Browsing by Subject "BRAIN-STEM"

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  • Milatovic, B.; Saponjski, J.; Huseinagic, H.; Moranjkic, M.; Medenica, S. Milosevic; Marinkovic, I.; Nikolic, Milos; Marinkovic, S. (2018)
    Background: Identification and anatomic features of the feeding arteries of the arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) is very important due to neurologic, radiologic, and surgical reasons. Materials and methods: Seventy-seven patients with AVMs were examined by using a digital subtraction angiographic (DSA) and computerised tomographic (CT) examination, including three-dimensional reconstruction of the brain vessels. In addition, the arteries of 4 human brain stems and 8 cerebral hemispheres were microdissected. Results: The anatomic examination showed a sporadic hypoplasia, hyperplasia, early bifurcation and duplication of certain cerebral arteries. The perforating arteries varied from 1 to 8 in number. The features of the leptomeningeal and choroidal vessels were presented. The radiologic examination revealed singular (22.08%), double (32.48%) or multiple primary feeding arteries (45.45%), which were dilated and elongated in 58.44% of the patients. The feeders most often originated from the middle cerebral artery (MCA; (23.38%), less frequently from the anterior cerebral artery (ACA; 12.99%), and the posterior cerebral artery (PCA; 10.39%). Multiple feeders commonly originated from the ACA and MCA (11.69%), the MCA and PCA (10.39%), the ACA and PCA (7.79%), and the ACA, MCA and PCA (5.19%). The infratentorial feeders were found in 9.1% of the AVMs. Contribution from the middle meningeal and occipital arteries was seen in 3.9% angiograms. Two cerebral arteries had a saccular aneurysm. The AVM haemorrhage appeared in 63.6% of patients. Conclusions: The knowledge of the origin and anatomic features of the AVMs feeders is important in the explanation of neurologic signs, and in a decision regarding the endovascular embolisation, neurosurgical and radiosurgical treatments.
  • Pospelov, Alexey S.; Yukin, Alexey Y.; Blumberg, Mark S.; Puskarjov, Martin; Kaila, Kai (2016)
    Febrile seizures are the most common type of convulsive events in children. It is generally assumed that the generalization of these seizures is a result of brainstem invasion by the initial limbic seizure activity. Using precollicular transection in 13-day-old rats to isolate the forebrain from the brainstem, we demonstrate that the forebrain is not required for generation of tonic-clonic convulsions induced by hyperthermia or kainate. Compared with sham-operated littermate controls, latency to onset of convulsions in both models was significantly shorter in pups that had undergone precollicular transection, indicating suppression of the brainstem seizure network by the forebrain in the intact animal. We have shown previously that febrile seizures are precipitated by hyperthermia-induced respiratory alkalosis. Here, we show that triggering of hyperthermia-induced hyperventilation and consequent convulsions in transected animals are blocked by diazepam. The present data suggest that the role of endogenous brainstem activity in triggering tonic-clonic seizures should be re-evaluated in standard experimental models of limbic seizures. Our work sheds new light on the mechanisms that generate febrile seizures in children and, therefore, on how they might be treated.
  • Virtala, Paula; Tervaniemi, Mari (2017)
  • Maheshwari, Upasana; Kraus, Dominik; Vilain, Nathalie; Holwerda, Sjoerd J. B.; Cankovic, Vanja; Maiorano, Nicola A.; Kohler, Hubertus; Satoh, Daisuke; Sigrist, Markus; Arber, Silvia; Kratochwil, Claudius F.; Di Meglio, Thomas; Ducret, Sebastien; Rijli, Filippo M. (2020)
    The mammalian precerebellar pontine nucleus (PN) has a main role in relaying cortical information to the cerebellum. The molecular determinants establishing ordered connectivity patterns between cortical afferents and precerebellar neurons are largely unknown. We show that expression of Hox5 transcription factors is induced in specific subsets of postmitotic PN neurons at migration onset. Hox5 induction is achieved by response to retinoic acid signaling, resulting in Jmjd3-dependent derepression of Polycomb chromatin and 3D conformational changes. Hoxa5 drives neurons to settle posteriorly in the PN, where they are monosynaptically targeted by cortical neuron subsets mainly carrying limb somatosensation. Furthermore, Hoxa5 postmigratory ectopic expression in PN neurons is sufficient to attract cortical somatosensory inputs regardless of position and avoid visual afferents. Transcriptome analysis further suggests that Hoxa5 is involved in circuit formation. Thus, Hoxa5 coordinates postmitotic specification, migration, settling position, and subcircuit assembly of PN neuron subsets in the cortico-cerebellar pathway.
