.
  • Bradshaw, Nicholas J.; Ukkola-Vuoti, Liisa; Pankakoski, Maiju; Zheutlin, Amanda B.; Ortega-Alonso, Alfredo; Torniainen-Holm, Minna; Sinha, Vishal; Therman, Sebastian; Paunio, Tiina; Suvisaari, Jaana; Lonnqvist, Jouko; Cannon, Tyrone D.; Haukka, Jari; Hennah, William (2017)
    Genetic studies of familial schizophrenia in Finland have observed significant associations with a group of biologically related genes, DISCI1, NDE1,NDEL1, PDE4B and PDE4D, the 'DISCI network'. Here, we use gene expression and psychoactive medication use data to study their biological consequences and potential treatment implications. Gene expression levels were determined in 64 individuals from 18 families, while prescription medication information has been collected over a 10 -year period for 931 affected individuals. We demonstrate that the NDE1 SNP rs2242549 associates with significant changes in gene expression for 2908 probes (2542 genes), of which 794 probes (719 genes) were replicable. A significant number of the genes altered were predicted targets of microRNA-484 (p = 3.0 x 10(-8)), located on a non -coding exon of NDE1. Variants within the NM. locus also displayed significant genotype by gender interaction to early cessation of psychoactive medications metabolized by CYP2C19. Furthermore, we demonstrate that miR-484 can affect the expression of CYP2C19 in a cell culture system. Thus, variation at the IVDET locus may alter risk of mental illness, in part through modification of miR-484, and such modification alters treatment response to specific psychoactive medications, leading to the potential for use of this locus in targeting treatment.
  • Deneubourg, Celine; Ramm, Mauricio; Smith, Luke J.; Baron, Olga; Singh, Kritarth; Byrne, Susan C.; Duchen, Michael R.; Gautel, Mathias; Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa; Fanto, Manolis; Jungbluth, Heinz (2022)
    Primary dysfunction of autophagy due to Mendelian defects affecting core components of the autophagy machinery or closely related proteins have recently emerged as an important cause of genetic disease. This novel group of human disorders may present throughout life and comprises severe early-onset neurodevelopmental and more common adult-onset neurodegenerative disorders. Early-onset (or congenital) disorders of autophagy often share a recognizable "clinical signature," including variable combinations of neurological, neuromuscular and multisystem manifestations. Structural CNS abnormalities, cerebellar involvement, spasticity and peripheral nerve pathology are prominent neurological features, indicating a specific vulnerability of certain neuronal populations to autophagic disturbance. A typically biphasic disease course of late-onset neurodegeneration occurring on the background of a neurodevelopmental disorder further supports a role of autophagy in both neuronal development and maintenance. Additionally, an associated myopathy has been characterized in several conditions. The differential diagnosis comprises a wide range of other multisystem disorders, including mitochondrial, glycogen and lysosomal storage disorders, as well as ciliopathies, glycosylation and vesicular trafficking defects. The clinical overlap between the congenital disorders of autophagy and these conditions reflects the multiple roles of the proteins and/or emerging molecular connections between the pathways implicated and suggests an exciting area for future research. Therapy development for congenital disorders of autophagy is still in its infancy but may result in the identification of molecules that target autophagy more specifically than currently available compounds. The close connection with adult-onset neurodegenerative disorders highlights the relevance of research into rare early-onset neurodevelopmental conditions for much more common, age-related human diseases.
  • Heinonen, Kati; Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Andersson, Sture; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G.; Vartia, Timo; Wolke, Dieter; Lano, Aulikki (2011)