Browsing by Subject "BRCA2 MUTATIONS"

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  • Hallamies, Sanna; Pelttari, Liisa M.; Poikonen-Saksela, Paula; Jekunen, Antti; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Auvinen, Paivi; Blomqvist, Carl; Aittomaki, Kristiina; Mattson, Johanna; Nevanlinna, Heli (2017)
    Background: Several susceptibility genes have been established for female breast cancer, of which mutations in BRCA1 and especially in BRCA2 are also known risk factors for male breast cancer (MBC). The role of other breast cancer genes in MBC is less well understood. Methods: In this study, we have genotyped 68 MBC patients for the known breast or ovarian cancer associated mutations in the Finnish population in CHEK2, PALB2, RAD51C, RAD51D, and FANCM genes. Results: CHEK2 c.1100delC mutation was found in 4 patients (5.9%), which is significantly more frequent than in the control population (OR: 4.47, 95% CI 1.51-13.18, p = 0.019). Four CHEK2 I157T variants were also detected, but the frequency did not significantly differ from population controls (p = 0.781). No RAD51C, RAD51D, PALB2, or FANCM mutations were found. Conclusions: These data suggest that the CHEK2 c.1100delC mutation is associated with an increased risk for MBC in the Finnish population.
  • Fagerholm, Rainer; Faltinova, Maria; Aaltonen, Kirsi; Aittomaki, Kristiina; Heikkila, Paivi; Halttunen-Nieminen, Mervi; Nevanlinna, Heli; Blomqvist, Carl (2018)
    Long term use of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) has been reported to increase breast cancer risk. On the other hand, observational studies suggest that breast cancers diagnosed during HT may have a more favorable prognosis. While family history is a risk factor for breast cancer, and genetic factors also influence prognosis, the role of family history in combination with HT use has been little studied. We investigated the relationship between HT, family history, and prognosis in 584 (267 exposed) familial and 952 (460 exposed) non-familial breast cancer cases, using three survival end points: death from breast cancer (BCS), distant disease free survival (DDFS), and local recurrence free survival (LRFS). Among non-familial cases, HT was associated with better BCS (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.41-0.94; p = 0.025), and DDFS (HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.40-0.85; p = 0.005), with a consistent but not statistically significant effect in LRFS. This effect was not seen in familial cases (HR > 1.0), and family history was found to interact with HT in BCS (p((interaction)) = 0.0067) (BC-death) and DDFS (p((interaction)) = 0.0070). There was phenotypic heterogeneity between HT-associated tumors in familial and non-familial cases, particularly on estrogen receptor (ER) status, although the interaction between HT and family history appears to be at least partially independent of these markers (p = 0.0370 after adjustment for standard prognostic factors). If confirmed by further studies, our results suggest that family history should be taken into consideration in clinical counseling before beginning a HT regimen.
  • Kiiski, Johanna; Fagerholm, Rainer; Tervasmaki, Anna; Pelttari, Liisa M.; Khan, Sofia; Jamshidi, Maral; Mantere, Tuomo; Pylkas, Katri; Bartek, Jiri; Bartkova, Jirina; Mannermaa, Arto; Tengstrom, Maria; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Winqvist, Robert; Kallioniemi, Anne; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Nevanlinna, Heli (2016)
    Breast cancer (BC) is a heterogeneous disease, and different tumor characteristics and genetic variation may affect the clinical outcome. The FANCM c.5101C> T nonsense mutation in the Finnish population associates with increased risk of breast cancer, especially for triple-negative breast cancer patients. To investigate the association of the mutation with disease prognosis, we studied tumor phenotype, treatment outcome, and patient survival in 3,933 invasive breast cancer patients, including 101 FANCM c.5101C> T mutation carriers and 3,832 non-carriers. We also examined association of the mutation with nuclear immunohistochemical staining of DNA repair markers in 1,240 breast tumors. The FANCM c.5101C>T mutation associated with poor 10-year breast cancer-specific survival (hazard ratio (HR) 51.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09-2.52, p=0.018), with a more pronounced survival effect among familial cases (HR=2.93, 95% CI 1.5-5.76, p=1.80 x 10 23). Poor disease outcome of the carriers was also found among the estrogen receptor (ER) positive subgroup of patients (HR=1.8, 95% CI 1.09-2.98, p=0.021). Reduced survival was seen especially among patients who had not received radiotherapy (HR=3.43, 95% CI 1.6-7.34, p=1.50x10(-3)) but not among radiotherapy treated patients (HR=1.35, 95% CI 0.82-2.23, p=0.237). Significant interaction was found between the mutation and radiotherapy (p=0.040). Immunohistochemical analyses show that c.5101C> T carriers have reduced PAR-activity. Our results suggest that FANCM c.5101C>T nonsense mutation carriers have a reduced breast cancer survival but postoperative radiotherapy may diminish this survival disadvantage.