  • Pihlaja, Mia; Failla, Laura; Peräkylä, Jari; Hartikainen, Kaisa M. (2020)
    We have previously shown invasive vagus nerve stimulation to improve attention and working memory and alter emotion-attention interaction in patients with refractory epilepsy, suggesting that VNS might be useful in the treatment of cognitive impairment. The current research focuses on whether non-invasive, transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) has similar effects to VNS. Furthermore, we aimed to assess whether tVNS has an impact on cognitive control in general or on underlying brain physiology in a task that mimics everyday life demands where multiple executive functions are engaged while encountering intervening emotional stimuli. Event-related potentials (ERP) evoked in such a task, specifically centro-parietal P3 and frontal N2 were used as biomarkers for attention allocation and cognitive control required to carry out the task. A single-blinded, sham-controlled, within-subject study on healthy subjects (n = 25) was conducted using Executive Reaction Time Test (RT-test), a Go/NoGo task engaging multiple executive functions along with intervening threat-related distractors while EEG was recorded. tVNS at the left tragus and sham stimulation at the left ear lobe was alternately delivered throughout the task. To assess the impact of tVNS on neural activity underlying attention and cognitive control, centro-parietal P3 and frontal N2 peak amplitudes were measured in Go and NoGo conditions. Task performance was assessed with RTs and different error types reflecting cognitive control in general and distinct executive functions, such as working memory and response inhibition.No significant effects due to tVNS on performance in the Executive RT-test were observed. For N2 there was a main effect of stimulator status and a significant interaction of trial type (Go, NoGo) and stimulator status. Post hoc analysis revealed that tVNS resulted in a significant reduction of frontal N2 only in the NoGo condition. No significant effects were observed for P3 nor were there any effects of emotion. Diminished NoGo-N2 potential along with unaltered task performance during tVNS suggests fewer cognitive control resources were required to successfully withhold a prepotent response. Though caution is warranted, we suggest that tVNS may lead to more efficient neural processing with fewer resources needed for successful cognitive control, providing promise for its potential use in cognitive enhancement.
  • Ylikoski, Jukka; Markkanen, Marika; Pirvola, Ulla; Lehtimaki, Jarmo Antero; Ylikoski, Matti; Jing, Zou; Sinkkonen, Saku T.; Mäkitie, Antti (2020)
    Introduction Tinnitus can become a strong stressor for some individuals, leading to imbalance of the autonomous nervous system with reduction of parasympathetic activity. It can manifest itself as sleep disturbances, anxiety and even depression. This condition can be reversed by bioelectrical vagal nerve stimulation (VNS). Conventional invasive VNS is an approved treatment for epilepsy and depression. Transcutaneous VNS (taVNS) stimulating the auricular branch of the vagus nerve has been shown to activate the vagal pathways similarly as an implanted VNS. Therefore, taVNS might also be a therapeutic alternative in health conditions such as tinnitus-related mental stress (TRMS). This retrospective study in 171 TRMS patients reports the clinical features, psychophysiological characteristics, and results of the heart rate variability (HRV) tests before and after test-taVNS. This study also reports the therapy outcomes of 113 TRMS patients treated with taVNS, in combination with standard tinnitus therapy. Methods Diagnostic tinnitus and hearing profiles were defined. To detect possible cardiac adverse effects, test-taVNS with heart rate monitoring as well as pre- and post-stimulation HRV tests were performed. Daily taVNS home therapy was prescribed thereafter. To assess therapeutic usefulness of taVNS, 1-year follow-up outcome was studied. Results of HRV tests were retrospectively analyzed and correlated to diagnostic data. Results The large majority of patients with TRMS suffer from associated symptoms such as sleep disturbances and anxiety. Baseline HRV data showed that more than three quarters of the 171 patients had increased sympathetic activity before test-taVNS. Test-taVNS shifted mean values of different HRV parameters toward increased parasympathetic activity in about 80% of patients. Test-taVNS did not cause any cardiac or other side effects. No significant adverse effects were reported in follow-up questionnaires. Conclusion TRMS is an example of a stress condition in which patients may benefit from taVNS. As revealed by HRV, test-taVNS improved parasympathetic function, most efficiently in patients with a low starting HRV level. Our tinnitus treatment program, including taVNS, effectively alleviated tinnitus stress and handicap. For wider clinical use, there is a great need for more knowledge about the optimal methodology and parameters of taVNS.