Browsing by Subject "Bildung"

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  • Ylilammi, Mikko (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Tutkielma käsittelee Hermann Hessen varhaisen tuotannon piirteitä Bildungsromanin perinteisen saksalaisen muodon ja parodisten tyyliseikkojen osalta. Valitut neljä tekstiä, Knulp, Muuan nuoruus (Unterm Rad), Demian ja "Haihattelija" ("Karl Eugen Eiselein"), osoitetaan sekä Bildungsroman-muodon perillisiksi että sen parodiaksi. Tutkielmassa näytetään niiden parodiset viittaukset genren tyypillisiin piirteisiin nähden sekä niiden etääntyminen perinteisen Bildungsromanin optimistisesta asenteesta. Tutkimusmetodina käytetään tekstianalyysiä ja vertailevaa kirjallisuudentutkimusta. Tärkeimpänä vertailukohtana käytetään Johann Wolfgang von Goethen arkkityyppistä Bildungsromania Wilhelm Meisterin oppivuodet (Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre). Teos on kirjallisuudentutkimuksessa usein saanut arvon Bildungsroman-muodon vakiinnuttajana ja sen selkeimpänä edustajana. Erityisen hyödyllinen teos on selkeyttämään Bildungin ja Bürgertumin (opin ja porvariston) asemaa Bildungsroman-muodossa. Teoreettinen taustatutkimus perustuu Bildungsroman-tutkimukseen, mm. James Hardinin, Rolf Selbmannin ja Liisa Saariluoman tutkimuksiin. Bildungsromania käsitellään rakenteena, genrenä ja tyylilajina. Parodian teoria nojautuu Linda Hutcheonin ja Simon Dentithin ajatuksiin, ja se ymmärretään tutkielmassa laajassa merkityksessä niin, että huomioidaan sekä ivaava että arvostava viittaus kohdetekstiin. Bildungsroman-muotoa käsitellään myös yksilön sosiaalistumisena yhteiskunnallisiin normeihin. Hessen varhaistuotannon teokset osoittautuvat hyvin tietoisesti Bildungsroman-muotoa mukaileviksi, mutta varsin erilaisia ratkaisuja sisältäviksi tarinoiksi. Hessen päähenkilöt joutuvat henkisten ja maallisten ihanteiden ristiriidan keskelle ja päätyvät vaihteleviin lopputuloksiin. Perinteisessä Bildungsromanissa oletettu harmonian saavuttaminen teoksen loppuvaiheessa esittäytyy mahdottomana tai naurettavana. Sen tilalla on kohtalokäsitys, joka käsittää sekä kärsimystä että korkeamman hengen tavoittelua, mutta ei lopullista yhteiskunnan arvojen sisäistämistä ja hyväksymistä. Tutkimuksen tuloksena voidaan todeta, että Hermann Hessen tekstit ovat voimakkaasti sidoksissa perinteiseen saksalaiseen Bildungsroman-muotoon, mutta myös, että Hesse pyrkii tietoisesti erottautumaan sen tavanomaisista ajattelutavoista. Hesselle tyypilliset yksilön sisäiset konfliktit, kahtia jakautuneet identiteetit ja pyrkimys korkeampaan henkiseen olemukseen sopivat hyvin kehityskertomukseen, mutta samalla hänen teksteissään on läsnä synkkyys joka leimaa myös hänen myöhempiä teoksiaan. Nämä erot genreen, jota kirjallisuushistoriassa kutsutaan Bildungsromaniksi, esiintyvät usein nimenomaan parodisessa muodossa.
  • Schaffar, Birgit (2021)
    This article considers the concept of Competence as applied to educational theory and policy, and illuminates the possibility of significant variations in meaning. Referring to Wittgenstein’s distinctions between transitive and intransitive uses of notions and Holland’s description of mastery, the article argues in favour of two senses in which someone can be described as being competent: i) as expressive of a value judgment; and ii) as pointing to a person’s (formal) qualifications. While the latter opens a path towards different forms of measurements of competence, being competent as a value judgment eludes any such treatment. Making this distinction, it is argued that competence is a less illuminative theoretical term than, for example, the pair of concepts Bildung versus Ausbildung ((self-)subjectivation vs training), that has been used in the Continental tradition in order to describe a similar distinction. With examples from educational contexts, the article demonstrates that the moment educational theory is using one word for two meanings, this central distinction in education is either concealed or forgotten. Focusing on competence purely as an empirically assessable notion risks playing into the hands of instrumentalising education.
