Browsing by Subject "Birth weight"

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  • Wegelius, Asko; Pankakoski, Maiju; Tomppo, Liisa; Lehto, Ulriika; Lonnqvist, Jouko; Suvisaari, Jaana; Paunio, Tiina; Hennah, William (2015)
    Pre- and perinatal environmental factors have been shown to increase schizophrenia risk particularly when combined with genetic liability. The investigation of specific gene environment interactions in the etiology of psychiatric disorders has gained momentum. We used multivariate GEE regression modeling to investigate the interaction between genes of the DISCI pathway and birth weight, in relation to schizophrenia susceptibility in a Finnish schizophrenia family cohort. The study sample consisted of 457 subjects with both genotype and birth weight information. Gender and place of birth were adjusted for in the models. We found a significant interaction between birth weight and two NDE1 markers in relation to increased schizophrenia risk: a four SNP haplotype spanning NDE1 (b = 1.26, SE= 0.5, p = 0.012) and one of its constituent SNPs rs4781678 (b = 1.33, SE = 0.51, p = 0.010). Specifically, high birth weight (> 4000 g) was associated with increased schizophrenia risk among subjects homozygous for the previously identified risk alleles. The study was based on a family study sample with high genetic loading for schizophrenia and thus our findings cannot directly be generalized as representing the general population. Our results suggest that the functions mediated by NDE1 during the early stages of neurodevelopment are susceptible to the additional disruptive effects of pre- and perinatal environmental factors associated with high birth weight, augmenting schizophrenia susceptibility. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
  • Masalin, Senja; Rönö, Kristiina; Kautiainen, Hannu; Gissler, Mika; Eriksson, Johan G.; Laine, Merja K. (2019)
    AimsTo assess the relationship between body surface area (BSA) at birth and future risk for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).MethodsThis is an observational cohort study from Vantaa, Finland. The cohort included 1548 Finnish primiparous women, aged 15-28 years, without pre-existing diabetes, who gave birth 2009-2015. All women were born full-term and had complete information about their birth weight and length, from the Finnish Medical Birth Register. Additional data for the study were provided by individual patient health records and Statistics Finland. Study participants were divided into five levels (I-V) according to BSA at birth, based on normal distribution.ResultsThere was an inverse association between BSA at birth and risk for GDM (p=0.015 for linearity, after adjustments for age, educational attainment, pre-pregnancy BMI and smoking). The odds ratio (OR) for GDM in level V, with the largest BSA at birth, compared with level I, with the smallest BSA at birth, was 0.43 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.22-0.83]; adjusted for age, educational attainment, pre-pregnancy body mass index and smoking. The OR for GDM was 0.8 (95% CI 0.68-0.95, p=0.009) for each one standard deviation increase in BSA at birth, adjusted for the same confounders. BSA at birth correlated with adult anthropometry: correlation coefficients were r=0.16 (95% CI 0.11-0.21) for weight, r=0.31 (95% CI 0.26-0.35) for height, and r=0.06 (95% CI 0.01-0.11) for BMI.ConclusionsBody surface area at birth is inversely associated with future risk for GDM in primiparous women.
  • Hakkarainen, Heidi; Huopio, Hanna; Cederberg, Henna; Voutilainen, Raimo; Heinonen, Seppo (2018)
    Aims: Was to determine whether the birth weight of the infant predicts prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or both) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) during long-term follow-up of women with or without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods: The women with or without GDM during their pregnancies in Kuopio University Hospital in 1989-2009 (n=876) were contacted and invited for an evaluation. They were stratified into two groups according to the newborn's birth weight: 10-90th percentile (appropriate-for-gestational-age; AGA) (n = 662) and >90th percentile (large-for-gestational-age; LGA) (n = 116). Glucose tolerance was investigated with an oral glucose tolerance test after a mean follow-up time of 7.3 (SD 5.1) years. Results: The incidence of T2DM was 11.8% and 0% in the women with and without GDM, respectively, after an LGA delivery. The incidence of prediabetes increased with offspring birth weight categories in the women with and without GDM: from 46.3% and 26.2% (AGA) to 52.9% and 29.2% (LGA), respectively. Conclusions: GDM women with LGA infants are at an increased risk for subsequent development of T2DM and therefore represent a target group for intervention to delay or prevent T2DM development. In contrast, an LGA delivery without GDM does not increase T2DM risk. (C) 2018 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Hakkarainen, Heidi; Huopio, Hanna; Cederberg, Henna; Voutilainen, Raimo; Heinonen, Seppo (2018)
    Background: Whether the delivery of a large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infant predicts future maternal metabolic syndrome (MetS) is not known. To this aim, we investigated the incidence of MetS and its components in women with or without a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) with a view to the birth weight of the offspring. Methods: Eight hundred seventy six women treated for their pregnancies in Kuopio University Hospital in 19892009 underwent a follow-up study (mean follow-up time 7.3 (SD 5.1) years), of whom 489 women with GDM and 385 normoglycemic controls. The women were stratified into two groups according to the newborn's birth weight: 10-90th percentile (appropriate-for-gestational-age; AGA) (n = 662) and > 90th percentile (LGA) (n = 116). MetS and its components were evaluated in the follow-up study according to the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Results: LGA vs. AGA delivery was associated with a higher incidence of MetS at follow-up in women with a background of GDM (54.4% vs. 43.6%), but not in women without GDM. Conclusion: An LGA delivery in women with GDM is associated with a higher risk of future MetS and this group is optimal to study preventive measures for MetS. In contrast, an LGA delivery after a normoglycemic pregnancy was not associated with an increased future maternal MetS risk.
