Browsing by Subject "Biocultural diversity"

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  • Vierikko, Kati; Goncalves, Paula; Haase, Dagmar; Elands, Birgit; Ioja, Cristian; Jaatsi, Mia; Pieniniemi, Mari; Lindgren, Jasmina; Grilo, Filipa; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Niemelä, Jari; Yli-Pelkonen, Vesa (2020)
    Urban green spaces (UGS) provide multiple benefits, and public parks in particular have a key role in supporting ecological and social sustainability in cities, contributing to human-nature interactions. We studied the interrelationships between uses, experiences and the environment by adopting a novel concept of urban biocultural diversity (BCD). The concept identifies three interlinked spheres of urban BCD: materialised, lived and stewardship. We conducted place-based research in 33 parks located in four European capitals: Helsinki, Berlin, Bucharest and Lisbon. A total of 1474 visitors were interviewed concerning their motivations to use the park and their experiences during the visit. Using an open-ended survey, we revealed more than 50 motivations for park use and over 100 features people enjoyed during their visits. On the other hand, visitors mentioned far fewer things that disturbed them (60). We revealed that despite the fact motivations to use parks were strongly human-oriented, visitors widely enjoyed the environmental characteristics of parks, and especially nature. We found that parks located in neighbourhoods with low socio-economic status and outside the central area of the city were structurally less diverse than parks located in the city core. The structurally diverse parks enhanced motivations to use them, and increased overall enjoyments of the environment. We revealed clear differences in motivations and enjoyments between cities, implying that the day-to-day practices of people using and experiencing nature varies between cities.
  • Elands, B.H.M.; Vierikko, K.; Andersson, E.; Fischer, L.K.; Gonçalves, P.; Haase, D.; Kowarik, I.; Luz, A.C.; Niemelä, J.; Santos-Reis, M.; Wiersum, K.F. (2019)
    Biocultural diversity is an evolving perspective for studying the interrelatedness between people and their natural environment, not only in ecoregional hotspots and cultural landscapes, but also in urban green spaces. Developed in the 1990s in order to denote the diversity of life in all its manifestations. biological, cultural and linguistic. co-evolving within complex socio-ecological systems such as cities, biocultural diversity was identified in the GREEN SURGE project as a response to recent challenges cities face. Most important challenges are the loss of nature and degradation of ecosystems in and around cities as well as an alienation of urban residents from and loss of interaction with nature. The notion of biocultural diversity is dynamic in nature and takes local values and practices of relating to biodiversity of different cultural groups as a starting point for sustainable living with biodiversity. The issue is not only how to preserve or restore biocultural practices and values, but also how to modify, adapt and create biocultural diversity in ways that resonate with urban transformations. As future societies will largely diverge from today's societies, the cultural perspective on living with (urban) nature needs careful reconsideration. Biocultural diversity is not conceived as a definite concept providing prescriptions of what to see and study, but as a reflexive and sensitising concept that can be used to assess the different values and knowledge of people that reflect how they live with biodiversity. This short communication paper introduces a conceptual framework for studying the multi-dimensional features of biocultural diversity in cities along the three key dimensions of materialized, lived and stewardship, being departure points from which biocultural diversity can be studied.
  • Buizer, Marleen; Elands, Birgit; Vierikko, Kati (2016)
    With the aim to embed ecology more forcefully into decision-making, the concept of Ecosystems Services (ES) has gained significant ground amongpolicy-makers and researchers. The increasing recognition of the importance of urban green areas for the quality of life in growing cities has led proponents of ES approaches to argue for an uptake of the approach in urban environmental decision-making. However, the ES approach has been criticized for standing too much at a distance from local communities and their day-to-day practices and for insufficiently taking into account the potential trade-offs between different qualities or preferences. In this paper we argue that other concepts, doing other work, need to be added to the debate about futures of urban governance and research. Biocultural diversity is suggested as one such alternative concept. By its emphasis On diversity, biocultural diversity can account for the many ways in which people live with green areas in the urban landscape, acknowledges the different knowledges this involves, and can reveal conflicts and ambivalence that may be at stake. This sets up for a reflexive, transdisciplinary research process that questions and contextualizes knowledge and worldviews including those of researchers. A reflexive, transdisciplinary research, then, is a productive catalyst for forms of reflexive urban governance that recognise and respond to this diversity and provide platforms for contestation. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Elands, Birgit H. M.; Wiersum, K. Freerk; Buijs, Arjen E.; Vierikko, Kati (2015)
    Biocultural diversity, which refers to the inextricable link between biodiversity and cultural diversity, has been predominantly associated with the traditional ways in which indigenous people in tropical countries interact with the natural environment. But it does not have to be restricted to these circumstances. Biocultural diversity may also be regarded as an interesting concept for understanding how people in industrialized and globalized societies deal with nature. This paper explores biocultural diversity in 20 European cities by considering (i) how biocultural diversity is interpreted in urban planning and governance, and (ii) what actual manifestations of biocultural diversity are present in these cities. Despite the fact that the concept of biocultural diversity was hardly recognized by city authorities, interviewees gave many examples of how biodiversity and cultural diversity are taken into account in (in) formal city policies. The research revealed two main manifestations of biocultural diversity within urban Europe: biocultural diversity grounded in ecological features, and cultural values as a basic foundation for biocultural diversity. Consequently, urban biocultural diversity was found to have two spatial levels: the city level and the site level. The former is the domain of governmental policy makers who discuss biocultural diversity in 'green space networks' in a rather static way. The latter is the domain where citizens participate in decisionmaking and the management of green spaces; it is here that cultural dynamics are most acknowledged.
  • Fernandez-Llamazares Onrubia, Alvaro; Terraube, Julien; Gavin, Michael C.; Pyhälä, Aili; Siani, Sacha M.O.; Cabeza, Mar; Brondizio, Eduardo S. (2020)
    Indigenous territories represent ~45% of land categorized as wilderness in the Amazon, but account for <15% of all forest loss on this land. At a time when the Amazon faces unprecedented pressures, overcoming polarization and aligning the goals of wilderness defenders and Indigenous peoples is paramount, to avoid environmental degradation.