Browsing by Subject "Behavior"

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  • Byers, Kelsey J. R. P.; Darragh, Kathy; Musgrove, Jamie; Abondano Almeida, Diana; Fernanda Garza, Sylvia; Warren, Ian A.; Rastas, Pasi M.; Kucka, Marek; Chan, Yingguang Frank; Merrill, Richard M.; Schulz, Stefan; Owen McMillan, W.; Jiggins, Chris D. (2020)
    Understanding the production, response, and genetics of signals used in mate choice can inform our understanding of the evolution of both intraspecific mate choice and reproductive isolation. Sex pheromones are important for courtship and mate choice in many insects, but we know relatively little of their role in butterflies. The butterfly Heliconius melpomene uses a complex blend of wing androconial compounds during courtship. Electroantennography in H. melpomene and its close relative Heliconius cydno showed that responses to androconial extracts were not species specific. Females of both species responded equally strongly to extracts of both species, suggesting conservation of peripheral nervous system elements across the two species. Individual blend components provoked little to no response, with the exception of octadecanal, a major component of the H. melpomene blend. Supplementing octadecanal on the wings of octadecanal-rich H. melpomene males led to an increase in the time until mating, demonstrating the bioactivity of octadecanal in Heliconius. Using quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping, we identified a single locus on chromosome 20 responsible for 41% of the parental species' difference in octadecanal production. This QTL does not overlap with any of the major wing color or mate choice loci, nor does it overlap with known regions of elevated or reduced F-ST. A set of 16 candidate fatty acid biosynthesis genes lies underneath the QTL. Pheromones in Heliconius carry information relevant for mate choice and are under simple genetic control, suggesting they could be important during speciation.
  • Pehkonen, Jaana; Karma, Leena; Raekallio, Marja (2019)
    No studies have focused on dental pain signs associated with periapical infection in cheek teeth (CT) of horses. Moreover, the ability of owners to recognize signs of dental pain in horses has not been reported. We hypothesized that periapical infection will usually induce pain that manifests in the behavior of the horse. Removing the infected tooth will reduce the expression of such behaviors. Owners of 47 horses whose CT had been removed because of periapical infection participated in this study. They filled an internet-based questionnaire including 23 questions about eating behavior, bit behavior, and general behavior observed before and after the operation. The number of signs exhibited by each horse before and after CT removal was compared using Wilcoxon signed-rank sum test. Values of P <.05 were considered significant. Before the operation, avoidance behaviors, such as evading the bit, difficulties in eating, and even asocial or aggressive behaviors were commonly reported by the owners. Removing the infected tooth significantly reduced the number of these behavioral patterns expressed by the horses (P <.001 for each group of behaviors), suggesting that they could be associated with dental pain. Half of the cases had been diagnosed during a routine dental examination, indicating that many owners did not realize that certain undesirable behavioral patterns of their horses might be associated with dental pain. These findings highlight the importance of training owners to recognize behavior potentially related to dental pain in horses and that routine dental examinations are essential for ensuring horses' well-being. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Schultner, E.; Pulliainen, U. (2020)
    In social insect colonies, individuals need to communicate to coordinate cooperative tasks and protect the colony and its resources against intruders. To maintain colony integrity, it can be particularly important to recognize nestmates and discriminate against non-nestmate conspecifics and heterospecific predators and parasites. As typical intruders are either con- or heterospecific adults, the mechanisms underlying recognition and discrimination processes in interactions among adults have been well described. Ant brood (eggs, larvae, and pupae) can also play a key role in social interactions, and brood is of special importance when it comes to the priorities of worker ants. However, whether ants can, or even need to, recognize brood of different origins, is not always clear. In this review, we integrate the results of 100 years of study on brood recognition and discrimination in ants into a general framework. We begin with an overview of the proximate mechanisms involved in brood recognition and discrimination. We then discuss why brood recognition and discrimination should evolve and review the evidence for brood recognition on three organizational levels: within nests, between conspecifics and between species. We conclude by examining the constraints acting on accurate recognition and/or discrimination. With this review, we hope to inspire future research on the fascinating life of ant brood.