  • Hakkarainen, Heidi; Huopio, Hanna; Cederberg, Henna; Voutilainen, Raimo; Heinonen, Seppo (BioMed Central, 2018)
    Abstract Background Whether the delivery of a large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infant predicts future maternal metabolic syndrome (MetS) is not known. To this aim, we investigated the incidence of MetS and its components in women with or without a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) with a view to the birth weight of the offspring. Methods Eight hundred seventy six women treated for their pregnancies in Kuopio University Hospital in 1989–2009 underwent a follow-up study (mean follow-up time 7.3 (SD 5.1) years), of whom 489 women with GDM and 385 normoglycemic controls. The women were stratified into two groups according to the newborn’s birth weight: 10-90th percentile (appropriate-for-gestational-age; AGA) (n = 662) and > 90th percentile (LGA) (n = 116). MetS and its components were evaluated in the follow-up study according to the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Results LGA vs. AGA delivery was associated with a higher incidence of MetS at follow-up in women with a background of GDM (54.4% vs. 43.6%), but not in women without GDM. Conclusion An LGA delivery in women with GDM is associated with a higher risk of future MetS and this group is optimal to study preventive measures for MetS. In contrast, an LGA delivery after a normoglycemic pregnancy was not associated with an increased future maternal MetS risk.
  • Huuskonen, Pasi; Keski-Nisula, Leea; Heinonen, Seppo; Voutilainen, Sari; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Pekkanen, Juha; Lampi, Jussi; Lehto, Soili M.; Haaparanta, Hannariikka; Elomaa, Antti-Pekka; Voutilainen, Raimo; Backman, Katri; Kokki, Hannu; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Paananen, Jussi; Vähäkangas, Kirsi; Pasanen, Markku (2018)
    Background: A Finnish joint research effort Kuopio Birth Cohort (KuBiCo) seeks to evaluate the effects of genetics, epigenetics and different risk factors (medication, nutrition, lifestyle factors and environmental aspects) during pregnancy on the somatic and psychological health status of the mother and the child. Methods: KuBiCo will ultimately include information on 10,000 mother-child pairs who have given their informed consent to participate in this cohort. Identification of foetal health risk factors that can potentially later manifest as disease requires a repository of relevant biological samples and a flexible open up-to-date data handling system to register, store and analyse biological, clinical and questionnaire-based data. KuBiCo includes coded questionnaire-based maternal background data gathered before, during and after the pregnancy and bio-banking of maternal and foetal samples that will be stored in deep freezers. Data from the questionnaires and biological samples will be collected into one electronic database. KuBiCo consists of several work packages which are complementary to each other: Maternal, foetal and placental metabolism and omits; Paediatrics; Mental wellbeing; Prenatal period and delivery; Analgesics and anaesthetics during peripartum period; Environmental effects; Nutrition; and Research ethics. Discussion: This report describes the set-up of the KuBiCo and descriptive analysis from 3532 parturients on response frequencies and feedback to KuBiCo questionnaires gathered from June 2012 to April 2016. Additionally, we describe basic demographic data of the participants (n = 1172). Based on the comparison of demographic data between official national statistics and our descriptive analysis, KuBiCo represents a cross-section of Finnish pregnant women.