  • Herranen, Jaana; Yavuzkaya, Merve; Sjöström, Jesper (2021)
    The aim of this theoretical paper is to develop and present a didaktik model that embeds chemistry education into Environmental and Sustainability Education (ESE) using an eco-reflexive approach. A didaktik model is a tool to help educators make decisions and reflect on why, what, how, and/or when to teach. The model presented here is a revised version of the Jegstad and Sinnes model from 2015. It was systematically developed based on a critical analysis of the previous ESD (Education for Sustainable Development)-based model. This process is part of what is called didactic modeling. The revised model consists of the following six categories: (i) socio-philosophical framing; (ii) sustainable schooling and living; (iii) critical views on chemistry's distinctiveness and methodological character; (iv) powerful chemical content knowledge; (v) critical views of chemistry in society; and (vi) eco-reflexivity through environmental and sustainability education. As in the model by Jegstad and Sinnes, the eco-reflexive didaktik model seeks to support chemistry educators in their sustainability-oriented educational planning and analysis, but from a more critical perspective. Based on an eco-reflexive Bildung approach, one additional category-socio-philosophical framing-was added to the revised model. This is because the previous model does not take sufficient account of worldview perspectives, cultural values, and educational philosophy. The eco-reflexive didaktik model is illustrated with boxes, and it is suggested that all categories in these boxes should be considered in holistic and eco-reflexive chemistry education. The purpose of such education is to develop students' ChemoKnowings.
  • Pathirane, Henrik (2020)
    The paper applies Gadamerian hermeneutics to everyday situations of nonverbal social interaction in the urban space. First, relevant aspects of urban encounters are briefly discussed with philosophical hermeneutics’ relation to nonverbal communication and bodily understanding. Second, hermeneutic understanding is presented as conversation, and the ethical implications of hermeneutics are articulated: as philosophical practice, Gadamerian hermeneutics is about intensifying the voice of the other. There is a demand for mutual openness towards otherness. Connected to this attitude required for hermeneutic encounters are the ideas of a cosmopolitan public sphere and an inclusive hermeneutic community. After attending to these, the value of specifically urban encounters can be articulated. Urban context and built environment can in good circumstances assist in encountering the other hermeneutically. The passing communicative situations can be negotiations of meanings and values, instances of public sphere. The urban mass society with its crowds has potentiality to enact an inclusive hermeneutic community. To conclude, the consequences of our failures to engage hermeneutically with each other are discussed in a plea for hermeneutic openness.
  • Vognæs, Stinne (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The aims of higher education have always been subject to debate and opposing opinions. In an increasingly complex world with many global challenges, the aims of higher education are once more debated. Furthermore, a growing international student body is also challenging what students should be educated for. How does these factors affect the aims of higher education and how should the university prepare students for this complex world? This partly inductive, normative case study of the University of Helsinki consists of 11 qualitative interviews from across faculties with representatives from 11 different international master’s programs. Through dialogical interviews these questions were explored. Martha Nussbaum’s theory of cosmopolitan citizenship and the three abilities of critical thinking, world citizenship and narrative imagination alongside theory on political socialization and the broader scholarly debate on the aims of higher education provide the foundation for the thematic analysis. The findings indicate that the ideals of cosmopolitan citizenship are still prevalent in the interviewees’ thinking about the skills and attitudes that students need. At the same time, many of the interviewees were not sure whether these skills and attitudes were being sufficiently developed, and many said that not enough was being done. This raises questions as to whether these skills, which are often not subject-area specific, can be brushed off as ‘nice to haves’ or whether there are real consequences if not ensuring that these skills and attitudes are approached in the same manner as subject-area knowledge. Based on the alignment between the interviews and Nussbaum’s cosmopolitan citizenship, it can be argued that what makes students good professionals is also central to making them good citizens. This study argues that students need a strong ethical, moral and value-based foundation to make them both responsible professionals and citizens. It should be explicitly planned for. This might be challenged by external pressures pushing for optimization, effectiveness and seeing education as primarily fulfilling companies’ HR needs alongside incentives structures that might not encourage teachers to prioritise teaching these skills. The findings of this study indicates that the skills of Nussbaum’s cosmopolitan citizenship are valued in the program representatives’ thinking, yet there seems to be a lack of awareness as to how these skills are being developed in practice. This study encourages a more active discussion to clearly articulate what the aims of higher education should be in the 21st century and how that should be put into practice.