Browsing by Subject "Botrytis cinerea"

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  • Cui, Fuqiang; Wenwu, Wu; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Yuan; Zhubing, Hu; Brosche, Mikael; Liu, Shenkui; Overmyer, Kirk (2019)
    Prevailing evidence indicates that abscisic acid (ABA) negatively influences immunity to the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea in most but not all cases. ABA is required for cuticle biosynthesis, and cuticle permeability enhances immunity to Botrytis via unknown mechanisms. This complex web of responses obscures the role of ABA in Botrytis immunity. Here, we addressed the relationships between ABA sensitivity, cuticle permeability, and Botrytis immunity in the Arabidopsis thaliana ABA-hypersensitive mutants protein phosphatase2c quadruple mutant (pp2c-q) and enhanced response to aba1 (era1-2). Neither pp2c-q nor era1-2 exhibited phenotypes predicted by the known roles of ABA; conversely, era1-2 had a permeable cuticle and was Botrytis resistant. We employed RNA-seq analysis in cuticle-permeable mutants of differing ABA sensitivities and identified a core set of constitutively activated genes involved in Botrytis immunity and susceptibility to biotrophs, independent of ABA signaling. Furthermore, botrytis susceptible1 (bos1), a mutant with deregulated cell death and enhanced ABA sensitivity, suppressed the Botrytis immunity of cuticle permeable mutants, and this effect was linearly correlated with the extent of spread of wound-induced cell death in bos1. Overall, our data demonstrate that Botrytis immunity conferred by cuticle permeability can be genetically uncoupled from PP2C-regulated ABA sensitivity, but requires negative regulation of a parallel ABA-dependent cell-death pathway.
  • Xue, Yaxin (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Previous research has demonstrated that biochar added to soil improves plant performance. When widely used, biochar can help reduce the consumption of chemical pesticides and fertilizers. The aim of this study is to explore whether biochar can help strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) plants in greenhouse to fight against foliar disease, gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea. Disease progress was estimated after infection. Nine days after inoculation, the biomass of leaves and root were quantified to reflect the plant growth during inflection. In 2013, three types of birch biochar with different chemical compositions were tested. The best performing of biochar were selected for 2014 assay at the rate of 5.4%. Based on data obtained in 2013 and 2014, both 3% and 5.4% birch biochar amendment are able to retard gray mold development in the beginning of the infection, but disease severity finally reaches the same level on the ninth day after Botrytis cinerea inoculation. We also found that 5.4% birch biochar results in significantly increased electrical conductivity and less water consumption in peat soil. Finally, we propose that higher concentrations of biochar might more benefit the plant growth rather than contributing to plant defense. However, evidence at the molecular level is still needed to support our hypothesis.
  • Poutanen, Jari (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) is an important disease of strawberry. The pathogen is spread by spores to strawberry flowers, from where the disease spreads to the developing berries. It progresses fast especially in high humidity and without any control. It can destroy even half of the crop. In conventional production, the strawberries have been sprayed by fungicides several times in beginning of summer. Only approved biological fungicides in Finland are Prestop- ja Prestop mix (Verdera Oy), and those can be spread to strawberries by honey bees (Apis mellifera), witch visits in the flowers of strawberry. For this task, the special additional equipment must been installed to hives. Inquiry survey have been made for the strawberry growers, witch have used the entomovectoring control method. The survey clarifies the problems of beginning to use the method, laboured and profitability, problems relating to bees and the needs of develop. Result of the survey is, that the growers have quite committed to use entomovectoring control method, even that many growers told that it was laboured and the efficency could not been seen clearly. The main reasons for the use of method were control of gray mold, reduce of chemical control and safety for user and environment. In addition to method gave image benefit to grower and improved pollination of strawberry. Getting started and use of method were more often trouble-free. The main development points were to extent the time between the addition of pesticide to the spreader equipment and to develop the method for commercial bumble-bee (Bombus terrestris) hives.
  • Mustalahti, Aino-Maija (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    Insect pollination increases seed production and improves the quality of the yield of various crop plants. In berry plants, such as strawberry and raspberry, the size and the quality of the fruits increase by successful insect pollination. Strawberry flowers are mainly not attractive to honeybees but raspberry is one of the main yield crops for honeybees. The aim of the study was to find out, how efficiently honeybees visit strawberry and raspberry flowers, concentrating on the honey bee visits on a single flower during one hour. Honey bees can be used as vectors of Gliocladium catenulatum to control Botrytis cinerea in strawberry and raspberry. The success of vector dissemination and its sufficiency to control Botrytis cinerea is evaluated based on flower visits. The data was collected from six farms in Eastern-Finland near to Suonenjoki, in the summer 2007. The flower visits were calculated during the flowering season of strawberry and raspberry in different weather conditions, times of the day and distances from the bee hives. Flowers were chosen randomly and they had to be open to be selected for observation. The observation time varied according to bee activity on the field. In average, honeybees visited on single strawberry flower 1.75 times per hour, and on single raspberry flower 4.27 times per hour. In both plants there were no significant differences in the flower visits according to the stage of the flowering. Time of the day (hour) correlated negatively with flower visits in both plants and temperature correlated positively to flower visits in both plants. Challenging weather conditions restricted the collecting of the data and the summer was rainy. Despite of that, honeybees visited the flowers of the both plants so that the pollination was proper and the control of Botrytis cinerea was sufficient. When planning the vector dissemination, especially in strawberry, the placement and the adequate number of bee hives should be taken into consideration. The need of nutrition should be great in the hives, to maximize the flower visits. Open brood can be inserted to hives or pollen storages can be removed from the hives to stimulate pollen collection. More information is needed on the effect of hive placement, competing plants and attractiveness of different Finnish strawberry cultivars to flower visits. It could be necessary to determine the nectar and pollen secretion of Finnish strawberry and raspberry cultivars.
  • Davidsson, Pär; Broberg, Martin; Kariola, Tarja; Sipari, Nina; Pirhonen, Minna; Palva, E. T (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background Oligogalacturonides (OGs) are important components of damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) signaling and influence growth regulation in plants. Recent studies have focused on the impact of long OGs (degree of polymerization (DP) from 10–15), demonstrating the induction of plant defense signaling resulting in enhanced defenses to necrotrophic pathogens. To clarify the role of trimers (trimeric OGs, DP3) in DAMP signaling and their impact on plant growth regulation, we performed a transcriptomic analysis through the RNA sequencing of Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to trimers. Results The transcriptomic data from trimer-treated Arabidopsis seedlings indicate a clear activation of genes involved in defense signaling, phytohormone signaling and a down-regulation of genes involved in processes related to growth regulation and development. This is further accompanied with improved defenses against necrotrophic pathogens triggered by the trimer treatment, indicating that short OGs have a clear impact on plant responses, similar to those described for long OGs. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that trimers are indeed active elicitors of plant defenses. This is clearly indicated by the up-regulation of genes associated with plant defense signaling, accompanied with improved defenses against necrotrophic pathogens. Moreover, trimers simultaneously trigger a clear down-regulation of genes and gene sets associated with growth and development, leading to stunted seedling growth in Arabidopsis.