  • Huuskonen, Pasi; Keski-Nisula, Leea; Heinonen, Seppo; Voutilainen, Sari; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Pekkanen, Juha; Lampi, Jussi; Lehto, Soili M; Haaparanta, Hannariikka; Elomaa, Antti-Pekka; Voutilainen, Raimo; Backman, Katri; Kokki, Hannu; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Paananen, Jussi; Vähäkangas, Kirsi; Pasanen, Markku (BioMed Central, 2018)
    Abstract Background A Finnish joint research effort Kuopio Birth Cohort (KuBiCo) seeks to evaluate the effects of genetics, epigenetics and different risk factors (medication, nutrition, lifestyle factors and environmental aspects) during pregnancy on the somatic and psychological health status of the mother and the child. Methods KuBiCo will ultimately include information on 10,000 mother-child pairs who have given their informed consent to participate in this cohort. Identification of foetal health risk factors that can potentially later manifest as disease requires a repository of relevant biological samples and a flexible open up-to-date data handling system to register, store and analyse biological, clinical and questionnaire-based data. KuBiCo includes coded questionnaire-based maternal background data gathered before, during and after the pregnancy and bio-banking of maternal and foetal samples that will be stored in deep freezers. Data from the questionnaires and biological samples will be collected into one electronic database. KuBiCo consists of several work packages which are complementary to each other: Maternal, foetal and placental metabolism and omics; Paediatrics; Mental wellbeing; Prenatal period and delivery; Analgesics and anaesthetics during peripartum period; Environmental effects; Nutrition; and Research ethics. Discussion This report describes the set-up of the KuBiCo and descriptive analysis from 3532 parturients on response frequencies and feedback to KuBiCo questionnaires gathered from June 2012 to April 2016. Additionally, we describe basic demographic data of the participants (n = 1172). Based on the comparison of demographic data between official national statistics and our descriptive analysis, KuBiCo represents a cross-section of Finnish pregnant women.
  • Hauta-alus, Helena H; Viljakainen, Heli T; Holmlund-Suila, Elisa M; Enlund-Cerullo, Maria; Rosendahl, Jenni; Valkama, Saara M; Helve, Otto M; Hytinantti, Timo K; Mäkitie, Outi M; Andersson, Sture (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background Maternal vitamin D status has been associated with both gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and fetal growth restriction, however, the evidence is inconsistent. In Finland, maternal vitamin D status has improved considerably due to national health policies. Our objective was to compare maternal 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentrations [25(OH)D] between mothers with and without GDM, and to investigate if an association existed between maternal vitamin D concentration and infant birth size. Methods This cross-sectional study included 723 mother-child pairs. Mothers were of Caucasian origin, and infants were born at term with normal birth weight. GDM diagnosis and birth size were obtained from medical records. Maternal 25(OH)D was determined on average at 11 weeks of gestation in pregnancy and in umbilical cord blood (UCB) at birth. Results GDM was observed in 81 of the 723 women (11%). Of the study population, 97% were vitamin D sufficient [25(OH)D ≥ 50 nmol/L]. There was no difference in pregnancy 25(OH)D concentration between GDM and non-GDM mothers (82 vs 82 nmol/L, P = 0.99). Regression analysis confirmed no association between oral glucose tolerance test results and maternal 25(OH)D (P > 0.53). Regarding the birth size, mothers with optimal pregnancy 25(OH)D (≥ 80 nmol/L) had heavier newborns than those with suboptimal pregnancy 25(OH)D (P = 0.010). However, mothers with optimal UCB 25(OH)D had newborns with smaller head circumference than those with suboptimal 25(OH)D (P = 0.003), which was further confirmed as a linear association (P = 0.024). Conclusions Maternal vitamin D concentration was similar in mothers with and without GDM in a mostly vitamin D sufficient population. Associations between maternal vitamin D status and birth size were inconsistent. A sufficient maternal vitamin D status, specified as 25(OH)D above 50 nmol/L, may be a threshold above which the physiological requirements of pregnancy are achieved. Trial registration The project protocol is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov in November 8, 2012 ( NCT01723852 ).