  • Kovanen, Leena; Donner, Kati; Kaunisto, Mari; Partonen, Timo (2016)
    Cryptochromes are key components of the circadian clocks that generate and maintain seasonal variations. The aim of our study was to analyze the associations of CRY1 and CRY2 genetic variants with the problematicity of seasonal variations, and whether the problematicity of seasonal variations changed during the follow-up of 11 years. Altogether 21 CRY1 and 16 CRY2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped and analyzed in 5910 individuals from a Finnish nationwide population-based sample who had filled in the self-report on the seasonal variations in mood and behavior in the year 2000. In the year 2011, 3356 of these individuals filled in the same self-report on the seasonal variations in mood and behavior. Regression models were used to test whether any of the SNPs associated with the problematicity of seasonal variations or with a change in the problematicity from 2000 to 2011. In the longitudinal analysis, CRY2 SNP rs61884508 was protective from worsening of problematicity of seasonal variations. In the cross-sectional analysis, CRY2 SNP rs72902437 showed evidence of association with problematicity of seasonal variations, as did SNP rs1554338 (in the MAPK8IP1 and downstream of CRY2). (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Kasica, Natalia; Podlasz, Piotr; Sundvik, Maria; Tamas, Andrea; Reglodi, Dora; Kaleczyc, Jerzy (2016)
    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a pleiotropic neuropeptide, with known antiapoptotic functions. Our previous in vitro study has demonstrated the ameliorative role of PACAP-38 in chicken hair cells under oxidative stress conditions, but its effects on living hair cells is now yet known. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate in vivo the protective role of PACAP-38 in hair cells found in zebrafish (Danio rerio) sense organs-neuromasts. To induce oxidative stress the 5-day postfertilization (dpf) zebrafish larvae were exposed to 1.5 mM H2O2 for 15 min or 1 h. This resulted in an increase in caspase-3 and p-38 MAPK level in the hair cells as well as in an impairment of the larvae basic behavior. To investigate the ameliorative role of PACAP-38, the larvae were incubated with a mixture of 1.5 mM H2O2 and 100 nM PACAP-38 following 1 h preincubation with 100 nM PACAP-38 only. PACAP-38 abilities to prevent hair cells from apoptosis were investigated. Whole-mount immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy analyses revealed that PACAP-38 treatment decreased the cleaved caspase-3 level in the hair cells, but had no influence on p-38 MAPK. The analyses of basic locomotor activity supported the protective role of PACAP-38 by demonstrating the improvement of the fish behavior after PACAP-38 treatment. In summary, our in vivo findings demonstrate that PACAP-38 protects zebrafish hair cells from oxidative stress by attenuating oxidative stress-induced apoptosis.
  • Parmentier, Regis; Zhao, Yan; Perier, Magali; Akaoka, Hideo; Lintunen, Minnamaija; Hou, Yiping; Panula, Pertti; Watanabe, Takeshi; Franco, Patricia; Lin, Jian-Sheng (2016)
    Using knockout (KO) mice lacking the histamine (HA)-synthesizing enzyme (histidine decarboxylase, HDC), we have previously shown the importance of histaminergic neurons in maintaining wakefulness (W) under behavioral challenges. Since the central actions of HA are mediated by several receptor subtypes, it remains to be determined which one(s) could be responsible for such a role. We have therefore compared the cortical-EEG, sleep and W under baseline conditions or behavioral/pharmacological stimuli in littermate wild-type (WT) and H1-receptor KO (H1-/-) mice. We found that H1-/- mice shared several characteristics with HDC KO mice, i.e. 1) a decrease in W after lights-off despite its normal baseline daily amount; 2) a decreased EEG slow wave sleep (SWS)/W power ratio; 3) inability to maintain W in response to behavioral challenges demonstrated by a decreased sleep latency when facing various stimuli. These effects were mediated by central H1-receptors. Indeed, in WT mice, injection of triprolidine, a brain-penetrating H1-receptor antagonist increased SWS, whereas ciproxifan (H3-receptor antagonist/inverse agonist) elicited W; all these injections had no effect in H1-/- mice. Finally, H1-/- mice showed markedly greater changes in EEG power (notably in the 0.8-5 Hz band) and sleep-wake cycle than in WT mice after application of a cholinergic antagonist or an indirect agonist, i.e., scopolamine or physostigmine. Hence, the role of HA in wake-promotion is largely ensured by H1-receptors. An upregulated cholinergic system may account for a quasi-normal daily amount of W in HDC or H1-receptor KO mice and likely constitutes a major compensatory mechanism when the brain is facing deficiency of an activating system. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Histamine Receptors'. Copyright (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Lindahl, Anna; Patja, Kristiina; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna (2019)
    Terveysvalmennus on näyttöön perustuva elintapainterventio, joka nostaa potilaan toimijaksi. Se tukee potilaan sitoutumista hoitoon ja myönteisiä elintapamuutoksia pitkäaikaissairauksissa. Lääkärille ja lääkäriksi opiskelevalle terveysvalmennus tarjoaa uusia työkaluja. Se voi parantaa potilas–lääkärisuhdetta ja lisätä terveydenhuollon tasa-arvoa.