  • Kiiski, Johanna I.; Tervasmäki, Anna; Pelttari, Liisa M.; Khan, Sofia; Mantere, Tuomo; Pylkäs, Katri; Mannermaa, Arto; Tengström, Maria; Kvist, Anders; Borg, Åke; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kallioniemi, Anne; Schleutker, Johanna; Bützow, Ralf; Blomqvist, Carl; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Winqvist, Robert; Nevanlinna, Heli (2017)
    The FANCM c.5101C > T nonsense mutation was previously found to associate with breast cancer in the Finnish population, especially among triple-negative cases. Here, we studied the prevalence of three other FANCM variants: c.5791C > T, which has been reported to predispose to familial breast cancer, and the c.4025_4026delCT and c.5293dupA variants recently identified in Finnish cancer patients. We genotyped the FANCM c.5791C > T mutation in 4806 invasive breast cancer patients, including BRCA1/2 mutation negative familial cases and unselected cases, and in 2734 healthy population controls from four different geographical areas of Finland. The association of the mutation with breast cancer risk among patient subgroups was statistically evaluated. We further analyzed the combined risk associated with c.5101C > T and c.5791C > T mutations. We also genotyped 526 unselected ovarian cancer patients for the c.5791C > T mutation and 862 familial breast cancer patients for the c.4025_4026delCT and c.5293dupA variants. The frequency of the FANCM c.5791C > T mutation was higher among breast cancer cases than in controls (OR 1.94, 95% CI 0.87-4.32, P = 0.11), with a statistically significant association with triple-negative breast cancer (OR 5.14, 95% CI 1.65-16.0, P = 0.005). The combined analysis for c.5101C > T and c.5791C > T carriers confirmed a strong association with breast cancer (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.32-2.49, P = 0.0002), especially among the triple-negative patients (OR 3.08, 95% CI 1.77-5.35, P = 0.00007). For the other variants, only one additional c.4025_4026delCT carrier and no c.5293dupA carriers were observed. These results support the role of FANCM as a breast cancer susceptibility gene, particularly for triple-negative breast cancer.
  • Jamshidi, Maral; Fagerholm, Rainer; Muranen, Taru A.; Kaur, Sippy; Potdar, Swapnil; Khan, Sofia; Netti, Eliisa; Mpindi, John-Patrick; Yadav, Bhagwan; Kiiski, Johanna I.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Heikkilä, Päivi; Saarela, Jani; Bützow, Ralf; Blomqvist, Carl; Nevanlinna, Heli (2021)
  • Low, Yen Ling; Li, Yuqing; Humphreys, Keith; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Li, Yi; Darabi, Hatef; Wedren, Sara; Bonnard, Carine; Czene, Kamila; Iles, Mark M.; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Nevanlinna, Heli; Hall, Per; Liu, Edison T.; Liu, Jianjun (2010)
  • Pelttari, Liisa M.; Kiiski, Johanna I.; Ranta, Salla; Vilske, Sara; Blomqvist, Carl; Aittomaki, Kristiina; Nevanlinna, Heli (2015)
    Majority of the known breast cancer susceptibility genes have a role in DNA repair and the most important high-risk genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 are specifically involved in the homologous recombination repair (HRR) of DNA double-strand breaks. A central player in HRR is RAD51 that binds DNA at the damage site. The RAD51 paralogs RAD51B, RAD51C, RAD51D, XRCC2, and XRCC3 facilitate the binding of RAD51 to DNA. While germline mutations in RAD51C and RAD51D are associated with high ovarian cancer risk and RAD51B polymorphisms with breast cancer, the contribution of RAD51, XRCC3, and XRCC2 is more unclear. To investigate the role of RAD51, XRCC3, and XRCC2 in breast cancer predisposition and to identify putative recurrent founder mutations in the Finnish population where such mutations have been observed in most of the currently known susceptibility genes, we screened 182 familial Finnish breast or ovarian cancer patients for germline variation in the RAD51 and XRCC3 genes and 342 patients for variation in XRCC2, with a subset of the patients selected on the basis of decreased RAD51 protein expression on tumors. We also performed haplotype analyses for 1516 breast cancer cases and 1234 controls to assess the common variation in these genes. No pathogenic mutations were detected in any of the genes and the distribution of haplotypes was similar between cases and controls. Our results suggest that RAD51, XRCC3, and XRCC2 do not substantially contribute to breast cancer predisposition in the Finnish population.