  • Hauta-alus, Helena H.; Viljakainen, Heli T.; Holmlund-Suila, Elisa M.; Enlund-Cerullo, Maria; Rosendahl, Jenni; Valkama, Saara M.; Helve, Otto M.; Hytinantti, Timo K.; Mäkitie, Outi M.; Andersson, Sture (2017)
    Background: Maternal vitamin D status has been associated with both gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and fetal growth restriction, however, the evidence is inconsistent. In Finland, maternal vitamin D status has improved considerably due to national health policies. Our objective was to compare maternal 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentrations [25(OH)D] between mothers with and without GDM, and to investigate if an association existed between maternal vitamin D concentration and infant birth size. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 723 mother-child pairs. Mothers were of Caucasian origin, and infants were born at term with normal birth weight. GDM diagnosis and birth size were obtained from medical records. Maternal 25(OH)D was determined on average at 11 weeks of gestation in pregnancy and in umbilical cord blood (UCB) at birth. Results: GDM was observed in 81 of the 723 women (11%). Of the study population, 97% were vitamin D sufficient [25(OH)D >= 50 nmol/L]. There was no difference in pregnancy 25(OH)D concentration between GDM and non-GDM mothers (82 vs 82 nmol/L, P = 0.99). Regression analysis confirmed no association between oral glucose tolerance test results and maternal 25(OH)D (P > 0.53). Regarding the birth size, mothers with optimal pregnancy 25(OH)D (>= 80 nmol/L) had heavier newborns than those with suboptimal pregnancy 25(OH)D (P = 0.010). However, mothers with optimal UCB 25(OH) D had newborns with smaller head circumference than those with suboptimal 25(OH)D (P = 0.003), which was further confirmed as a linear association (P = 0.024). Conclusions: Maternal vitamin D concentration was similar in mothers with and without GDM in a mostly vitamin D sufficient population. Associations between maternal vitamin D status and birth size were inconsistent. A sufficient maternal vitamin D status, specified as 25(OH)D above 50 nmol/L, may be a threshold above which the physiological requirements of pregnancy are achieved.
  • Tikanmaki, Marjaana; Tammelin, Tuija; Vaarasmaki, Marja; Sipola-Leppänen, Marika; Miettola, Satu; Pouta, Anneli; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kajantie, Eero (2017)
    Background: Lower levels of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are key risk factors of chronic adult diseases. Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are predicted by birth weight, but the underlying parental and pregnancy-related factors remain largely unknown. We examined how prenatal determinants are associated with physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescence. Methods: Of the 16-year-old members of the population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC 1986), 6682 singletons with no major physical disability reported their amount of physical activity outside school hours, and 4706 completed a submaximal cycle ergometer test assessing cardiorespiratory fitness. Physical activity was expressed as metabolic equivalent hours per week (METh/week) and cardiorespiratory fitness as peak oxygen uptake (ml center dot kg(-1)center dot min(-1)). Prenatal determinants included birth weight, length of gestation, mother's and father's body mass index (BMI), maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and maternal hypertension and smoking during pregnancy. Data were analyzed by multiple linear regression. Results: A higher birth weight and longer length of gestation predicted lower levels of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness at 16 years, although the association between length of gestation and physical activity was inverse U-shaped. Mother's or father's overweight or obesity before pregnancy were associated with lower levels of their offspring's physical activity and fitness in adolescence. Adjusting for maternal pregnancy disorders and the adolescent's own BMI attenuated the associations with the mother's but not the father's overweight/obesity. Furthermore, maternal GDM predicted lower cardiorespiratory fitness. Conclusions: A high birth weight and parental overweight/obesity are associated with lower levels of both physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescence, while maternal GDM and longer length of gestation are associated with lower cardiorespiratory fitness. Both long and short lengths of gestation predict low physical activity.
