Browsing by Subject "Bioremediation"

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  • Yan, Lijuan; Penttinen, Petri; Mikkonen, Anu; Lindstrom, Kristina (2018)
    We investigated bacterial community dynamics in response to used motor oil contamination and perennial crop cultivation by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing in a 4-year field study. Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, and Gemmatimonadetes were the major bacterial phyla, and Rhodococcus was the most abundant genus. Initially, oil contamination decreased the overall bacterial diversity. Actinobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria were sensitive to oil contamination, exhibiting clear succession with time. However, bacterial communities changed over time, regardless of oil contamination and crop cultivation. The abundance difference of most OTUs between oil-contaminated and non-contaminated plots remained the same in later sampling years after the initial abundance difference induced by oil spike. The abundances of three oil-favored actinobacteria (Lysinimonas, Microbacteriaceae, and Marmoricola) and one betaproteobacterium (Aquabacterium) changed in different manner over time in oil-contaminated and non-contaminated soil. We propose that these taxa are potential bio-indicators for monitoring recovery from motor oil contamination in boreal soil. The effect of crop cultivation on bacterial communities became significant only after the crops achieved stable growth, likely associated with plant material decomposition by Bacteroidetes, Armatimonadetes and Fibrobacteres.
  • Yan, Lijuan; Sinkko, Hanna; Penttinen, Petri; Lindström, Kristina (2016)
    The widespread use of motor oil makes it a notable risk factor to cause scattered contamination in soil. The monitoring of microbial community dynamics can serve as a comprehensive tool to assess the ecological impact of contaminants and their disappearance in the ecosystem. Hence, a field study was conducted to monitor the ecological impact of used motor oil under different perennial cropping systems (fodder galega, brome grass, galega-brome grass mixture and bare fallow) in a boreal climate zone. Length heterogeneity PCR characterized a successional pattern in bacterial community following oil contamination over a four-year bioremediation period. Soil pH and electrical conductivity were associated with the shifts in bacterial community composition. Crops had no detectable effect on bacterial community composition or complexity. However, the legume fodder galega increased soil microbial biomass, expressed as soil total DNA. Oil contamination induced an abrupt change in bacterial community composition at the early stage, yet the effect did not last as long as the oil in soil. The successional variation in bacterial community composition can serve as a sensitive ecological indicator of oil contamination and remediation in situ. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Talvenmaki, Harri; Saartama, Niina; Haukka, Anna; Lepikko, Katri; Pajunen, Virpi; Punkari, Milla; Yan, Guoyong; Sinkkonen, Aki; Piepponen, Tuomas; Silvennoinen, Hannu; Romantschuk, Martin (2021)
    A residential lot impacted by spills from a leaking light heating oil tank was treated with a combination of chemical oxidation and bioremediation to avoid technically challenging excavation. The tank left emptied in the ground was used for slow infiltration of the remediation additives to the low permeability, clayey soil. First, hydrogen peroxide and citrate chelate was added for Fenton's reaction-based chemical oxidation, resulting in a ca. 50% reduction from the initial 25,000 mg/kg average oil concentration in the soil below the tank. Part of this was likely achieved through mobilization of oily soil into the tank, which was beneficial in regards to the following biological treatment. By first adding live bacteria in a soil inoculum, and then oxygen and nutrients in different forms, an approximately 90% average reduction was achieved. To further enhance the effect, methyl-beta-cyclodextrin surfactant (CD) was added, resulting finally in a 98% reduction from the initial average level. The applicability of the surfactant was based on laboratory-scale tests demonstrating that CD promoted oil degradation and, unlike pine soap, was not utilized by the bacteria as a carbon source, and thus inhibiting degradation of oils regardless of the positive effect on biological activity. The effect of CD on water solubility for different hydrocarbon fractions was tested to serve as the basis for risk assessment requirements for authorizing the use of the surfactant at the site.
  • Zafiu, Christian; Part, Florian; Ehmoser, Eva-Kathrin; Kahkonen, Mika A. (2021)
    Organic aromatic compounds used for dyeing and coloring in the textile industry are persistent and hazardous pollutants that must be treated before they are discharged into rivers and surface waters. Therefore, we investigated the potential of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete velutina to decolorize commonly used reactive dyes. The fungus decolorized in average 55% of Reactive Orange 16 (RO-16) after 14 days at a maximum rate of 0.09 d-1 and a half-life of 8 days. Furthermore, we determined the inhibitory effects of co-present inorganic contaminants Nickel (Ni) and Cobalt (Co) salts on the decolorization potential and determined IC50 values of 5.55 mg l- 1 for Co and a weaker inhibition by Ni starting from a concentration of 20 mg l- 1. In the decolorization assay for Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) we observed the interference of a metabolite of P. velutina, which did not allow us to investigate the kinetics of the reaction. The formation of the metabolite, however, could be used to obtain IC50 values of 3.37 mg l- 1 for Co and 7.58 mg l- 1 for Ni. Our results show that living white rot fungi, such as P. velutina, can be used for remediation of dye polluted wastewater, alternatively to enzyme mixtures, even in the co-presence of heavy metals.