  • Nurmi, Anna; Muranen, Taru A.; Pelttari, Liisa M.; Kiiski, Johanna I.; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Lehto, Sini; Kallioniemi, Anne; Schleutker, Johanna; Bützow, Ralf; Blomqvist, Carl; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Nevanlinna, Heli (2019)
    Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes predispose to breast and ovarian cancer (BC/OC) with a high lifetime risk, whereas mutations in PALB2, CHEK2, ATM, FANCM, RAD51C and RAD51D genes cause a moderately elevated risk. In the Finnish population, recurrent mutations have been identified in all of these genes, the latest being CHEK2 c.319+2T>A and c.444+1G>A. By genotyping 3,156 cases and 2,089 controls, we estimated the frequencies of CHEK2 c.319+2T>A and c.444+1G>A in Finnish BC patients. CHEK2 c.319+2T>A was detected in 0.7% of the patients, and it was associated with a high risk of BC in the unselected patient group (OR = 5.40 [95% CI 1.58-18.45], p = 0.007) and similarly in the familial patient group. CHEK2 c.444+1G>A was identified in 0.1% of all patients. Additionally, we evaluated the combined prevalence of recurrent moderate-risk gene mutations in 2,487 BC patients, 556 OC patients and 261 BRCA1/2 carriers from 109 families. The overall frequency of the mutations was 13.3% in 1,141 BRCA1/2-negative familial BC patients, 7.5% in 1,727 unselected BC patients and 7.2% in 556 unselected OC patients. At least one moderate-risk gene mutation was found in 12.5% of BRCA1 families and 7.1% of BRCA1 index patients, as well as in 17.0% of BRCA2 families and 11.3% of BRCA2 index patients, and the mutations were associated with an additional risk in the BRCA1/2 index patients (OR = 2.63 [1.15-5.48], p = 0.011). These results support gene panel testing of even multiple members of BC families where several mutations may segregate in different individuals.
  • Pelttari, Liisa M.; Kinnunen, Laura; Kiiski, Johanna I.; Khan, Sofia; Blomqvist, Carl; Aittomaki, Kristiina; Nevanlinna, Heli (2016)
    Several high and moderate risk alleles have been identified for breast and ovarian cancer predisposition and most of them encode proteins that function in DNA repair. A prospective candidate for breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility is the HELQ helicase that has a role in the resolution of DNA interstrand cross-links. HELQ interacts with the RAD51 paralog complex BCDX2. Two components of the complex, RAD51C and RAD51D, increase the risk of ovarian cancer especially, and the other two, RAD51B and XRCC2 have been associated with breast cancer risk. To investigate the role of HELQ in cancer predisposition, we screened the gene for germline variation in 185 Finnish breast or ovarian cancer families and performed haplotype analyses for 1517 breast cancer cases, 308 ovarian cancer cases, and 1234 population controls using five common polymorphisms at the HELQ gene locus. No truncating mutations were identified among the families. One putatively pathogenic missense mutation c.1309A > G was identified but no additional carriers were observed in the subsequent genotyping of 332 familial breast or ovarian cancer patients. Furthermore, the haplotype distribution did not differ between breast or ovarian cancer cases and population controls. Our results indicate that HELQ is not a major breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene in the Finnish population. However, we cannot rule out rare risk-variants in the Finnish or other populations and larger datasets are needed to further assess the role of HELQ especially in ovarian cancer predisposition.
  • Fagerholm, Rainer; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Khan, Sofia; Rafiq, Sajjad; Tapper, William; Aittomaki, Kristiina; Greco, Dario; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Muranen, Taru A.; Fasching, Peter A.; Janni, Wolfgang; Weinshilboum, Richard; Loehberg, Christian R.; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Keeman, Renske; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Lambrechts, Diether; Wildiers, Hans; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Seibold, Petra; Couch, Fergus J.; Olson, Janet E.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Hooning, Maartje J.; Jager, Agnes; Shah, Mitul; Perkins, Barbara J.; Luben, Robert; Hamann, Ute; Kabisch, Maria; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Liu, Jianjun; Eccles, Diana; Blomqvist, Carl; Nevanlinna, Heli; kConFab Investigators (2015)
    We have utilized a two-stage study design to search for SNPs associated with the survival of breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Our initial GWS data set consisted of 805 Finnish breast cancer cases (360 treated with adjuvant chemotherapy). The top 39 SNPs from this stage were analyzed in three independent data sets: iCOGS (n=6720 chemotherapy-treated cases), SUCCESS-A (n=3596), and POSH (n=518). Two SNPs were successfully validated: rs6500843 (any chemotherapy; per-allele HR 1.16, 95% C.I. 1.08-1.26, p=0.0001, p((adjusted))=0.0091), and rs11155012 (anthracycline therapy; per-allele HR 1.21, 95% C.I. 1.08-1.35, p=0.0010, p((adjusted))=0.0270). The SNP rs6500843 was found to specifically interact with adjuvant chemotherapy, independently of standard prognostic markers (p((interaction))=0.0009), with the rs6500843-GG genotype corresponding to the highest hazard among chemotherapy-treated cases (HR 1.47, 95% C.I. 1.20-1.80). Upon trans-eQTL analysis of public microarray data, the rs6500843 locus was found to associate with the expression of a group of genes involved in cell cycle control, notably AURKA, the expression of which also exhibited differential prognostic value between chemotherapy-treated and untreated cases in our analysis of microarray data. Based on previously published information, we propose that the eQTL genes may be connected to the rs6500843 locus via a RBFOX1-FOXM1 -mediated regulatory pathway.