Browsing by Subject "Birth length"

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  • Masalin, Senja; Rönö, Kristiina; Kautiainen, Hannu; Gissler, Mika; Eriksson, Johan G.; Laine, Merja K. (2019)
    AimsTo assess the relationship between body surface area (BSA) at birth and future risk for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).MethodsThis is an observational cohort study from Vantaa, Finland. The cohort included 1548 Finnish primiparous women, aged 15-28 years, without pre-existing diabetes, who gave birth 2009-2015. All women were born full-term and had complete information about their birth weight and length, from the Finnish Medical Birth Register. Additional data for the study were provided by individual patient health records and Statistics Finland. Study participants were divided into five levels (I-V) according to BSA at birth, based on normal distribution.ResultsThere was an inverse association between BSA at birth and risk for GDM (p=0.015 for linearity, after adjustments for age, educational attainment, pre-pregnancy BMI and smoking). The odds ratio (OR) for GDM in level V, with the largest BSA at birth, compared with level I, with the smallest BSA at birth, was 0.43 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.22-0.83]; adjusted for age, educational attainment, pre-pregnancy body mass index and smoking. The OR for GDM was 0.8 (95% CI 0.68-0.95, p=0.009) for each one standard deviation increase in BSA at birth, adjusted for the same confounders. BSA at birth correlated with adult anthropometry: correlation coefficients were r=0.16 (95% CI 0.11-0.21) for weight, r=0.31 (95% CI 0.26-0.35) for height, and r=0.06 (95% CI 0.01-0.11) for BMI.ConclusionsBody surface area at birth is inversely associated with future risk for GDM in primiparous women.
  • Hauta-alus, Helena H.; Viljakainen, Heli T.; Holmlund-Suila, Elisa M.; Enlund-Cerullo, Maria; Rosendahl, Jenni; Valkama, Saara M.; Helve, Otto M.; Hytinantti, Timo K.; Mäkitie, Outi M.; Andersson, Sture (2017)
    Background: Maternal vitamin D status has been associated with both gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and fetal growth restriction, however, the evidence is inconsistent. In Finland, maternal vitamin D status has improved considerably due to national health policies. Our objective was to compare maternal 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentrations [25(OH)D] between mothers with and without GDM, and to investigate if an association existed between maternal vitamin D concentration and infant birth size. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 723 mother-child pairs. Mothers were of Caucasian origin, and infants were born at term with normal birth weight. GDM diagnosis and birth size were obtained from medical records. Maternal 25(OH)D was determined on average at 11 weeks of gestation in pregnancy and in umbilical cord blood (UCB) at birth. Results: GDM was observed in 81 of the 723 women (11%). Of the study population, 97% were vitamin D sufficient [25(OH)D >= 50 nmol/L]. There was no difference in pregnancy 25(OH)D concentration between GDM and non-GDM mothers (82 vs 82 nmol/L, P = 0.99). Regression analysis confirmed no association between oral glucose tolerance test results and maternal 25(OH)D (P > 0.53). Regarding the birth size, mothers with optimal pregnancy 25(OH)D (>= 80 nmol/L) had heavier newborns than those with suboptimal pregnancy 25(OH)D (P = 0.010). However, mothers with optimal UCB 25(OH) D had newborns with smaller head circumference than those with suboptimal 25(OH)D (P = 0.003), which was further confirmed as a linear association (P = 0.024). Conclusions: Maternal vitamin D concentration was similar in mothers with and without GDM in a mostly vitamin D sufficient population. Associations between maternal vitamin D status and birth size were inconsistent. A sufficient maternal vitamin D status, specified as 25(OH)D above 50 nmol/L, may be a threshold above which the physiological requirements of pregnancy are achieved.
  • Hauta-alus, Helena H; Viljakainen, Heli T; Holmlund-Suila, Elisa M; Enlund-Cerullo, Maria; Rosendahl, Jenni; Valkama, Saara M; Helve, Otto M; Hytinantti, Timo K; Mäkitie, Outi M; Andersson, Sture (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background Maternal vitamin D status has been associated with both gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and fetal growth restriction, however, the evidence is inconsistent. In Finland, maternal vitamin D status has improved considerably due to national health policies. Our objective was to compare maternal 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentrations [25(OH)D] between mothers with and without GDM, and to investigate if an association existed between maternal vitamin D concentration and infant birth size. Methods This cross-sectional study included 723 mother-child pairs. Mothers were of Caucasian origin, and infants were born at term with normal birth weight. GDM diagnosis and birth size were obtained from medical records. Maternal 25(OH)D was determined on average at 11 weeks of gestation in pregnancy and in umbilical cord blood (UCB) at birth. Results GDM was observed in 81 of the 723 women (11%). Of the study population, 97% were vitamin D sufficient [25(OH)D ≥ 50 nmol/L]. There was no difference in pregnancy 25(OH)D concentration between GDM and non-GDM mothers (82 vs 82 nmol/L, P = 0.99). Regression analysis confirmed no association between oral glucose tolerance test results and maternal 25(OH)D (P > 0.53). Regarding the birth size, mothers with optimal pregnancy 25(OH)D (≥ 80 nmol/L) had heavier newborns than those with suboptimal pregnancy 25(OH)D (P = 0.010). However, mothers with optimal UCB 25(OH)D had newborns with smaller head circumference than those with suboptimal 25(OH)D (P = 0.003), which was further confirmed as a linear association (P = 0.024). Conclusions Maternal vitamin D concentration was similar in mothers with and without GDM in a mostly vitamin D sufficient population. Associations between maternal vitamin D status and birth size were inconsistent. A sufficient maternal vitamin D status, specified as 25(OH)D above 50 nmol/L, may be a threshold above which the physiological requirements of pregnancy are achieved. Trial registration The project protocol is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov in November 8, 2012 ( NCT01723852 ).