  • Marjonen, Heidi; Auvinen, Pauliina; Kahila, Hanna; Tšuiko, Olga; Kõks, Sulev; Tiirats, Airi; Viltrop, Triin; Tuuri, Timo; Söderström-Anttila, Viveca; Suikkari, Anne-Maria; Salumets, Andres; Tiitinen, Aila; Kaminen-Ahola, Nina (BioMed Central, 2018)
    Abstract Background Assisted reproductive technology (ART) has been associated with low birth weight of fresh embryo transfer (FRESH) derived and increased birth weight of frozen embryo transfer (FET)-derived newborns. Owing to that, we focused on imprinted insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2)/H19 locus known to be important for normal growth. This locus is regulated by H19 imprinting control region (ICR) with seven binding sites for the methylation-sensitive zinc finger regulatory protein (CTCF). A polymorphism rs10732516 G/A in the sixth binding site for CTCF, associates with a genotype-specific trend to the DNA methylation. Due to this association, 62 couples with singleton pregnancies derived from FRESH (44 IVF/18 ICSI), 24 couples from FET (15 IVF/9 ICSI), and 157 couples with spontaneously conceived pregnancies as controls were recruited in Finland and Estonia for genotype-specific examination. DNA methylation levels at the H19 ICR, H19 DMR, and long interspersed nuclear elements in placental tissue were explored by MassARRAY EpiTYPER (n = 122). Allele-specific changes in the methylation level of H19 ICR in placental tissue (n = 26) and white blood cells (WBC, n = 8) were examined by bisulfite sequencing. Newborns’ (n = 243) anthropometrics was analyzed by using international growth standards. Results A consistent trend of genotype-specific decreased methylation level was observed in paternal allele of rs10732516 paternal A/maternal G genotype, but not in paternal G/maternal A genotype, at H19 ICR in ART placentas. This hypomethylation was not detected in WBCs. Also genotype-specific differences in FRESH-derived newborns’ birth weight and head circumference were observed (P = 0.04, P = 0.004, respectively): FRESH-derived newborns with G/G genotype were heavier (P = 0.04) and had larger head circumference (P = 0.002) compared to newborns with A/A genotype. Also, the placental weight and birth weight of controls, FRESH- and FET-derived newborns differed significantly in rs10732516 A/A genotype (P = 0.024, P = 0.006, respectively): the placentas and newborns of FET-derived pregnancies were heavier compared to FRESH-derived pregnancies (P = 0.02, P = 0.004, respectively). Conclusions The observed DNA methylation changes together with the phenotypic findings suggest that rs10732516 polymorphism associates with the effects of ART in a parent-of-origin manner. Therefore, this polymorphism should be considered when the effects of environmental factors on embryonic development are studied.
  • Marjonen, Heidi Maria; Auvinen, Pauliina; Kahila, Hanna; Tšuiko, Olga; Kõks, Sulev; Tiirats, Airi; Viltrop, Triin; Tuuri, Timo; Söderström-Anttila, Viveca; Suikkari, Anne-Maria; Salumets, Andres; Tiitinen, Aila; Kaminen-Ahola, Nina (2018)
    Background: Assisted reproductive technology (ART) has been associated with low birth weight of fresh embryo transfer (FRESH) derived and increased birth weight of frozen embryo transfer (FET)-derived newborns. Owing to that, we focused on imprinted insulin-like growth factor 2 (1GF2)/H19 locus known to be important for normal growth. This locus is regulated by H19 imprinting control region (ICR) with seven binding sites for the methylation-sensitive zinc finger regulatory protein (CTCF). A polymorphism rs10732516 G/A in the sixth binding site for CTCF, associates with a genotype-specific trend to the DNA methylation. Due to this association, 62 couples with singleton pregnancies derived from FRESH (44 IVF/18 ICSI), 24 couples from FET (15 IVF/9 ICSI), and 157 couples with spontaneously conceived pregnancies as controls were recruited in Finland and Estonia for genotype-specific examination. DNA methylation levels at the H19 ICR, H19 DMR, and long interspersed nuclear elements in placental tissue were explored by MassARRAY EpiTYPER (n = 122). Allele-specific changes in the methylation level of H19 ICR in placental tissue (n = 26) and white blood cells (WBC, n = 8) were examined by bisulfite sequencing. Newborns' (n = 243) anthropometrics was analyzed by using international growth standards. Results: A consistent trend of genotype-specific decreased methylation level was observed in paternal allele of rs10732516 paternal A/maternal G genotype, but not in paternal G/maternal A genotype, at H19 ICR in ART placentas. This hypomethylation was not detected in WBCs. Also genotype-specific differences in FRESH-derived newborns' birth weight and head circumference were observed (P = 0.04, P = 0.004, respectively): FRESH-derived newborns with G/G genotype were heavier (P = 0.04) and had larger head circumference (P= 0.002) compared to newborns with A/A genotype. Also, the placental weight and birth weight of controls, FRESH- and FET-derived newborns differed significantly in rs10732516 A/A genotype (P= 0.024, P= 0.006, respectively): the placentas and newborns of FET-derived pregnancies were heavier compared to FRESH-derived pregnancies (P = 0.02, P= 0.004, respectively). Conclusions: The observed DNA methylation changes together with the phenotypic findings suggest that rs10732516 polymorphism associates with the effects of ART in a parent-of-origin manner. Therefore, this polymorphism should be considered when the effects of environmental factors on embryonic development are studied.