Browsing by Subject "Benthic flux"

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  • Tallberg, Petra; Heiskanen, Anna-Stiina; Niemistö, Juha; Hall, Per O. J.; Lehtoranta, Jouni (2017)
    We estimated the efflux of dissolved silicon (DSi) from sediments in the Gulf of Finland and compared it to sedimentation fluxes, burial of Si and existing data on Si loading and stocks, reassessing the reliability of existing Si budgets. Benthic fluxes of DSi measured in situ and in vitro were several times higher than estimates from diffusion calculations. The spatial variability in the open Gulf of Finland was relatively small, while both very high and low fluxes were measured from coastal areas. Fluxes were highest in late summer and lowest in early spring. In our re-assessed budget we present a new lower estimate for Si burial in the sediments, ca. 6 Gmol a(-1) and show that more than half of the sedimentation flux of Si is released back into the water column. Changes in the efficiency of internal DSi recycling may thus affect the prevalence of siliceous phytoplankton within the ecosystem, and the diatom spring bloom may be regulated by the functioning of this internal recycling pump. We also show that the seasonal variation in benthic DSi fluxes and dissolved phosphate fluxes is similar, and that a tentative connection between hypoLxia and high DSi efflux exists. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Niemistö, Juha; Kononets, Mikhail; Ekeroth, Nils; Tallberg, Petra; Tengberg, Anders; Hall, Per O.J. (2018)
    Abstract Benthic fluxes of oxygen and dissolved inorganic nutrients; phosphate (DIP), ammonium (NH4), nitrate + nitrite (NOx), and silicate (DSi); and the effects of resuspension on these were studied in situ with the Göteborg benthic landers in the Gulf of Finland archipelago, Baltic Sea. The benthic fluxes were examined at two shallow stations at depths of 7 m and 20 m in May and August 2014. Resuspension altered benthic fluxes of oxygen and nutrients in most of the experiments in August, but not in May, which was mainly due to weaker resuspension treatments in spring. Additionally, the benthic nutrient regeneration rates were higher and redox conditions lower in August when the water was warmer. In August, resuspension increased the benthic oxygen uptake by 33–35%, which was, in addition to stronger resuspension treatment, attributed to higher amounts of dissolved reduced substances in the sediment pore water in comparison to conditions in May. Adsorption onto newly formed iron oxyhydroxides could explain the uptake of DIP by the sediment at the 20 m station and the lowering of the DSi efflux by 31% at the 7 m station during resuspension in August. In addition, resuspension promoted nitrification, as indicated by increased NOx fluxes at both stations (by 30% and 27% at the 7 m and 20 m station, respectively) and a lowered NH4 flux (by 48%) at the 7 m station. Predicted increases in the magnitude and frequency of resuspension will thus markedly affect the transport of phosphorus and silicon and the cycling of nitrogen in the shallow areas of the Gulf of Finland.
  • Niemisto, Juha; Lund-Hansen, Lars Chresten (2019)
    Climate change is leading to harsher resuspension events in shallow coastal environments influencing benthic nutrient fluxes. However, we lack information on the quantitative connection between these fluxes and the physical forces. Two identical experiments that were carried out both in May and August provided novel knowledge on the instantaneous effects of resuspension with known intensity on the benthic dissolved inorganic (phosphate: DIP, ammonium: NH4+, nitrite+nitrate: NOx, silicate, DSi) and organic nutrient (phosphorus: DOP, nitrogen: DON, carbon: DOC) fluxes in the shallow soft bottoms of the archipelago of Gulf of Finland (GoF), Baltic Sea. Resuspension treatments, as 2 times the critical shear stress, induced effluxes of one to two orders of magnitude higher than the diffusive fluxes from the studied oxic bottoms. The presence of oxygen resulted in newly formed iron oxyhydroxides and the subsequent precipitation/adsorption of the redox-dependent nutrients (DIP, DSi, organic nutrients) affecting their fluxes. Resuspension-induced NH4+ and NOx fluxes were associated with the organic content of sediments showing the highest values at the organic rich sites. NH4+ showed the strongest responses to resuspension treatments in August, but NOx at the time of high oxygen concentrations in near-bottom water in May. Foreseen increases in the frequency and intensity of resuspension events due to climate change will most likely enhance the internal nutrient loading of the studied coastal areas. The fluxes presented here, connected to known current velocities, can be utilized in modeling work and to assess and predict the internal nutrient loading following climate change.